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tPl;Lf;fha;fwpj;njhl;lk;

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  1. tPl;Lf; fha;fwpj; njhl;lk;
  2. jf;fhsp
  3. fj;jhp
  4. btz;il
  5. kpsfha;
  6. bts;shp kw;Wk; bts;shp ,dg;gaph;fs;
  7. mtiu
  8. KU';if
  9. bghpa bt';fhak;
  10. rpwpa bt';fhak;
  11. fwpntg;gpy;iy

 

tPonah glk;

i.

btz;il tPhpa xl;L tpij cw;gj;jp

ii.

jf;fhsp tPhpa xl;L tpij cw;gj;jp

 

 

            fha;fwpfs; ekJ md;whl cztpy; Kf;fpa ,lk; tfpf;fpd;wd. Fwpg;ghf kuf;fwp czt[ tiffis kl;Lnk cl;bfhs;Sk; kdpjh;fSf;F mth;fsJ cztpd; Ritiaf; Tl;l fha;fwpfs; xU tug;gpurhjkhf tps';Ffpd;wd. btWk; nrhW cz;gijf; fhl;oYk; gy E}W kl';F mjpf Rit xU bt";rzj;Jld; (rikj;j fha;fwp) cz;gjpy; fpilf;fpwbjd;gJ ehk; vy;nyhUk; mwpnthk;. fha;fwpfspy; g[ujr;rj;J/ kht[r;rj;J/ jhJg;bghUl;fs; kw;Wk; gy caph;r;rj;Jf;fs; mjpf mstpy; cs;sd. jpdrhp rhptpfpj cztpy; egh; xUtUf;F 85 fpuhk; gH';fSk;/ 300 fpuhk; fha;fwpfSk; njitbad Cl;lr;rj;J ty;Yeh;fs; typa[Wj;jpa[s;shh;fs;. jw;nghJ ,e;jpahtpy; cw;gj;jpahFk; fha;fwpfs; egh; xUtUf;F 120 fpuhk; bfhLf;f Toa mstpy; kl;Lk; jhd; cs;sJ. ntshz;ik ,L bghUl;fspd; tpiynaw;wk;/ cw;gj;jpahFk; ,lj;jpypUe;J tpw;gidf; Tlj;jpw;Ff; bfhz;L bry;Yk; brytpy; Vw;gl;Ls;s Vw;wk;/ bkhj;jr; re;ijapypUe;J rpW tpahghhpfspd; iff;F khWk;nghJ Vw;gLk; mjpf yhgr; bryt[ Mfpatw;wpdhy; ,d;W fha;fwpfspd; tpiy xU rhjhuz kj;jpa ju tUkhd FLk;gj;jpw;F Tl vl;lhj cauj;jpw;Fr; brd;Wtpl;lJ. fj;jhp/ btz;il nghd;w ekJ ehl;Lf; fha;fwp tiffs; Tl rka';fspy; fpnyh +. 8-10 vd;w tpiyf;Fg; gwe;J tpLfpd;wd. efug;gFjpfspy; jf;fhspapd; tpiy mij fhl;rpg;bghUshf kl;Lnk ghh;j;Jf; bfhs;sf;Toa mst[f;F mjd; tpiynaw;wk; mikfpwJ.

 

            nkw;Twg;gl;l fUj;Jfs; midj;ija[k; vLj;Jg;ghh;f;Fk; nghJ ekJ tPl;oy; xU rpwpa fha;fwpj;njhl;lk; mikj;J ekf;Fj; njitahd fha;fwpfis ehnk cw;gj;jp bra;J bfhs;tJ rhyr;rpwe;jJ vd;gJ bjspthfpwJ. tPl;Lf; fha;fwpj; njhl;lk; mikg;gjd; \yk; tUlk; KGtJk; njitahd fha;fwpfisg; bgWtJld;/ tPl;od; fHpt[ePh;/ kw;Wk; fHpt[g; bghUl;fis cgnahfpj;J/ Rfhjhu nfLfis jtph;j;J/ cly; ciHg;ig Cf;Ftpj;J/ rpwpa mstpy; tUkhdKk; fpilf;ft[k; tha;g;g[ cUthfpwJ. nkYk; rpwpa gug;gpy; kl;Lnk rhFgo bra;tjhy; gaphpy; cz;lhFk; g{r;rpfis g{r;rp kUe;Jfs; bjspf;fhky; ifapdhy; mHpj;J tpLtjd; \yk; g{r;rp kUe;jpd; er;R j';fhj fha;fwpfis cz;z Koa[k;. rhjhuzkhf \d;W egh;fs; bfhz;l xU FLk;gj;jpd; fha;fwpj; njitiag; g{h;j;jp bra;a Rkhh; xU brd;l; fhyp ,lk; nghJkhdJ. ,e;j ,lj;jpy; njhl;lk; nghLtjw;F Kd; tiuglk; xd;W jahhpj;jy; kpft[k; mtrpak;. ,e;j ,lk; Rkhh; 13 kPl;lh; ePsk; kw;Wk; 3 kPl;lh; mfyk; bfhz;ljhf vLj;Jf; bfhs;sntz;Lk;.

 

fha;fwpj; njhl;lk; mikf;Fk; Kiwfs;

            tPl;Lj; njhl;lk; mikf;fj; njitg;gLk; xU brd;l; epyj;jpy; xU Xukhf 3-4 kPl;lh; ePsk; kw;Wk; 3-4 kP mfyk; cs;s ,lj;jpij ePz;lfhy fha;fwpg; gaph;fshd KU';if/ fwpntg;gpiy/ vYkpr;ir/ thiH/ gg;ghsp nghd;wtw;iw gaph; bra;a xJf;fp/ v";rpa ,lj;jpy; eLnt 1/2 kP mfyj;jpw;F eilghij xd;iw mikj;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. kPjKs;s ,lj;ij tiuglj;jpy; fhz;gpj;jgo 1 1/2 kPl;lh; ePsk;/ xU kPl;lh; mfyKs;s MW ghj;jpfshf gphpf;fyhk;. ,e;j MW ghj;jpfspy; fPnH bfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s ml;ltizg;go fha;fwpfis tUlk; KGtJk; gaph; bra;ayhk;.

 

ml;ltiz

tPl;Lf;fha;fwpj; njhl;lg; ghj;jpfspy; gy;ntW gUt fhy';fspy; gaphpLtjw;nfw;w gaph;fs;

ghj;jp vz;

fha;fwpfs;

gaphpLk; fhyk;

1.

fj;jphp/ Ks;s';fp/
Kl;ilf;nfh!;/
btz;il

$%d; - brg;lk;gh;
mf;nlhgh; - $dthp
gpg;uthp - nk

2.

jf;fhsp/
gPl;+l;/
Ks;s';fp/
jl;ilg;gapW

$%d; - brg;lk;gh;
mf;nlhgh; - ork;gh;
$dthp - gpg;uthp
khh;r; - nk

3.

Fj;J mtiu
lh;dpg;
bfhj;jtiu

$%d; - brg;lk;gh;
mf;nlhgh; - $dthp
gpg;uthp - nk

4.

btz;il + fPiu
fhyp@gpsth;
Ks;s';fp
fPiu

$%d; - brg;lk;gh;
mf;nlhgh; - $dthp
gpg;uthp - khh;r;
Vg;uy; - nk

5.

kpsfha; + bt';fhak;
fPiu
fj;jphp = Ks;s';fp

$%d; - brg;lk;gh;
ork;gh; - $dthp
gpg;uthp - nk

6.

bgy;yhhp bt';fhak;
Flkpsfha;
Fj;J mtiu

$%d; - brg;lk;gh;

mf;nlhgh; - $dthp

gpg;uthp - nk

 

            njhl;lj;ijr; Rw;wpnah/ xU g[wkhfnth \';fpy; gly;ntyp xd;W mikj;J/ mjd; kPJ glUk; fha;fwpfshd ghfy;/ gPh;f;fd;/ bfht;igf;fha; nghd;wtw;iw tsh;f;fyhk;. njhl;lj;jpd; xU \iyapy; 1 kP x 1 kP x 1 kP  mstpy; FHp vLj;J mjd; kPJ ge;jy; xd;iw mikj;J fPnH g[ly; kw;Wk; ge;jy; mtiu nghd;w fha;fwpfisg; gaphplyhk;. bt';fhak;/ g[jpdh/ bfhj;jky;yp/ bte;jaf;fPiu nghd;wtw;wpw;fhd jdpahf ghj;jpfs; njitapy;iy. ghj;jpfisg; gphpf;Fk; tug;g[fspy; xU gf;fkhf ,tw;iw tsh;f;fyhk;.

 

epyk; jahhpg;g[

            epyj;ij kz; btl;oapd; cjtpahy; xU mo MHj;jpw;F ed;F bfhj;jpf; fpswptpl ntz;Lk;. mtw;wpYs;s fw;fs;/ fl;ofs;/ Kl;brofs;/ fisfs; Mfpatw;iw mg;g[wg;gLj;jpa gpd;dh;/ xU brd;l; gug;gstpw;F 100 fpnyh vd;w mstpy; kf;fpa bjhG cuk; nghl;L ed;F fye;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. gpwF 45 my;yJ 60 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; ghh;fs; mikf;f ntz;Lk;. ghh;fSf;F gjpyhf rpW ghj;jpfSk; mikj;Jf; bfhs;syhk;.

 

tpijg;g[ kw;Wk; elt[ bra;a[k; Kiw

            neuo tpijg;g[f; fha;fwpfshd btz;il/ Fj;J mtiu/ bfhj;jtiu/ jl;ilg;gapW Mfpatw;iw ghh;fspd; xU g[wk; 30 br.kP. ,ilbtspapy; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. Kisf;fPiu/ jz;Lf;fPiu kw;Wk; miuf;fPiu Mfpatw;iw 1 g';F tpijf;F 20 g';F kzy; fye;J ghj;jpfspy; J}tp tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. rpwpa bt';fhaj;ij eilghij Xu';fspy; elt[ bra;ayhk;.

 

            ehw;Wtpl;L elt[ bra;a[k; gaph;fshd jf;fhsp/ fj;jphp/ kpsfha;/ bghpa bt';fhak; nghd;wtw;wpw;fhd tpijfis xU khjj;jpw;F Kd;ghfnt FWf;nf nfhLfs; fpHpj;J tpijfis tpz;nld; 1.3 rjj;J}Sld; fye;J gutyhfj; J}tp vWk;g[fsplkpUe;J ghJfhf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            tpijg;g[f;Fg;gpd; 30 Kjy; 40 ehl;fspy; ehw;Wfisg; gwpj;J ghh;fspd; xU g[wj;jpy; 45 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; Fj;Jf;F 2 ehw;Wfs; tPjk; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. elt[f;Fgpd;/ ePh; gha;r;Rjy; mtrpak;. elt[ bra;j 3Mk; ehs; kWgoa[k; ePh; gha;r;rntz;Lk;. tPLfspy; brofSf;F jpdrhpnah xUehs;tpl;L xU ehnsh ePh; Cw;wntz;Lk;.

 

            g{rzp/ gu';fp nghd;w jiuapy; glUk; bfho tiffis xU ghj;jpf;F 2 FHpfspy; tpijfis tpijj;J bfhofis jiuapy; glutplntz;Lk;. g{rzp ,df;fha;fwp tiffSf;F gp.vr;.rp kw;Wk; o.o.O nghd;w g{r;rp bfhy;ypfisg; gad;gLj;jf;TlhJ.

 

            ePz;l fhyf; fha;fwpfshd fwpntg;gpiy/ bey;ypf;fha;/ KU';if/ mfj;jp/ jtrpf;fPiu/ kw;Wk; gH';fshd nkw;fpe;jpar; brh;hp/ vYkpr;ir/ gg;ghsp/ thiH nghd;wtw;wpw;F 45 br.kP 45 br.kP 45 br.kP mst[s;s FHpfis 2 kPl;lh; ,ilbtspapy; njhz;o mtw;wpy; FHpf;F 10 fpnyh kf;fpa bjhGcuk;/ 100 fpuhk; ypz;nld; kw;Wk; 50 fpuhk; a{hpah/ 100 fpuhk; Ng;gh;/ 50 fpuhk; bghl;lh#; fye;J FHpfspy; epug;gp ePh; Cw;w ntz;Lk;. gpd;dh; gg;ghsp/ vYkpr;ir/ bey;yp/ fwpntg;gpiy nghd;w ehw;Wfs;/ nkw;fpe;jpar; brh;hp gjpad;/ jtrpf;fPiuapd; nth;tpl;l Fr;rpfs;/ thiHf;fd;W Mfpatw;iw elt[ bra;ayhk;. Kl;ilf;nfh!;/ fhyp@gpsth;/ gPl;+l;/ fhul;/ E}y;nfhy; Mfpatw;iw Fsph;fhyj;jpy; gaphpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            nkw;Twpa Kiwfs; tPl;ilr;Rw;wp fhyp ,l';fs; cs;s tPLfspy; trpg;gUf;nf bghUe;Jk;. Fiwthff; fhypaplk; ,Ug;gpd; ,ltrjpf;Fj;jf;fthW fha;fwpg; gaph;fspy; k";rs; g{rzp (gu';fp) nghd;w fha;fwpfSf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; bfhLj;J ,tw;iwg; gaph; bra;a Kw;gl ntz;Lk;. bjd;fpHf;F Mrpa ehLfshd gpypg;igd;!;/ jha;thd;/ ,e;njhne#pah nghd;w ehLfs; itl;lkpd; rj;J kpFe;j nrhah nghd;w gaph;fis tPl;Lj; njhl;l';fis mikj;J mtw;wpy; gaphpl;L Kd;ndw;wk; mile;J tUfpwPh;fs;. jtrpf;fpiu gy caph;r; rj;Jf;fs; ml';fpa xU ePz;lfhy fPiu tif MFk;. ,ij gy caph;r;rj;Jf; fPiu (ky;o itl;lkpd; fPiu) vd;Wk; miHg;gJz;L.

 

            fhypaplk ,y;yhj tPLfspy; bkhl;il khofspnyh tuhe;jhtpnyh/ kz;bjhl;ofs;/ kug;bgl;ofs;/ fhyp lg;ghf;fs; Mfpatw;iw cgnahfpj;Jk; fha;fwp rhFgo bra;ayhk;. bghpa kz; bjhl;ofs; kug;bgl;ofs; Mfpatw;wpy; brk;kz;/ kzy; kw;Wk; kf;fpa bjhG cuk; Mfpatw;iw rkg';fpy; fye;J/ epug;gp mtw;wpd; nky; mLf;f ntz;Lk;. ,tw;wpy; bjhl;of;F 2 tpij tPjk; neuo tpijg;g[ gaph;fisnah/ 2 ehw;Wf;fs; tPjk; ehw;Wtpl;L eLk; gaph;fisnah elt[ bra;antz;Lk;.  ,tw;wpy; kz; fha;e;j gpwFjhd; ePh; Cw;wntz;Lk;. ,ltrjpf;F Vw;g/ bjhl;ofspy; vz;zpf;ifia itj;Jf; bfhs;syhk;.

 

br';Fj;Jj; njhl;lk;

            tPl;oy; Kd;g[wk; kw;Wk; gpd;g[wj;jpYk;/ nkYk; bkhl;il khoapYk; ,ltrjpapy;yhjth;fs; Tl Nhpa btspr;rk; bgwf;Toa 14 my;yJ 15 rj mo ,lj;jpy; Tl fha;fwpfs; gaphplyhk;. ,J xU tpe;ijahf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy; ,J cz;ik. eP';fs; bra;a ntz;oabjy;yhk; 7 mo ePsk;/ 3 mo cauKk; ,uz;L gofisa[k; bfhz;l ,Uk;g[ !;lhd;l; xd;W bra;ayhk;. mjpy; gj;J tpjkhd fha;fwpg;gaph;fis gj;Jj; bjhl;ofspy; gaphpl;L gad;bgwyhk;. bjhl;ofis gof;F Ie;J tPjk; mLf;f ntz;Lk;. gj;J tpjkhd fha;fSf;F gjpyhf Ie;J tpjkhd fha;fwpfis xd;W ,uz;L bjhl;ofshfg; gaphpl;Lk; gydilayhk;. ,jw;F br';Fj;Jj; njhl;lk; vd;W bgah;.  ,J xt;bthU tPLfspYk; vspjhf filg;gpof;ff;Toa xU rpwe;j Kiw.

 

            gy;ntW jug;gl;l fha;fwpg; gaph;fis etPd ,uf';fs; kw;Wk; bjhHpy; El;g';fisg; gad;gLj;jp tzp hPjpapy; rhFgo bra;a[k; Kiwfis ,dp ghh;f;fyhk;.

 

jf;fhsp

            jf;fhsp xU btg;g kz;lyg; gaph;. mbkhpf;fhtpYs;s bgU vd;w ehl;oy; ,e;jg; gaph; njhd;wpaJ. ed;F gGj;j gH';fs; ehk; md;whlk; bra;a[k; rikaypy; urk; nghd;w czt[ tiffspy; gad;gLtJld; Ng;/ rh!;/ $hk;/ bfl;rg; nghd;w jahhpg;g[fspYk; gad;gLfpwJ. itl;lkpd; V/ rp nghd;w caph;r;rj;Jf;fs; jf;fhspg; gHj;jpy; mjpfk; cs;sd.

 

kz;tsk; kw;Wk; jl;gbtg;gepiy

            ey;y; tofhy; trjpa[s;s ,Ukz;ghl;L epyk; jf;fhsp rhFgo bra;a cfe;jJ. kz;zpd; fhu mkpyj;jd;ik 6.0 Kjy; 7.0 tiu ,Uf;fyhk;. fhw;wpd; btg;gepiy 20o bry;rpa!; Kjy; 240 bry;rpa!; tiu ,Uf;Fk;nghJ jf;fhsp ed;F tsh;e;J mjpf kfNy; jUk;. Fiwe;j mst[ btg;gepiy 15 bry;rpaRf;Fk; Fiwa[k;nghJk;/ mjpf mst[ btg;g epiy 35o bry;rpair tpl mjpfhpf;Fk; nghJk; ,g;gaphpd; kfNy; ghjpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

,uf';fs;

nfh 1

            ,J fy;ahz;g{h; njh;tpypUe;J kW njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;l Xh; ,ufk;/ gH';fs; cUz;ilahft[k; (nfhLfspd;wp) rptg;g[ epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. brofs; Fj;Jr; broaha[kpy;yhJ bfhoahft[kpy;yhJ ,ilg;gl;l tsh;r;rpiaf; bfhz;oUf;Fk;. ,e;j ,ufj;jpd; taJ 135 ehl;fs;/ vf;lUf;F 25 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

nfh. 2

            u#;ahtpypUe;J bfhz;L tug;gl;l Xh; ,ufj;jpypUe;J kw njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;L cUthf;fg;gl;lJ ,e;j ,ufk;. gH';fs; bghpaitaha[k; jl;ilahd totj;Jld; 5 MHkhd nfhLfSld; fhzg;gLk;. ed;F gGj;j gH';fs; Mu";R rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; ,Uf;Fk;. ,jd; taJ 40 ehl;fs;. vf;lUf;F 28-30 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ ,e;j ,ufk;.

 

nfh. 3 (kUjk;)

            nfh 1 ,ufj;jpd; tpijfis rLjp khw;wk; bra;J cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. ,J xU Fj;J ,ufkhjyhy; kpft[k; beUf;fkhf elt[ bra;a (30 30 br.kP) Vw;wJ. gH';fs; cUz;ilahf ehd;F bky;ypa nfhLfSld; fhzg;gLk;. ed;F gGj;j gH';fs; mlh;rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; ,Uf;Fk;. bfhj;jhf fha;fs; gpof;Fk;. ,e;j ,ufk; 100 - 105 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 40 ld;fs; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

            nkw;Twg;gl;l ,e;j \d;W ,uf';fSk; nfhitapYs;s jkpH;ehL ntshz;ik gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lit.

 

gp.nf.vk;. 1 (bghpaFsk; 1)

            ,e;j ,ufk; bghpaFsj;jpYs;s njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; md;d";rp vd;w cs;~h; ,ufj;ij rLjp khw;wk; bra;J cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. jl;il cUz;il totg; gH';fisf; bfhz;l gH';fspd; nkw;gug;gpy; gr;irg; gl;ila[lDk; mog;gf;fk; ey;y rptg;g[ epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. ,J 135 ehl;fspy; Xh; vf;lUf;F 30 Kjy; 35 ld;fs; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ. gH';fs; mjpf J}uk; vLj;Jr; bry;y cfe;jit.

 

g{rh +gp

            ,J Fj;jr;broahf my;yhky; bfhonghy; ,Uf;Fk;. ,ij khdhthhpahf gaphplyhk;. ,e;j ,ufj;jpy; gH';fs; jl;ilahft[k; eLj;ju totKk; VG my;yJ vl;L nfhLfs; bfhz;litahft[k; ,Uf;Fk;. epwk; ey;y rptg;ghf ,Uf;Fk;. ,J g[Joy;ypapy; cs;s ,e;jpa tptrha Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. taJ 125 ehl;fs; kfNy; vf;lUf;F 30 ld;.

 

iga{h; 1

            ,e;j ,ufk; g{rh +gpiaa[k;/ nfh 3 vd;w ,ufj;ija[k; fU xl;L\yk; ,izj;J cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,ij khdhthhpahf gaphplyhk;. ,J vf;lUf;F 30 ld; ti kfNy; juty;yJ. ,J jkpH;ehL tptrha gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; iga{hpYs;s kz;ly Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

mh;fh tpfh!;

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l Xh; ,ufk;. gH';fs; rpwpnj jl;ilahd cUz;il totj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. ey;y rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; 5-7 nfhLfSld; ,Uf;Fk;. 110-116 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F Rkhh; 38 ld;fs; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

mh;fh brsug;

            ey;y Rita[s;s/ bfl;oahd gH';fisf; bfhz;l ,e;j ,ufKk; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyajaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

            bjhiytpl';fSf;F mDg;g Vw;wJ. gHr;rhW $hk/ bfl;rg; nghd;w jahhpg;g[fs; bra;a cfe;jJ. gH';fs; btog;gjpy;iy. ,jd; taJ 105-115 ehl;fs;. vf;lUf;F 35 ld;fs; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

mh;fh mQPl;o

            ,J xl;lhth 60 vd;w ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdptHpj;njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. brofs; Fj;Jr;broahf tsUk;. gH';fs; ePs cUz;ilahf/ gUkdhd rija[ld; ,uz;L miwfs; bfhz;litaha; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

            ,jpy; 5.25 rjk; fiua[k; jplg;bghUl;fs; cs;sd. mkpyj;jd;ik 0.35 rjk;/ rhW kw;Wk; bfl;rg; Mfpa jahhpg;g[fs; bra;a Vw;w ,ufk;. 135 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 45 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

mh;fh M#p#;

            fypnghh;dpahtpd; a[.rp. 83 gp vd;w ,ufj;jpypUe;J ,e;j ,ufk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. brofs; Fj;Jr; brofshft[k; xnu rkaj;jpy; gH';fs;mWtilf; jahuhft[k; ,Uf;Fk;. gH';fs; ePskhft[k;/ bfl;oahft[k;/ ,uz;L miwfs; bfhz;litaha[k; ,Uf;Fk;. mlh; rptg;g[ epwKila ,g;gH';fs; bfl;rg;/ gHr;rhW/ gpa{hp nghd;w jahhpg;g[fs; bra;ag;gad;gLfpd;wd. Rkhh; 130 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 35 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

mh;fh mnyhf;

            ,J jha;thd; ,ufk; xd;wpypUe;J kW njh;t[ bra;J cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. ghf;Ohpay; thly; neha;f;F vjph;g;g[j; jpwd; bfhz;l Fj;Jr;bro ,ufk;. gH';fspd; ruhrhp vil 100 fpuhk;. gH';fs; rJu cUz;il tot[ld; mjpf jog;ghd rijg;gw;Wld; gr;irahd nky; gug;g[ld; fhzg;gLk;. ,e;j ,ufj;jpd; taJ 125 ehl;fs; vf;lUf;F 35 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

mh;fh mgh

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. ghf;Ohpay; thly; nehiaj; jh';fp tsuf;ToaJ. gH';fs; ePs; cUz;ilahf gRikahd fhk;g[g; gug;g[ld; ,Uf;Fk;. 135 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 25 ld; kfNy; jutyy;yJ.

 

mh;fh nkfhyp

            ,J twl;rpiaj; jh';fp tsUk; jpwd; bgw;wjhy; khdhthhp rhFgof;F cfe;jJ. khdhthhpapy; vf;lUf;F 17 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ. xU gHj;jpd; ruhrhp vil 63 fpuhk;.

 

            Qhpahdh ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,uf';fs;.

 

Qprhh; mUz;

            Fj;Jr; broahf tsUk;. eLj;ju vil bfhz;l gH';fs;.

 

Qprhh; yhypkh

            cUz;ilahs; bghpa gH';fs; mjpf kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

Qprhh; yypj;

            nth; Kor;R E}w;g[Gf;F vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;l ,ufk;.

 

Qprhh; md;nkhy;

            ,iyr;RUl;il neha;f;F Xust[ vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;l ,ufk;

 

g";rhg; RQhuh

            ,J Y}jpahdhtpYs;s g";rhg; ntshz;ikg; gy;iyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l Xh; ,ufk;. gH';fs; ePz;Lk;/ bfl;oaha[k; mlh; Mu";R epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. gHj; jahhpg;g[fs; bra;a cfe;jJ.

 

rf;jp

            ,J nfushtpYs;s bts;shidf;fhuh vd;w ,lj;jpy; mike;jpUf;Fk; nfus ntshz;ikg; gy;iyf;fHfj;jpd; njhl;lf;fiyf; fy;Y}happy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ghf;Ohpay; thly; neha;f;F vjph;g;g[ rf;jp bfhz;lJ. vf;lUf;F 30 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

            ,e;j cah;tpisr;ry; ,uf';fisj; jtpu rpy tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fSk; cs;sd. tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fs; cah; tpisr;ry; ,uf';fisg; nghy; ,uz;L Kjy; \d;W kl';F mjpf kfNy; juty;yJ. mit tUkhW.

 

it#hyp

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;njh-mbkhpf;f tPhpa xl;L tpij epWtdj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. gH';fs; cUz;ilaha[k; ey;y rpfg;g[ epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. kpft[k; bfl;oaha[k; cWjpaha[k; ,Ug;gjhy; mjpf ehl;fs; bflhky; ,Uf;Fk;. vf;lUf;F 50-60 ld;fs; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

+ghyp

            ,Jt[k; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;njh-mbkhpf;f tPhpa xl;L tpij epWtdj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. gH';fs; rpwpnj ePz;Lk; (Kl;il totj;Jld;) Edpg;gFjpapy; FkpGld; fhzg;gLk;. ed;F rpte;j gH';fisf; bfhz;l ,e;j ,ufk;. vf;lUf;F 60-70 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

etPd;

            bfho nghy; tsuf;Toa xU tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. vf;lUf;F 60-70 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;Fk; jpwd; bgw;wJ. gH';fs; ePz;Lk; nkw;gFjp rpwpJ FWfpa[k; Edpg;gFjp mfd;Wk; ,Uf;Fk;. ,J ,e;njh-mbkhpf;f epWtdj;jpd; fz;Lgpog;g[.

 

uh#;kp

            ,e;njh mbkhpf;fd; FGkj;jpd; kw;bwhU tPhpa ,ufk;. gH';fs; cUz;il totkha[k; rpfg;g[ epwKlDk; fhzg;gLk;. bro xd;wpw;F 21/2 fpnyh tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

vk;.o.vr;. 4   

            ,J kfhuh#;ouh tPhpa xl;L tpij kQpnfh epWtdj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. gH';fs; cUz;ilahdit. gsgsg;ghd rpfg;g[ epwk; bfhz;lit. xU gHj;jpd; vil 100-150 fpuhk; tiu ,Uf;Fk;. vf;lUf;F 75-80 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

rjgQhh;

            ,J Fj;Jr;broaha; tsuf;Toa xU tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. ,Jt[k; kQpnfh epWtdj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gllJ. gH';fs; rJu cUz;il totk; bfhz;litahjyhy; bgl;ofspy; mLf;fp bjhiy J}u';fSf;F mjpf nrjhuhkpy;yhky; mDg;g Koa[k;. gH';fs; ey;y rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; gr;ir nky; gug;g[ bfhz;lit. ,J vf;lUf;F 90 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;y ,ufk;.

 

Fy;nkhQh;

            ,J kQpnfh epWtdj;jpd; xU tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. brofs; Fj;Jr;broaha; tsUk;. gH';fs; rJu tl;l totkha[k; rjgQhh; ufj;ijf; fhl;oYk; mjpf bfl;oaha[k; ,Uf;Fk;. vf;lUf;F 90-100 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

mh;fh tp#hy;

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epWtdj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l tPhpa xl;L ,ufk; ,J xU bfho ,ufk;. gH';fspd; ruhrhp vil 140 fpuhk;. gH';fs; cUz;ilahft[k; bfl;oahft[k; ey;y rptg;g[ epwj;JlDk; gr;ir nky; gug;g[ld; fhzg;glk;. gH';fs; gGj;jgpd;g[k; btog;gjpy;iy. mjpf ehl;fs; (13 ehl;fs; tiuapYk; bfl;Lg; nghfhky; nrkpj;J itf;f cfe;jit. ,jd; taJ 160 ehl;fs; vf;lUf;F 75 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

mh;fh th;jd;

            ,Jt[k; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epWtdj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. ,Jt[k; xU bfhoa ,ufk;. gH';fspd; ruhrhp vil 140 fpuhk;. gH';fs; rpwpnj ePz;L bfl;oahd rijg;gw;WlDk;/ ey;y rptg;g[ epwj;JlDk;/ fhk;g[g;gFjpapy; gr;ir gug;g[lDk; fhzg;gLk;. ,jd; gH';fisa[k; 13 ehl;fs; tiu bfl;Lg;nghfhky; nrkpf;f Koa[k;. taJ 160 ehl;fs;/ kfNy; vf;lUf;F 75 ld;.

 

g{rhtPhpa xl;L 1

            g[Jbly;yp ,e;jpa tptrha Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpypUe;J btspaplg;gl;l tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;.  nfhilapy; epyt[k; mjpf btg;gj;ijj; jh';fp tsh;e;J gad;ju ty;yJ.  bghJthf mjpf btg;gepiyapy; jf;fhspapy; ve;j ,ufj;jpy; fha; gpof;fhJ. Mdhy; ,J nghd;w mjpfgl;r btg;g epiyapYk; ,e;j tPhpa xl;L ,ufk; vf;lUf;F 32ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

g{rh tPhpa xl;L 2

            Fsph;fhy elt[f;F Vw;w tPhpa xl;L ,ufk; vf;lUf;F 60 - 70 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yj.

 

nfh.o.vr;. 1

            nfhit jkpH;ehL ntshz; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; fha;fwp JiwapypUe;J btspaplg;gl;l tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. gH';fs; cUz;ilahft[k; Mu";R fye;j rptg;g[ epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. bfhj;Jf; bfhj;jha; fha;f;ff;ToaJ. vf;lUf;F 90 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ. kw;w tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fisg; nghyy;yhJ beUf;fp elt[ bra;a Vw;wJ.

 

mh;fh mgp$pj;

            bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. ghf;Ohpay; thly; neha;f;F vjph;g;g[j; jpwd; bfhz;lJ. vf;lUf;F 62 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

mh;fh rpnu#;lh

            ghf;Ohpay; thly; neha;f;F vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;l kw;bwhU tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. vf;lUf;F 68 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ. bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpypUe;J btspaplg;gl;lJ.

 

ehw;w';fhy; jahhpg;g[

            tpijfs; kpfr; rpwaitahjypdhy; rhjhuzkhf ehw;Wtpl;L elt[ bra;ag;gLfpd;wd. Xh; vf;lh; elt[ bra;aj; njitahd ehw;Wf;fisj; jahhpf;f Rkhh; 300-350 fpuhk; tpij njit. ,t;tpijia 4 brd;l gug;g[ ehw;w';fhy; jahh; bra;J tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. nk khjj;jpd; filrp thuj;jpnyh ork;gh; khj Kjy; thuj;jpnyh ehw;w';fhy; jahhpf;fg;gl;L tpijfs; tpijf;fg;gLfpd;wd. Kjypy; epyj;ij ed;F MHkhff; fpswp tpl;L 4 brd;l; gug;gpw;F 160 fpnyh kf;fpa bjhG cuj;ij ,l;L fye;J kz; fl;ofs; ,y;yhjthW jl;otpl;L Rkhh; 60-70 br.kP. mfyKk; trjpahd mst[ ePsKk; bfhz;l nkl;Lg;ghj;jpfs; mikf;fg;gl ntz;Lk;.

 

tpijf;F Ez;qaph; cukpLk; tpij neh;j;jp

            Xh; vf;lUf;Fj; njitahd 300-350 fpuhk; tpija[ld; nrhW toj;j f";rpia rpwpJ rpwpjhfr; nrh;j;Jf; fye;J tpijfspd; nkw;gug;gpy; mJ rpwpnj goe;jpUf;Fk; jUzj;jpy; 100-200 fpuhk; mnrh!;ighpy;yk; vd;w Ez;qaph; fyitia J}tpf;fye;J tplt[k;. ,t;thW neh;j;jp bra;ag;gl;l tpijfis Rkhh; 30 epkpl';fs; epHypy; fha itf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

tpijg;g[

            jahh; bra;ag;gl;l nkl;Lg;ghj;jpfspd; FWf;nf 2.5 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; tpuyhy; nfhLfs; fpHpj;J mjpy; neh;j;jp bra;ag;gl;l tpijfis mjpf beUf;fkpd;wp rPuhfj;J}tp tpijj;J gpd; nky; kz;zhy; \lntz;Lk;. tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fspd; tpijapd; tpiy mjpfhifahy; xU fpnyh +. 15/000/- Kjy; 20/000/-) tpijfisj;J}t tpijf;fhky; xt;bthU tpijahf tpijf;F tpij 2 br.kP. ,ilbtsptpl;L tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW jdp tpijahf tpijg;gjhy; Xh; vf;nlUf;Fj; njitahd ehw;Wfisj; jahhpf;f Rkhh; 70-90 fpuhk; mst[ nghJkhdjhf cs;sJ. ,jw;F nky; 10 fpnyh kf;fpa/ fha;e;j/ bgho bra;ag;gl;l bjhG cuj;Jld; 2 fpnyh mnrh!;ighpy;yk; fye;j fyitia xnu rPuhfj;J}tp \lt[k;. ghj;jpfspd; nky; gug;ig itf;nfhy; my;yJ fha;e;j g[y; bfhz;l bkd;ikahd nghh;it nghy; gug;gp mjd; nky; g{thsp bfhz;L ePh; Cw;wp tuntz;Lk;. ghj;jpfisr; Rw;wp ypz;nld; 13% J}is xnu rPuhf J}tp tpLtjd; \yk; tpijfis vWk;g[fs; ,Gj;Jr; bry;yhky; ghJfhf;f Koa[k;.

 

            tpijj;j 7 Kjy; 8 ehl;fspy; tpijfs; Kisf;f Muk;gpf;Fk;. mg;nghJ ghj;jpfspd; nky; gug;gg;gl;l itf;nfhy; nghh;itia ePf;fptpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            ,j;jUzj;jpy; nth; mGfy; nehapdhy; ,s";brofs; fha;e;JtpLk; tha;g;g[ mjpfk;. vdnt ,jpypUe;J ehw;Wfisf; fhg;ghw;w 1 yp jz;zPUf;F 2.5 fpuhk; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fhg;gh; Mf;!p-FnshiuL my;yJ igl;lyhd; vd;w g{";rhdf; bfhy;ypiaf; fiuj;J ,f;fiuriy g{thspapdhy; ghj;jpfs; ed;F eida[k; tz;zk; Cw;wntz;Lk;. tpijj;j 15 Kjy; 20 ehl;fspy; 16 fpnyh fhh;nghgpa{uhd; FUit kUe;jpid ehw;W thpirfspd; ,ilbtspapy; ,l;L xU Fr;rpapdhy; ed;F kz;qld; fye;J clnd ePh; Cw;w ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW bra;tjhy; rhW cwp";Rk; g{r;rpfshd ,iyg;ngd;/ mRtzp Mfpatw;iw fl;Lg;gLj;JtnjhL mtw;wpdhy; gug;gg;gLk; er;Rhp neha;fspypUe;J ghJfhg;g[ fpilf;fg;bgw tha;g;g[s;sJ. tpijfs; tpijj;j 25 ehl;fspy; ehw;Wfs; elt[ bra;aj; jahuhfpd;wd.

 

elt[ tay; jahhpg;g[ kw;Wk; Kd;bra; neh;j;jp

            elt[ bra;a[k; epyj;ij 3 Kjy; 4 jlit tiu ed;F cHt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. filrp cHtpd;nghJ vf;lUf;F 20-25 ld; kf;fpa bjhG cuk; my;yJ fk;ngh!;l ,l;l kz;qld; fyf;fr; bra;a ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 60 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; ghh;fs; mikj;J trjpahd mstpy; tha;f;fhy; tug;g[fis mikj;Jf;bfhs;s ntz;Lk;.

 

            tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fSf;F 90 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; ghh;fs; mikf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

mocukply;

            kw;w gaph;fisg;nghy; jf;fhspapd; cuj;njit ,ufj;jpw;F ,ufk; ntWgLfpwJ. tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fspd; mjpf kfNy; jpwd; mjpf cukpLtjhy; btspg;gLk;.

 

            rhjhuz cah;tpisr;ry; ,uf';fSf;F vf;lUf;F 75 fpnyh jiH/ 100 fpnyh kzp kw;Wk; 50 fpnyh rhk;gy; rj;J ,lntz;Lk;. ,jw;F 165 fpnyh a{hpah/ 626 fpnyh Ng;gh; gh!;ngl; kw;Wk; 83 fpnyh kpa{hpnal; Mg; bghl;lh#; Mfpa cu';fisf; fye;J ,lntz;Lk;.

 

            tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fSf;F 125 fpnyh jiH/ 250 fpnyh kzp/ 250 fpnyh rhk;gy; rj;J ,lntz;Lk;. ,e;j mst[ rj;Jf;fis bfhLf;f vf;lUf;F 272 fpnyh a{hpah 1562 fpnyh Ng;gh;gh!;ngl; 417 fpnyh kpa{hpnal; Mg; bghl;lh#; fye;J ,lntz;Lk;.

 

            fye;j cu';fis ghh;fspd; xUg[wk; ,l;L kz;qld; fpswpf; fye;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. mo cukpl;lt[ld; elt[f;F Kd; 1 ypllh; g[~Fnshuhypd; vd;w fisf;bfhy;ypia 500 ypl;lh; ePhpy; fye;J ifj;bjspg;ghd; \yk; kz;zpy; xnu rPuhf gpd;ndhf;fp ele;J bjspj;Jr; bry;y ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ ePh; gha;r;rp ehw;Wfis xU Fj;Jf;F ,uz;L ehw;Wfs; tPjk; ghh;fspd; cukpl;l gf;fj;jpy; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. ghh;fspy; Fj;Jf;F Fj;J ,ilbtsp btt;ntW ,u';fisg; bghWj;J ntWgLk;.

 

            Fj;Jr;bro ,uf';fSf;F                  30 br.kP

            bfho ,uf';fSf;F                          45-60 br.kP

            Fj;J tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fSf;F        60 br.kP

            bfho tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fSf;F       90 br.kP

 

ePh;g;ghrdk;  

            elt[ bra;j \d;whk; ehs; caph;j;jz;zPh; fl;l ntz;Lk;. mjw;Fg;gpd;dh; 7-10 ehl;fSf;F xUKiw ePh; gha;r;rp tuntz;Lk;.

 

gpd;bra; neh;j;jp kw;Wk; nkYukply;

            elt[ bra;j 30-35 ehl;fspy; fis vLj;J/ gpd; nkYukpl;L/ kz; mizf;f ntz;Lk;. mo cukhf mpj;j jiHr;rj;jpd; mst[ nkYukhf mspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            (rhjhuz cah;tpisr;ry; ,uf';fSf;F vf;lUf;F 165 fpnyh a{hpah tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fSf;F 272 fpnyh a{hpah) cukpl;L kz; mizj;jt[ld; ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. bfhoahf tsUk; tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fSf;F Rkhh; 1 - 1 kPl;lh; cauKs;s \';fpy; ehw;Wf; Fr;rpfis el;L broapd; jz;Lg; gFjpia 30 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; E}y;bfhz;L Fr;rpa[ld; fl;otp ntz;Lk;.

 

gaph;ghJfhg;g[

            jkpH;ehl;oy; jf;fhsp ,iyg;ngd; jhf;Fjy; \yk; gut[k; Fj;Jf;fUfy; er;Rhp nehahy; mjpfk; ghjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,iyfspd; mog;gFjpapy; euk;g[fs; Cjh epwkile;J gpd;g[ g[s;spfs; njhd;wp fhaj; bjhl';Ffpd;wd. Kw;wpa epiyapy; KGr;broa[k; tho tpLfpwJ. ,iyg;ngd;fs; ,e;j er;Rhpiag;gug;g[tjhy; ,iyg;ngd;fi fl;Lg;gLj;Jtd; \yk; ,e;j neha; guthky; Xust[ jLf;fyhk;. ,jw;F gpa{ulhd; FUiz kUe;ij ehw;w';fhypy; ,LtnjhL epWj;jptplhky; elt[ taypYk; ehw;W el;l 15-k; ehs; xUKiw kw;Wk; 3-k; ehs; xUKiw vd xt;bthU Kiwa[k; vf;lUf;F 7 fpnyh vd;w mstpd; broapd; J}hpypUe;J 5 br.kP js;sp xU Jisapl;L mjpy; xU rpl;oif vd;w mstpy; ,l;L \o ePh; gha;r;rp tuntz;Lk;.

 

            ,iyr;RUl;L vd;Dk; kw;bwhU er;Rhpneha; bts;is <f;fis gug;gg;gLfpwJ. bts;is <f;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j Fnshh;ighpgh!; 2.5 kp.yp + ntg;bgz;iz 2 kp.yp. Mfpa mst[ 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            My;lh;ndhpah ,iyg;g[s;sp nehiaf;fl;Lg;gLj;j ,d;nlh@gpy; vk;-45 vd;w kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 2 fpuhk; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            fha;Jisf;Fk; g[Gf;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j brtpd; 50 rj eida[k; J}s; 2 fpuhk; my;yJ 1.5 kp.yp. vz;nlhry;ghd; Mfpa VjhtJ xU kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPh; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW fha;g;gUtj;jpy; kUe;J bjspf;Fk;nghJ thuj;jpw;F fha;fis mWtil bra;tijj; jtph;f;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            jf;fhsp ehw;Wfs; eLk;nghJ ehw;gJ ehl;fs; taJila nfe;jpg; g{r;brofis 16 thpir jf;fhspg; gapUf;F xU thpir nfe;jp vd;w tpfpj;jpy; eLtjd; \yk; fha;Jisf;Fk; g[Gf;fspd; (bQypnfh bth;gh) jha; me;Jg;g{r;rpfisf; fth;e;J nfe;jpg;g{/ bkhl;Lfspy; Kl;ilaplr; bra;ayhk;. ,t;thW bra;tjd; \yk; jf;fhspapd; ,sk; gp";Rfs; kw;Wk; fha;fspy; fha;g;g[Gtpdhy; Vw;gLk; nrjhuj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;.

 

mWtil kw;Wk; kfNy;

            jf;fhsp broapy; ,Uf;Fk;nghnj br';fha; gjj;jpy; (fha;fspd; nkw;gug;g[ fhy; gFjp gGf;fj; bjhl';fpat[ld;) gwpf;fg;gl;L Tilfspy; mLf;fg;gl;L fl;o btspapl';fSf;F mDg;gg;gLfpwJ.

 

            cs;~h; re;ijapy; tpw;gid bra;a ed;F gGj;jgpd; mwtil bra;ayhk;. rhjhuz cah; tpisr;ry; ,uf';fspy; kfNy; vf;lUf;F 15-30 ld; tiu fpilf;Fk;. tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fspy; 60-80 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilf;f tha;g;g[s;sJ.

 

fj;jphp

            btg;gkz;lyg; gFjpapy; gapuhfg;gLk; kw;bwhU Kf;fpa fha;fwpg; gaph; fj;jphpahFk;. ,J ,e;jpahitj;jhafkhff; bfhz;lJ.

 

kz;tsk; kw;Wk; jl;gbtg;g epiy

            ey;y MHkhd/ tofhy; trjpa[s;s tz;ly; my;yJ fsp fye;J ,Ukz;ghl;L epyk; fj;jphp gaph; bra;a kpft[k; cfe;jJ. kz;zpd; mkpyfhuj; jd;ik 5.5 -  6.0 tiu ,Uf;Fk; nghJ ,jd; tsh;r;rp kw;Wk; kfNy; mjpf mstpy; ,Uf;Fk;. fhw;wpd; btg;g epiy 25o bry;rpa!; Kjy; 30o bry;rpa!; tiu ,Uf;Fk;nghJ fj;jhp ed;F tsUk;. btg;g epiy 15o bry;rpa!;  vd;w mstpw;Fk; Fiwthfr; bry;Yk;nghJ mjd; tsh;r;rp kw;Wk; tha;g;g[j; jpwd;/ fha;fspd; juk; Mfpait kpft[k; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. mjpf kiHa[k; (Fwpg;ghf g{f;Fk; kw;Wk; fha;gpof;Fk; gUtj;jpy;) fj;jphpapd; kfNiy kpft[k; ghjpf;fpd;wJ.

 

,uf';fs;

            fj;jphp rhFgoapy; ,uf';fisj; njh;e;bjLg;gJ xU Kf;fpakhd mk;rk; vdyhk;. ekJ ehl;od; xt;bthU khepyj;jpYk; xt;bthU tpjkhd epwKk; tot mikg;g[ bfhz;l fha;fns re;ijapy; fha;fwp th';Fk; kf;fshy; nfhug;gLfpd;wd. ekJ jkpH;ehl;ow;Fs;nsa[k xt;bthU khtl;lj;jpYk; xt;bthU tpjkhd fj;jphpf; fha;fs; kf;fshy; tpUk;gp th';fg;gLfpd;wd. rpy gFjpfspy; ePz;l Cjh epwf;fha;fSk; rpy gFjpfspy; ePz;l gr;ir kw;wk; rpy gFjpfspy; cUz;il bts;is epwk; tpUk;gg;gLfpd;wd. xUrpy gFjpfspy; (Fwpg;ghf nfhit/ <nuhL nghd;w khtl;l';fspy;) Cjh thpf;fha;fs; kl;Lnk tpUk;gp th';fg;gLfpd;wd. vdnt me;je;jg; gFjpapd; njitf;nfw;w epwk; kw;Wk; tot mikg;g[ bfhz;l fha;fisj; jUk; cah; tpisr;ry; ,uf';fisj; njh;e;bjLg;gjd; \yk; tptrhapfs; mjpf kfNy; bgWtnjhL kl;Lkd;wp mth;fSJ fha;fSf;F mjpf tpiya[k; fpilf;fg; bgw tha;g;g[s;sJ. ,e;jpahtpd; kw;Wk; jkpH;ehl;od; rpy gFjpfspy; tpUk;gp Vw;fg;gLk; fj;jphpf; fha;fspd; epwk; kw;Wk; tot mikg;g[ tUkhW.

 

tl,e;jpa khepy';fspy; (bghJthf)

ePs Cjh/ ePs fUCjh

bly;yp/ kj;jpag; gpunjrk;/

cUz;il Cjh kw;Wk;

cj;jpug;gpunjrk;/ F$uhj;

fUCjh cUz;il

Me;jpuh/ kQhuh#;ouh/ tlf;F bts;isf; nfhLfs;

cUz;il Cjh epwj;jpy; fh;ehlhfh

fh;ehlfh/ jkpH;ehl;oy; rpy gFjpfs;

btsph;gr;irahd ePz;L bkype;j fha;fs; kw;Wk; Kl;il tot fha;fs; (gr;ir)

xhp!;!h/ gPQhh; kw;Wk; rpy bjd;khepyg;gFjpfs;

Kl;il totj;jpy; gr;ir thpf;fha;

nfush

cUz;il totj;jpy; btsph; Cjh epwj;Jld; Toa bghpa fha;fs;

jkpH;ehL

 

nfhit kw;Wk; <nuhL khtl;lk;

Cjh thpf;fha; (Ks;sw;wJ)

jpUbey;ntyp/ J}j;Jf;Fo

bts;is cUz;il/ bts;is Kl;il totk;

uhkehjg[uk;/ rptf';if/ kJiu

btsph;g;gr;ir/ bts;is/ btsph; Cjh epw cUz;il kw;Wk; ePs cUz;il

flY}h;/ tpGg;g[uk;/ br';fy;gl;L/ j";rht{h;/ brd;id

gsgsg;ghd Cjh epwj;jpy; cUz;il kw;Wk; ePs cUz;il totk;

ntY}h; kw;Wk; jpUtz;zhkiy

Cjhthp - (nkw;gFjpapy; Kw;fSld;)

 

rpy cah; tpisr;ry; ,uf';fspd; tpguk;

nfh 1

            ,J nfhit ntshz;ikf; fy;Y}hpapd; fha;fwpg; gphptpy; jdptHpj; njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; Kl;il tot btsph; gr;ir epwj;jpy; fhzg;gLk;. ,e;j ,ufj;jpd; brofs; g[jh; nghd;Wk; mlh;j;jpaha[k; ,Uf;Fk;. ,J vf;lUf;F 20-25 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. jkpH;ehl;od; jpUbey;ntyp/ ,uhkehjg[uk; gFjpfspYk; kw;Wk; fh;ehlfj;jpYk; ,e;j ,ufj;jpy; fha;fs; tpUk;gp th';fg;gLfpd;wd.

 

vk;.o.a{. 1

            ,J kJiuapYs;s ntshz;ikf; fy;Y}hpapd; njhl;lf;fiyj;Jiwapy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jd; brofs; ey;y tPhpaj;Jld; tsh;e;J mjpf kfNy; mspf;fpwJ. fha;fs; cUz;ilahft[k; kpfg; bghpaitaha[k; (200 - 250 fpuhk;) gsgsg;ghd Cjh epwj;jpYk; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

            fha; Kw;wj;bjhl';fpat[ld; btsph; Cjh epwkilaj; Jt';Fk;. ,J fha;fs; gwpg;gjw;F Vw;w jUzk;. fy;yk;gl;o vd;w ehl;L ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdp tHpj;njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,e;j ,ufk; Rkhh; 135 - 140 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 30 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;Fk; jpwd; bgw;wJ.

 

mz;zhkiy

            ,J mz;zhkiyg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; ntshz;ikf; fy;Y}hpapYs;s njhl;lf;fiyj; Jiwapy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J mRtpdpg; g{r;rpf;F vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;l Xh; ,ufk;. ,jd; fha;fs; ePs; cUz;ilaha; fU Cjh epwj;JlDk; fha;fspd; nkypUf;Fk; g[y;yp tl;lj;jpd; nkw;gug;gpy; rpy Kl;fs; ,Uf;Fk;. ,e;j ,ufk; flY}h;/ tpGg;g[uk;/ ntY}h;/ br';fy;gl;L kw;Wk; brd;id Mfpa gFjpfspy; mjpf mstpy; tpUk;gp th';fg;gLfpwJ. vf;lUf;F 20-22 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;y ,ufk;.

nfh 2

            ,J nfhit jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;ffj;jpd; njhl;lf;fiyf; fy;Y}happy; fha;fwpj;Jiwapy; cUthf;fg;gl;l xh; ,ufk;. befkk; vd;w fpuhkj;jpYs;s thpf;fj;jphp vd;w ehl;L ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdp tHpj;njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. brofs; mlh;j;jpaha[k; beUf;fkhd fpisf; bfhz;ljha[k; ,Uf;Fk;. fha;fs; rpwpJ ePs; cUz;ilaha[k; Cjh thpfisf; bfhz;ljha[k; gsgsg;gha[k; ,Uf;Fk;. ,J Rkhh; 150 ehl;fspy; 30-35 ld; kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

gp.nf.vk;. 1

            ,J bghpaFsj;jpYs;s njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; (jw;nghJ njhl;lf;fiyf; fy;Y}hp) cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. g[Gjpf; fj;jphp vd;w ehl;L ,ufj;ij rLjp khw;wk; bra;J cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. kJiu kw;Wk; jpz;Lf;fy; khtl;l';fspy; khdhthhpahf rhFgo bra;a Vw;w ,ufk; fha;fs; rpwpaitaha[k; rpwpnj ePs cUz;il totj;jpYk; gr;ir thpfSlDk; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

ghY}h; 1 (gp.vy;Mh; 1)

            ,J flY}h; khtl;lj;jpd; ghYhpYs;s fha;fwp Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ehf;g{h; ufk; xd;wpypUe;J kW njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;L cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; rpwpaitaha[k; eLj;ju mstpdjha[k; Kl;il totj;Jld; ey;y gsgsg;ghd Cjh epwj;Jld; ,Uf;Fk;. ,jw;F flY}h;/ tpGg;g[uk;/ br';fy;gl;L kw;wk; brd;id re;ijfspy; mjpf tpiy fpilf;fpwJ. ruhrhpahf Rkhh; 8-10 ehl;fSf;F thlhky; ,Uf;fpwJ. vf;lUf;F 25 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;Fk; jpwd; bgw;wJ.

 

g{rh Cjh ePsk;

            ,J g[Jbly;ypapYs;s ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epWtdj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; ePz;Lk; (25-30 br.kP ePsk;) gsgsg;ghd btsph; Cjh epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. ,J 25-37 ld; kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

g{rh Cjh cUz;il

            ,e;j ,ufk; g[Jbly;ypapYs;s ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. brofs; ed;F caukha; tsUk; jd;ika[ilait. mtw;wpd; jz;Lg;gFjp gUkdha[k; gr;ir fye;J Cjh epwj;JlDk; ,Uf;Fk;. fha;fs; cUz;il tot[ld; Cjh epwj;Jld; ,Uf;Fk;. xt;bthU fha[k; 130-140 fpuhk; vila[s;sJ.

 

g{rh cjh bfhj;J

            ,J bfhj;Jf; bfhj;jhff;fha;ff;Toa Xh; ,ufk;. ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

mh;fh #Py;

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epWtdj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l Xh; ,ufk;. fh;ehlfhtpd; FlF gFjpapYs;s xU ehl;L ,ufj;jpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; eLj;ju ePsj;Jld; mlh; Cjh epwj;Jld; Fiwe;j tpija[ld; fhzg;gLk;. Rkhh; 120 ehl;fspy; 39 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;y Xh; ,ufk;.

 

mh;fh #php#;

            fh;ehlfhtpd; ,u';nfhp ,uff; fj;jphpapypUe;J cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; kpft[k; ePz;L btsph gr;ir epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. ,J 115 ehl;fs; taJilaJ. vf;lUf;F rkhh; 45-47 ld; kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,Jt[k; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epWtdj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

mh;fh Frkfhh;

            fh;ehlfj;jpy; xU ehl;L ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdptHpj;njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;l Xh; ,ufk;. fha;fs; eLj;ju ePsj;Jld; tpuy; nghd;Wk; btsph; gr;ir epwj;JlDk; bfhj;Jf; bfhj;jhff; fha;f;Fk;. xU bfhj;Jf;F 5-7 fha;fs; tiu gpof;Fk;. ,jd; taJ 120 ehl;fs;. kfNy; jpwd; vf;lUf;F 45 ld;fs;.

 

ge;j rhk;uhl;

            ,J cj;jpug;gpunjrj;jpYs;s ge;j; efh; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf; fHfj;jpy; xU ehl;L ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdptHpj; njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk; @nghbkhg;rp!; thly; nehiaj; jh';fp tsuf; Toa ,ufk;.

 

ge;j; hpl;Luh$;

            ,J ge;j; efh; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; o 3 vd;w ,ufj;ija[k; g{rh Cj bfhj;J vd;w ,ufj;ija[k; fU xl;L bra;J mjpdpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;lJ. gH';fs; cUz;ilahft[k; ey;y Cjh epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 40 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

M!hj; fpue;jp

            ,J cj;jpug;gpunjrj;jpd; fhd;g{hpYs;s fy;ahz;g{h; vd;w ,lj;jpy; mike;jpUf;Fk;. M!hj; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; ePs; cUz;il totpy; Rkhh; 15-20 br.kP ePsj;jpy; fU Cjh epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk.

 

$Kdp nfhyh

            ,J Y}jpahdhtpYs;s g";rhg; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf; fHfj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. gH';fs; cUz;ilahft[k; gsgsg;ghft[k; Cjh epwj;jpy; fhzg;gLk;.

 

nf.o. 4

            ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpd; ,khryg; gpunjrj;jpYs;s fl;uapd; kz;ly Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ ,e;j ,ufk;. ghf;Ohpay; thly; nehiaj; jh';fp tsuf; Toa ,e;j ,ufk; vf;lUf;F 37 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. xU bfhj;jpy; 3 Kjy; fha;fs; tiu fha;f;Fk;.

 

g{rh fpue;jp

            ,jd; fha;fs; 15-20 br.kP ePsj;JlDk;/ fU Cjh epwj;Jldk;/ gRikahd g[y;ypa[lDk; Fiwthd tpija[ld; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 27 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,J ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

mh;fh ePy;fhe;j;

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. brofs; 90-100 br.kP cauk; tiu tsUk; fha;fs; Fl;ilahf  (12 br.kP x 8.5 br.kP) Cjh ePy epwj;Jld; gsgsg;ghf fhzg;gLk;. g[y;yp tl;lk; gRikahf ,Uf;Fk;. kpUJthd tpijfSk; mjpf rijg;gw;Wk; cilait. fha;fspd; ruhrhp vil 40 fpuhk; fha;fs; bfhj;jhff; fha;f;Fk;. FUj;J ,iyfs; fUk;gr;ir epwj;Jld; mog;gFjp kw;Wk; euk;g[fs; Cjh epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. jz;Lg;gFjpapYk; Cjh fye;J gRika[ld; ,Uf;Fk;. ,e;j ,ufk; ghf;Ohpay; thly; neha; vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;lJ. Rkhh; 150 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 40 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

mh;fh epjp

            ,Jt[k; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. brofs; 90 br.kP cauj;Jld; mjpf fpisfisf; bfhz;L ,Uf;Fk;. fha;fs; ePz;L (20 br.kP. ePsk; 9 br.kP Rw;wst[) fU Cjh epwj;Jld; gsgsg;gha[k; gRik fye;j Cjh epw g[y;yp tl;lj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. kpUJthd rijg;gw;Wld; bkJthf Kjph;r;rpaila[k; tpijfis bfhz;oUf;Fk;. fha;fs; 40-45 fpuhk; viu vila[ilait. ghf;Ohpay; thly; neha;f;F vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;l ,e;j ,ufk; Rkhh; 150 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 48 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. fha;fspy; frg;g[ Rit ,Ug;gjpy;iy.

 

mh;fh nf#t;

            ,e;j ,ufKk; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. brofs; Rkhh; 70-75 br.kP caUk; tsuf;Toait. mjpf fpisfisf; bfhz;lit. fha;fs; rptg;g[ Cjh epwj;Jld; gsgsg;g[ld; fhzg;gLk;. g[y;yp tl;lk; gRikahf ,Uf;Fk;. ghf;Ohpay; neha; vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;l ,e;j ,ufk;. 150 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 45 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. fha;fs; ruhrhpahf 50 fpuhk; vil bfhz;lit.

 

g";rhg; gh;rhjp

            ,J Y}jpahdhtpYs;s g";rhg; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf; fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. brofs; Rkhh; 65-70 br.kP cauk; tsUk;. fha;fs; ePs cUz;ilahf (11.5 br.kP ePsk; 3.8 br.kP Rw;wst[) bre;ePy Cjh epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F Rkhh; 25-30 ld; kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

g";rhg; ePyk;

            ,Jt[k; g";rhg; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; ePz;L Cjh epwj;jpy; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F Rkhh; 30 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;ff;ToaJ.

 

VgpVa[ Fyhgp

            ,J iQjuhghj;jpYs;s Me;jpu ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; njhl;lf;fiyj; Jiwapy; cUthf;fg;gl;l Xh; ,ufk;. fha;fs; rpwpaitaha[k; cUz;il totj;Jld; mlh; Cjh epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F Rkhh; 15-16 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,jd; taJ 135-150 ehl;fs;.

 

VgpVa[ ghf;akjp

            ,e;j ,ufKk; iQjuhghj;jpYs;s Me;jpu ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; ePs; cUz;il totpy; mlh; Cjh epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. Rkhh; 150 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 23-30 ld; kfNy;mspf;f ToaJ.

 

mUzh

            ,J kQhuh#;ouh khepyj;jpYs;s mnfhyh vd;w ,lj;jpypUf;Fk;. ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; rpwpait. cUz;ilahdit fU Cjh epwj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

nf.nf.vk;. 1

            jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;pd; fps;spf;Fsk; ntshz;ikf; fy;Y}hpapd; njhl;lf;fiyj; JiwapypUe;J btspaplg;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; Kl;il totj;jpy; bts;is epwj;jpy; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 36 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;y ,ufk;.

 

            nkny Twg;gl;l cah;tpisr;ry; ,uf';fisj; jtpu rpy tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fSk; cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. mitahtd.

 

g{rh md;nkhy;

            ,J ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; g{rh Cjh ePsk; vd;w ,ufj;ija[k; iQjh;g{h; vd;w ,ufj;ija[k; fU xl;L bra;J jahhpf;fg;gl;l xl;L ,ufk;. g{rh Cjh ePs ,ufj;ijf; fhl;oYk; 80 tpGf;fhL mjpf kfNy; mspf;Fk; jpwd; bgw;wJ.

 

mh;fh etePj;

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l Xh; xl;L ,ufk;. II.vr;. Mh; 221 vd;w ,ufj;ija[k; Rg;hPk; vd;w ,ufj;ija[k; fU xl;L bra;J jahhpf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; cUz;ilahft[k; rpwpJ ePz;Lk; kpft[k; bghpaitahft[k; (400-500 fpuhk; vil) fU Cjh epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 65-75 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;Fk; jpwd; bgw;wJ.

 

vk;.bQr;.gp. 1

            kQhuh#;ouh iQgphpl; tpij epWtdj;jhy; (kQpnfh) cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; ePz;L fU Cjh epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. ,iyapd; nky; gug;gpYk; kw;Wk; g[y;yp tl;lj;jpYk; Xhpuz;L Kl;fs; fhzg;gLk;. ,J vf;lUf;F 50-60 ld; kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,e;jpahtpd; kj;jpa kw;Wk; tl khepy';fspy; ,e;j tif fha;fs; tpUk;gp th';fg;gLfpd;wd.

 

vk;.bQr;.gp. 9

            ,J kQpnfh epWtdj;jpd; kw;bwhU tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. fha;fs; bkype;Jk;/ ePz;Lk; btsph; gRik epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. ,J vf;lUf;F 25-30 ld; kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ. fh;ehlf khepyj;jpy; ,e;j tif fha;fs; tpUk;gp th';fg;gLfpd;wd.

 

g{rh tPhpa xl;L - 5

            fha;fs; ePz;l totk; cilait. fU Cjh epwj;jpy; gsgsg;gha; fhzg;gLk;. xU fhapd; ruhrhp vil 100 fpuhk; vf;lUf;F 51 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

g{rh tPhpa xl;L - 6

            fha;fs; cUz;ilahdit fU Cjh epwKilait. fha; xd;wpd; ruhrhp vil 250-300 fpuhk; vf;lUf;F 45 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;y ,ufk;.

 

gUtfhyk;

            nk - $%d; Kjy; mf;nlhgh; khjk; tiu kw;Wk; ork;gh; $dthp Kjy; nk khjk; tiu/

 

ehw;w';fhy; jahhpg;g[

            epyj;ij ed;F bfhj;jpa gpwF rk mstpy; kzy; kw;Wk; kf;fpa bjhG cuk; Mfpatw;iwf; fye;J 60-70 br.kP mfyKk; trjpahd mstpy; ePsKk; bfhz;l nkl;Lg;ghj;jpfs; mikf;f ntz;Lk;. 40 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; 100 fpuhk; jhkpug; g{rzf; bfhy;ypiaf; fiuj;j fyitia ,e;j nkl;Lg;ghj;jpfs; ed;F eida[k; go g{thsp bfhz;L Cw;w ntz;Lk;. Xh; vf;lUf;Fj; njitahd 380 - 400 fpuhk; tpijia 2 fpuhk; jpuk; kUe;Jld; fye;J 4 brd;l; gug;g[ ehw;w';fhypy; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. nkl;Lg;ghj;jpfspy; FWf;nf 5 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; nfhLfisf; fpHpj;J mtw;wpy; tpijfis xnu rPuhd ,ilbtspapy; J}tp nky; kz;zpdhy; \o itf;nfhy; my;yJ fha;e;j g[y; Mfpatw;wpy; VjhtJ xd;iw bky;ypa nghh;it nghy; tphpj;J \o g{thspapd; cjtp bfhz;L ePh; Cw;wptu ntz;Lk;. nkl;Lg;ghj;jpfisr; Rw;wp ypz;nld; 13 rjj; J}isj; J}tp tpijfis vWk;g[fs; ,Gj;J bry;yhtz;zk; ghJfhf;f ntz;Lk;. tpijj;j 5-7 ehl;fspy; tpijfs; Kisj;J tUk;. Rkhh; 40-45 ehl;fspy; elt[ bra;a ehw;Wfs; jahuhFk;.

 

elt[ epyk; jahhpg;g[k; mo cukpLjYk;

            elt[ bra;ag;gLk; epyj;ij 4-5 Kiw ed;F cH ntz;Lk;. filrp cHtpd; nghJ vf;lUf;F 25 ld; kf;fpa bjhG cukpl;L fyf;f ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 75 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; ghh;fs; mikj;jplntz;Lk;. moa[ukhf vf;lUf;F 50 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J 50 fpnyh kzpr;rj;J kw;Wk; 50 fpnyh rhk;gy; rj;J ,lntz;Lk;. ,e;j mst[ rj;Jf;fisj;ju 108 fpnyh a{hpah/ 313 fpnyh Ng;gh; 80 fpnyh kpa{hpnal;-Mg;-bghl;lh#; Mfpa cu';fisf; fye;J tplntz;Lk;. fisfs; Kisf;FKd; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; g[SFnshuhypd; vd;w kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; vLj;J 500 ypl;lh; ePhpy; fiuj;J kz; ed;F eida[k; go xnu rPuhfj; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. clnd ePh;gha;r;rp ehw;Wfisg; gpL';fp ghh;fspy; ve;j xU g[wj;jpy; cu';fis ,l;nlhnkh me;jg;g[wj;jpy; 50 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; xU Fj;Jf;F xU bro tpjk; elt[ bra;antz;Lk;. elt[ bra;j \d;whk; ehs; caph;j; jz;zPh; gha;r;rntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 7-10 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw ePh;g;gha;r;rp tuntz;Lk;.

nkYukply;

            elt[ bra;j 35-40 ehl;fs; fHpj;J vf;lUf;F 50 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J (108 fpnyh a{hpahit) broapypUe;J 10 br.kP js;sp gl;ilahf kz; ,l;Lf; fye;J brofSf;F kz; mizj;J clnd ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.

 

gaph; ghJfhg;g[

            elt[ bra;j 35Mk; ehs; broapypUe;J 5-10 br.kP js;sp rpwpa Fr;rpahy; Jisapl;L mjpy; xU rpl;oif blkpf; vd;w kUe;Jf; FUiz ,l;l nky; kz;zpyy; \o ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. gpwF 15 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw vd;nlhry;ghd; 15 kpyp my;yJ brtpd; 50 rj eida[k; J}s; 2 fpuhk; Mfpatw;wpy; VjhtJ xU kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPh; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J khw;wp khw;wp mof;f ntz;Lk;. Kjy; Kiw vd;nlhry;ghd; bjspj;jhy; kWKiw brtpd; bjspf;f ntz:Lk;. ,t;thW 5-6 Kiw kUe;J bjspg;gjd; \yk; fha;g;g[G kw;Wk; Td; tz:L Mfpa g{r;rpfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk; ,it ,uz:Lk; fj;jhpiaj;jhf;Fk; kpf Kf;fpakhd g{r;rpfshFk;. nfhilfhyg;gaphpy; bts;is <f;fs; jhf;Fjy; mjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk;. ,jidf; fl;Lg;gLj;j 25 kp.yp Fnshh;ighpgh!;/ 2 kp.yp ntg; bgz:iz Mfpatw;iw 1 ypl;lh; jz:zPh; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz:Lk;.

 

            rpW ,iy neha; jhf;fg;gl;l brofis ntUld; gpL';fp mg;g[wg;gLj;jp vhpj;Jtpl ntz:Lk;. ,e;j nehahy; jhf;fg;gl;l brofisf; fz;lwptJ Rygk;. jhf;fg;gl;l brofs; Fl;ilahft[k; ,iyfs; rpWj;Jk; fhzg;gLk;. mit g{f;fhky; kyl;Lj; jd;ika[ld; ,Uf;Fk;. ,J xU iknfhgpsh!;kh vd;w er;Rhp tif nehahFk;. ,ij kUe;joj;J fl;Lg;gLj;j ,ayhJ. nghnkhg;rp!; nth; mGfy; nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j gpuhrpf;fhy; 1 fpuhk; kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fiuj;J nth;fs; eida[k; go broapd; mog;gFjpapy Cw;w ntz;Lk;.

 

mWtil kw;Wk; kfNy;

            elt[ bra;j 55-60 ehl;fspy; Kjy; mWtil Muk;gpf;Fk;. fha;fis rhpahd Kjph;r;rpg; gUtj;jpy; mWtil bra;a ntz;Lk;. kpft[k; Kw;wpa epiyapy; mWtil bra;ag;gl;l fha;fs; tpw;gidf;F cfe;jjhfhJ. xt;bthU 5 ehl;fs; ,ilbtspapy; fha;fis mWtil bra;a ntz;Lk;. vf;lUf;F Rkhh; 20-30 ld; kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

 

btz;il

            btz;ilk w;bwhU btg;gkz;lyf; fha;fwpg; gaph;. ,jd; gp";Rf; fha;fs; bghhpay; Kjypad bra;at[k;/ kw;Wk; fhaitj;J tw;wy; jahhpf;ft[k; cgnahfg;gLfpwJ. kpft[k; Fiwe;j tajpy; ey;y kfNy; juf;Toa ,g;gaph; neuoahf tpijf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

kz; tsk; kw;Wk; jl;gbtg;gepiy

            ey;y tofhy; trjpa[s;s MHkhd kz; btz;il rhFgo bra;a cfe;jJ. kz;zpd; mkpy fhuj;jd;ik 6-8.8 vd;w mstpy; ,Uf;Fk;nghJ ,g;gaph; ey;y tsh;r;rpa[ld; mjpf kfNy; mspf;Fk;. fhw;wpd; jl;gbtg;gk; 25-30o br vd;w mstpy; ,Uf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            $Pd; Kjy; Mf!;l; brg;lk;gh; tiu btz;il gaph; bra;a cfe;j gUtk;. mf;nlhgh; - etk;gh; khj';fspy; bga;a[k; mjpf kiH ,jw;F cfe;jjy;y. mijg;nghy; fhw;wpd; btg;gepiy 17-19o br. vd;w mstpw;Fr; bry;Yk; ork;gh;/ $dthp/ gpg;uthp khj';fspy; ,g;gaph; tsh;r;rp kpft[k; Fd;wptpLk;. khh;r;/ nk/ $%d; khjk; mjpf btg;gk; ,g;gaph; tsh;r;rpf;F cfe;jjhapUg;gpDk; ,e;j gUtj;jpy; bts;is <f;fspd; cw;gj;jp mjpfhpg;gjhy; mtw;wpdhy; gug;gg;gLk; k";rs; euk;g[ er;rhp neha; btz;ilg; gapiu kpf mjpf mst[ jhf;fp kfNiy kpft[k; ghjpf;fpwJ. vdnt nfhilf;fhyj;jpy; btz;il gaph; bra;a k";rs; euk;g[ er;rhp neha; vjph;g[gj;jpwd; bfhz;l gh;ghdpfpue;jp/ mh;fh mig/ mh;fh mdhkpfh/ nfh 3 (tPhpa xl;L)/ g";rhg;-7/ th;#h cg;fhh; nghd;w ,uf';fisj; njh;e;bjLg;gJ kpfkpf Kf;fpak;.

 

,uf';fs;

g{rh rthdp

            ,J g[Jbly;ypapYs;s ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; ey;y gRik epwj;Jld;/ eLj;ju epsj;Jld; 5 Kf';fSld; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 8-10 ld; kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,jd; taJ 90-95 ehl;fs;. ,J k";rs; euk;g[ er;Rhp nehahy; jhf;fg;glf; Toa ,ufkhifapdhy; nfhil fhyj;jpy; gaph; bra;a cfe;jjy;y.

 

vk;.o.a[. 1 (kJiu 1)

            kJiuapYs;s ntshz;ikf; fy;Y}hp kw;Wk; Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy;/ g{rh rthdp tpijfis  fhkhf; fjph;fisf; bfhz;L rLjp khw;wk; bra;J cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; nyrhd gr;ir epwk; bfhz;lit. broapy; fha;fs; kpf beUf;fkhf gpof;Fk; ,Jt[k; k";rs; euk;g[ er;Rhp nehapdhy; jhf;fg;glf;Toa ,ufk;. vf;lUf;F 10-12 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

nf-1

            ,J iQjuhghj; bul;bthz;lh; vd;w ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdp tHpj;njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; ,nyrhd Cjh fye;j rptg;g[ epwk; bfhz;lit. vf;lUf;F 12 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,Jt[k; k";rs; euk;g[ er;Rhp nehahy; jhf;fg;glf;Toa ,ufk;. ,J nfhit jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; njhl;lf;fiyj; Jiwapy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;.

 

g";rhg gj;kpdp

            ,J Y}jpahdhtpYs;s g";rhg; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; mlh; gRik epwj;Jld; 20 fpnyh vila[ld; fhzg;gLk;. k";rs; euk;g[ er;Rhp nehia Xust[ jh';fp tsuf;Toa ,ufk;.

 

gh;ghdp fpue;jp        

            ,J kQhuh#;ouh khepyj;jpYs;s gh;ghdp vd;w ,lj;jpy; mike;jpUf;Fk; kuhj;thlh ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. k";rs; euk;g[ er;Rhp neha;f;F vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;lJ. vdnt k";rs; euk;g[ neha; mjpfkhfg; gut[k; gUtkhfpa  nfhil fhyj;jpy; gaphpl Vw;wJ. fha;fs; eLj;ju ePsj;Jld;/ fUk;gr;ir epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 10-12 ld; kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,jd; taJ 90-95 ehl;fs;.

 

mh;fh mig

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. ,Jt[k; k";rs; euk;g[ er;Rhp neha;f;F mjpf mst[ vjph;g;g[ jpwd; bfhz;ljhy; nfhilapy; gaph; bra;a cfe;j ,ufk;. fha;fs; Fl;ilahft[k;/ mlh; gRik ePsj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 16-18 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,jd; taJ 120-135 ehl;fs;.

 

mh;fh mdhkpfh

            ,Jt[k; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp/ epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. k";rs; euk;g[ er;Rhp neha;f;F kpft[k; mjpf mst[ vjph;g;g[j; jpwd; bfhz;lJ. fha;fs; ePz;Lk; ey;y gRik epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. nfhilapy; rhFgo bra;a kpft[k; cfe;j ,ufk;. vf;lUf;F 18-20 ld; kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,jd; taJ 120-135 ehl;fs;.

 

th;#h cg;fhh;

            Qhpahdh ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf; fHfj;jpypUe;J cUthf;fg;gl;L btspaplg;gl;lJ. k";rs; euk;g[ neha;f;F vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;l ,ufk; vf;lUf;F 10ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

            nkw;Twg;gl;l ,uf';fisj; jtpu rpy tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fSk; cz;L.

 

nfh 2

            ,J nfhit jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpYs;s njhl;lf;fiyf; fy;Y}hpapd; fha;fwpj; Jiwapy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. V.< 180 vd;w ,ufj;ija[k; g{rh rthdp ,ufj;ija[k; fU xl;L nrh;j;J cUthf;fg;gl;l tPhpa xl;L Rkhh; 90 ehl;fspy; 15-16 ld; kfNy; juty;yJ. MapDk; ,J k";rs; euk;g[ er;Rhp jhf;fg;gLtjhy; nfhilapy; rhFgo bra;a Vw;wjy;y.

 

nfh 3

            ,Jt[k; nfhit jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; njhl;lf;fiyf; fy;Y}happy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. gh;ghdp fpue;jp vd;w jha; ,ufj;ija[k; vk;.o.a[. 1 vd;w je;ij ,ufj;ija[k; fU xl;L nrh;j;J cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. k";rs; euk;g[ er;Rhp nehia Xust[ jh';fp tsuf;ToaJ. Rkhh; 90-95 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 16-18 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

Kd;bra; neh;j;jp

            epyj;ij \d;W Kjy; ehd;F Kiw cGJ/ filrp cHtpd; nghJ vf;lUf;F 25 ld; kf;fpa Fg;ig my;yJ bjhG cukpl;L kz;qld; ed;F fyf;f ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 45 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; ghh;fs; mikf;f ntz;Lk;. moa[ukhf vf;lUf;F 20 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J (45 fpnyh a{hpah) 50 fpnyh kzpr;rj;J (300 fpnyh Ng;gh; gh!;ngl;) 30 fpnyh bghl;lh#; (50 fpnyh kpa{hpnal; Mg; bghl;lh#;) Mfpa cu';fisf; fye;J ghh;fspd; xU g[wk; Rkhh; 10 br.kP. J}uj;jpy; gl;ilahf ,l;L kz;qld; fyf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

tpijast[ kw;Wk; tpij neh;j;jp bra;jy;

            Xh; vf;lh; tpijf;fj; njitahd 8 fpnyh tpijia 2 fpnyh mnrh!;ighpy;yk; vd;w Ez;qapUld; fyf;f ntz;Lk;. Kjypy; tpijia nrhw;Wf;f";rpa[ld; njitahd mst[ fye;J (tpijapd; g[wg;gug;gpy; nrhw;Wf; f";rp bkd;ikahfg; glUk; mst[ fye;J) mjd; nky; mnrh!;ighpy;yk; Ez;qaph;f; fyitiaj; J}tp xnu rPuhff; fye;J epHypy; Rkhh; miu kzp neuk; fhaitf;f ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ ,t;thW neh;j;jp bra;ag;gl;l tpijfis ghh;fspd; xU g[wj;jpy; cukpl;l ,lj;jpypUe;J Rkhh; 5 br.kP cauj;jpy; Fj;Jf;F 2 tpij tPjk; 30 br.kP. ,ilbtspapy; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;.

            mnrh!;ighpy;yk; Ez;qapiu kz;zpd; \ykhft[k; mspf;fyhk;. Rkhh; 10-15 fpnyh kf;fpa bjhG cuj;ij ed;F bgho bra;J mj;Jld; 2 fpnyh mnrh!;ighpy;yk; Ez;qaph; fyitiaf; fye;J Xh; vf;lUf;F ghh;fspd; gf;fthl;oy; J}tptpl ntz;Lk;. Ez;qapiua[k; ,urhad cu';fisa[k; xnu neuj;jpy; ,Ljy; TlhJ. vdnt tpijg;gjw;F 2-3 ehl;fs; Kd;djhfnt Ez;qapiu kz;qld; fye;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW Ez;qaph; cukpLtjd; \yk; xh; vf;lUf;Fj; njitahd jiHr;rj;J 10 fpnyh tiu (22 fpnyh a{hpah) Fiwj;Jf; bfhs;syhk; vd Muha;r;rp Kot[fspd; \yk; bjhpate;Js;sJ.

 

ePh;g;ghrdk; nkYukply; kw;Wk; gpd;bra; neh;j;jp

            tpijj;jt[ld; kw;Wk; \d;whk; ehs; mjd; gpd;dh; thuk; xU Kiw ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. tpijj;j 20-Mk; eh; fif; bfhj;J bfhz;L bfhj;jp tplntz;Lk;. tpij;j 30-35 Mk; ehs; vf;lUf;F 20 fpnyh jiHr;rj;ij (44 fpnyh a{hpahit) broapypUe;J 10 br.kP. js;sp gl;ilahf ,l;L kz;qld; fye;J brofSf;F kz; mizj;J ePh;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.  Kd;dh; TwpaJnghy; Ez;qaph; cukpl;oUe;jhy; 10 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J (22 fpnyh a{hpah) ,l;lhy; nghJkhdJ. tpijj;j 65-k; ehs; ,uz;lhk; Kiwahf kz; mizf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            tpijj;j 30-k; ehs; bjhl';fp 15 ehl;fSf;F xUKiwahf 10 rj ,sePh; fiuriy ,iy tHp bjspg;gjd; \yk; kfNiy mjpfhpg;gJld; fha;fspy; ehh;fs; cUthFtija[k; XhpU ehl;fs; js;spg;nghl Koa[k; vd;gJ jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikf; fy;Y}hpapd; ghY}hpYs;s fha;fwp Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; nkw;bfhs;sg;gl;l Ma;t[fspypUe;J bjhpfpwJ.

 

gaph; ghJfhg;g[

            tpijj;j 15 ehl;fs; fHpj;J vf;lUf;F 12 fpnyh fhh;nghgpa{uhd; FUiz kUe;ij ,l;L kz;qld; fye;J ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. ,jd; \yk; rhW cwp";Rk; g{r;rpfshd mRtzp kw;Wk; jj;Jg; g{r;rpfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;.

 

            k";rs; euk;g[ er;Rhp nehiag; gug;g[k; bts;is <f;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j xU ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 25 kp.yp. Fnshh;ighpgh!; kw;Wk; 2 kp.yp ntg;bgz;iz Mfpa mstpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz:Lk;. braw;if ighPjuha;L kUe;Jfis vf;fhuzk; bfhz;Lk; bjspf;ff;TlhJ. mtw;iwj; bjspg;gjdhy; bts;is <f;fs; bgUfp neha; ntfkhfg; gut tha;g;g[s;sJ. nfhilfhy';fspy; ,e;j neha; mjpfk; jhf;Ftjhy; ,g;gUt';fspy; gaph; bra;a neha; vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; my;yJ nehiaj; jh';fp tsUk; jpwd; bfhz;l gh;ghdpfpue;jp/ mh;fh/ mdhkpfh nfh 3 th;#h cg;fhh; nghd;w ,uf';fisg; gaph; bra;a ntz;Lk;. nkYk; neha; jhf;fpa brofis clDf;Fld; mg;g[wg;gLj;jp tpLtjd; \yk; ,e;j neha; gut[tijj; jLf;fyhk;.

 

            fha;g;g[Gf;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j 1.5 kp.yp. vd;nlhry;ghd; kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. ,e;j kUe;J bjspj;j \d;W ehl;fSf;F fha;fisg; gwpf;ff;TlhJ.  vdnt kUe;J bjspf;FKd; vt;tst[ fha;fisg; gwpf;fKoa[nkh mtw;iwg; gwpj;Jtpl;L ,Ue;J bjspj;jy; eyk;.

 

            rhk;gy; nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j eida[k; fe;jfj;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 2 fpuhk; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

mWtil kw;Wk; kfNy;

            tpijj;j 45 ehl;fspy; Kjy; mWtilf;F tUk;. fha;fs; Kw;wp ehh; gpof;Fk;. Kd;g[ gwpj;J tpLtJ kpf Kf;fpak;. ,jw;F xU ehs; tpl;L xU ehs; fha;fs; gwpf;f ntz;Lk;. vf;lUf;F rkhh; 10-15 ld;fs; tiu kfNy; fpilf;Fk;. Rkhh; 15-18 Kiw mWtil bra;ayhk;. gaphpd; bkhj;j taJ Rkhh; 90-110 ehl;fs; MFk;.

 

kpsfha;

            bjd;mbkhpf;fhtpYs;s rpyp vd;w ehl;oy; njhd;wpa ,g;gaph; ek; ehl;od; kpsfpid xj;j fhuj;jd;ikf; bfhz;oUg;gjhy; ,J rptg;g[ kpsF vd;wiHf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,jd; gHj;jpy; tpijfs; mike;jpUf;Fk; eL mr;rpy; nfg;bra;rpd; vd;w xU caph; ntjpapay; bghUs; ml';fpa[s;sJ. ,Jnt kpsfhapd; fhuj; jd;ikf;F fhuzkhd rj;Jg;bghUs;.

 

            ,ijj;jtpu fhukw;w kpsfha; tiffSk; cs;sd. ,it Flkpsfha; my;yJ ,dpg;g[ kpsF vd miHf;fg;gLk;. ,tw;wpy; fhuj;jd;ikiaj; jUk; nfg;bra;rpd; kpfkpff; Fiwe;j msnt fhzg;gLfpd;wd. fhu kpsfha[k; Flkpsfha[k; xnu jhtuf; FLk;gj;ij nrh;e;jpUg;gpDk; ,uz;ow;Fk; njitahd jl;gbtg;g epiy Kw;wpYk; khWgl;lJ.

 

fhu kpsfha;

kz; kw;Wk; jl;gbtg;g epiy

            ey;y MHkhd tofhy; trjpa[ld; Toa ,Ukz;ghl;L epyk; kpsfha; rhFgo bra;a Vw;wJ. kz;zpd; fhu/ mkpyj;jd;ik 6.5 Kjy; 7.5 tiu ,Uf;fyhk;. ,g;gapiu fspkz; epy';fspYk; khdhthhpahfg; gaphplyhk;. 20o br. Kjy; 30o br. tiuapyhd jl;gbtg;gepiy kpft[k; cfe;jJ.

 

rk;gh ,uf';fs; (ePz;l fha;fisf; bfhz;lit)

nfh. 1 (nfhtpy;gl;o 1)

            ,J Xh; m!;!hk; khepy ,ufj;jpypUe;J kW njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;L cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. nfhtpy;gl;oapYs;s ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. brofs; ey;y caukhf tsh;e;J gluf; Toait. fha;fs; ,sk;gr;ir epwj;JlDk; ed;F gGj;j gH';fs; rptg;g[ epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. fha;e;jtw;wy; RUf;f';fspd;wp gsgsg;gha[k; Th;ikahd Edpa[lDk; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 1700 fpnyh tiu fha;e;j tw;wy; kfNy; juty;yJ ,e;j ,ufk;. ,jd; taJ rkhh; 210 ehl;fs;.

 

nfh. 2 (nfhtpy;gl;o 2)

            ,Jt[k; nfhtpy;gl;o ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. nfhtpy;gl;o 1 ,ufj;ija[k; rhj;J}h; rk;gh ,ufj;ija[k; fUxl;L nrh;j;J mjpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;l Xh; ,ufk;. brofs; caukhft[k; Xust[ glh;e;Jk; fhzg;gLk;. gH';fs; ePz;Lk; gsgsg;gha[k; kG';fpa Kida[lDk; fhzg;gLk;. Rkhh; 210 ehl;fspy; 1800 fpnyh tiu tw;wy; kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

nfh. 1

            nfhit jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; rhj;J}h; rk;gh ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdptHpj; njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j ,ufk; gH';fs; ePz;Lk; gsgsg;gha[k; ey;y gpufhrkhd rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. Rkhh; 210 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 2100 fpnyh tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

ghf;fpabyl;Rkp ($p-4)

            ,J Me;jpug;gpunjrj;jpYs;s Fz;?hpy; ,Uf;Fk; yhk; vd;Dkplj;jpYs;s ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. eLj;ju ePsKs;s kG';fpa Kida[ldhd fha;fisf; bfhz;lJ. gH';fs; ey;y gpufhrkhd rptg;g[ epwk; bfhz;lit. Rkhh; 210 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 2000 fpnyh tiu tw;wy; kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

g{rh $%thyh

            ,J g[Jbly;ypapYs;s ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp ikaj;jpy; vd;.gp.46V vd;w ,ufj;ija[k; g{hp rptg;g[ ,ufj;ija[k; fU xl;L nrh;j;J mtw;wpypUe;J cUthf;fg;gl;l brofspypUe;J njh;t[ bra;J cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. gH';fs; ePz;L bkype;J ey;y rptg;g[ epwj;JlDk;/ Edp rpwpJ tise;Jk; ,Uf;Fk;. gH';fs; fha;e;jt[ld; RUf;f';fSld; fhzg;gLtjhy; ,J tw;wYf;F Vw;wjy;y. vdnt gr;irf; fhahf Fwpg;gjw;F Vw;wJ.

 

ge;j;-rp 1

            ,J cj;jpug; gpunjrj;jpYs;s ge;j; efh; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; vd;.gp. 46 V kw;Wk; cs;~h; ,ufk; Mfpatw;iw fU xl;L bra;J mjpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;L cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. eLj;ju ePsKila fha;fs; brofspy; nky; nehf;fpf; fhzg;gLk;. (thdk; nehf;fp). fha;fspd; Edp Th;ikahapuhJ rpwpnj kG';fpf; fhzg;gLk;. gr;ir kpsfhahft[k; tw;wyhft[k; mWtil bra;a Vw;w ,ufk;. vf;lUf;F 10 ld; gr;ir kpsfhnah my;yJ 1600 fpnyh fha;e;j tw;wyhfnth fpilf;Fk;.

 

ge;j;-rp.2

            ,Jt[k; vd;.gp. 46 - V kw;Wk; cs;~h; ,ufk; ,tw;iw fU xl;L bra;J gpd; jiyKiw re;jjpfspypUe;J njh;t[ bra;J cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. Mdhy; ,e;j ,ufj;jpy; fha;fs; thdk; ghh;j;J ,uhJ. vf;lUf;F 1400 fpnyh tw;wy; kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

gp.nf.vk;. 1 (bghpaFsk;)

            ,J bghpaFsj;jpYs;s njhl;lf; fiyf; fy;Y}hapy; vz; 1797 x nfh 1 vd;w fU xl;od;  ehd;fhtJ jiyKiw re;jjjpfspypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;L cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. ed;F gUj;J ePz;l fha;fisf; bfhz;lJ. gH';fs; mlh; rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 3000 - 3200 fpnyh tiu tw;wy; kfNy; juty;yJ. ,jd; taJ 180 ehl;fs;

 

nfh. 2 (rp.V. 586)

            ,J kpft[k; Fl;ilahd Xh; ,ufk;. vdnt fhw;W ntfkhf tPRk; ,l';fspy; gaph; bra;a Vw;wJ. ,y';ifapypUe;J jUtpf;fg;gl;l xU tsh;g;gpypUe;J kW njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;L cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. brofs; Fl;ilahft[k; Fiwe;j msnt glUk; jd;ika[ilaitaha[k; ,Ug;gjhy; kpft[k; beUf;fp elt[ bra;a cfe;jJ. (30 br.kP x 15 br.kP fha;fs; ePz;L bkype;J fUk;gr;ir epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. gH';fs; mlh;j;jpahd rptg;g[ epwk; bfhz;lit. mjpfkhd fhuj;jd;ik bfhz;lit. fha;e;j tw;wypy; njhy; RUf;f';fSld; fhzg;gLk;. jkpH;ehL ntshz;ik gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; nfhitapYs;s njhl;lf;fiyf; fy;Y}happy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,e;j ,ufk; beUf;fp eLtjd; \yk; (30 br.kP x 15 br.kP) vf;lUf;F 15-18 ld; gr;ir kpsfha; my;yJ 2500 fpnyh tw;wy; kfNy; mspf;Fk; jpwd; bfhz;lJ.

 

g{rh rjgQhh;

            mjpf fhuj;jd;ika[ila cah; tpisr;ry; ,ufk;. g[J bly;ypapYs;s ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpypUe;J btspaplg;gl;lJ. mlh; rptg;g[ epwj;ija[k; mjpf fhuj;jd;ika[k; bgw;wpUg;gjhy; kpsfha;g; bgho jahhpf;f cfe;jJ.

 

c$;thyh

            jpUr;NhpYs;s nfus ntshz;ikg; gy;iyf;fHfj;jpypUe;J btspaplg;gl;l ,ufk;. ghf;Ohpay; thly; neha;f;F vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;lJ.

 

g";rhg; yhy;

            Y}jpahdhtpYs;s g";rhg; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpypUe;J btspaplg;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; mjpf mst[ fhuj;jd;ik bfhz;lit.

 

Qrhh; tp$a; kw;Wk; Qprhh; rf;jp

            Qhpahdh ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpypUe;J btspaplg;gl;l ,e;j ,uf';fs; gytpj er;Rhp neha;fSf;F vjph;g;g[f; bfhz;lit.

 

Fz;L ,uf';fs;

nfh. 2

            <nuhl khtl;lj;jpYs;s ek;gpa{h; vd;w ,lj;jpy; cs;s cs;~h; ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdp tHpj;njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. gr;ir kpsfha;f;Fk; tw;wYf;Fk; Vw;w ufk;. mjpf fhuj;jd;ik bfhz;lJ. vf;lUf;F 2100 fpnyh tw;wy; kfNy; my;yJ 10740 fpnyh gr;ir kpsfha; kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,jd; taJ 200-210 ehl;fs;.

 

$p.5 (Me;jpu n$hjp)

            ,J $p 2 x 1331 vd;w fU xl;od; re;jjpfspypUe;J njh;t[ bra;J Me;jpuhtpYs;s Fz;?h; yhk; tptrha Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. vf;lUf;F 1700 fpnyh tw;wy kfNy; juty;yJ. gr;ir kpsfhahft[k; mWtil bra;a cfe;jJ. mt;thW mWtil bra;a[k; nghJ vf;lUf;F 8500 fpnyh tiu gr;irkpsfha; kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

gukf;Fo (1 gp.vk;.nf. 1)

            ,J jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; gukf;Fo ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. jkpH;ehl;od; bjd;khtl;l';fspy; khdhthhp rhFgof;F Vw;w ,ufk;. Xust[ kz;zpd; fsh; jd;ikiaj; jh';fp tsuf;Toa ,ufk;. khdhthhpapy; vf;lUf;F 2000-2200 fpnyh tiu tw;wy; kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

ghY}h; 1

            ,J jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; ghY}h; fha;fwp Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; fz;l';fhL vd;w ehl;L ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdp tHpj;njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. gr;ir kpsfha;f;fhf mWtil bra;a Vw;wJ. jkpH;ehl;od; tlfpHf;F khtl;l';fspy; ,witg; gapuhfg; gaph; bra;a Vw;wJ. kz;zpd; fsh; - cth;j; jd;ikiaj; jh';fp tsuf;ToaJ. brofs; Fl;ilahdit. bro xd;Wf;F ruhrhpahf 190 fha;fs; tiu fha;f;f ToaJ. fha;fs; gsgsg;ghd gr;ir epwj;jpy; cUz;il tot[ld; mfykhd fhk;gog; gFjpa[k; Th;ikaw;w bkhl;ilahd Edpa[k; bfhz;ljhft[k; fhzg;gLk;. fha;fspd; ruhrhp ePsk; 8.66 br.kP. Rw;wst[ 8.54 br.kP fha;fsi rikaypy; gr;ir kpsfhahft[k; kw;Wk; nkhh; kpsfha; bra;J CW fhahft[k; gad;gLj;jyhk;. elt[ bra;j 60-Mk; ehs; Kjy; mWtil bjhl';Fk; elt[ bra;j 180 ehl;fspy; mWtil Koa[k;. gaphpd; bkhj;j taJ Rkhh; 210 ehl;fs;. vf;lUf;F 18.4 ld; tiu gr;ir kpsfha; fpilf;Fk;. ,J nfh. 2 ,ufj;ijf; fhl;oYk; 43.3 rjKk; ehl;L ,ufj;ijf; fhl;oYk; 23.5 rjKk; mjpfkhFk;.

 

ehw;w';fhy; jahhpg;g[

            nk - $%d; kw;Wk; ork;gh; - $dthp khj';fspy; epyj;ij MHkhff; bfhj;jpf; fpswptpl;L 3 brd;l; gug;g[s;s ehw;w';fhYf;F 100 fpnyh kf;fpa bjhGcukpl;L fyf;fntz;Lk;. gpd;dh; trjpahd mst[s;s nkl;Lg;ghj;jpfs; mikj;jplntz;Lk;. Xh; vf;lh; elt[ bra;aj; njitahd ehw;Wfisj; jahh; bra;a 1250 fpuhk; mst[ tpij njit. ,t;tpijia 2.5 fpuhk; bgtp!;od; kUe;Jld;  fye;J tpijg;gjd; \yk; tpij \yk; gut[k; neha;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;. nkl;Lg;ghj;jpfspd; FWf;nf 2.5 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; nfhLfs; fpHpj;J tpijfis xnu rPuhf beUf;fkhf ,y;yhky; tprhykhfj; J}tp tpijj;J nky; kz;izj; js;sp \otpl ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ ,g;ghj;jpfspd; nky; itf;nfhiy bky;ypa nghh;itahy; gug;gp itj;J mjd; nky; g{thspapd; cjtpahy; ePh; Cw;wp tuntz;Lk;. ,g;ghj;jpfisr; Rw;wp ypz;nld; 1.3 rjj; J{is J}tptpLtjd; \yk; tpijfis vWk;g[fs; ,Gj;Jr; bry;yhjthW ghJfhf;fyhk;. tpijj;j 5-7 ehl;fspy; Kisj;JtUk;. tpijj;j 20-Mk; ehs; 300 fpuhk; fhh;nghgpa{uhd; FUiz kUe;ij ehw;W thpirfspd; ,ilbtsptpl;L kz;qld; fye;J ePh;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.

 

ehw;WfSf;F Ez;qaph; cukply;

            tpijj;j 40-45 ehl;fspy; ehw;Wfs; elt[ bra;a jahh; epiyia mila[k;. elt[ bra;a[k;nghJ ehw;Wfis mnrh!;ighpy;yk; Ez;qaph;f; fyitapy; eidj;J elt[ bra;tjd; \yk; ehw;Wfs; ed;F nthh; gpog;gJld; ntfkhd tsh;r;rpa[k; bgWfpd;wd. ,uz;L fpnyh fpuhk; mnrh!;ighpy;yk; Ez;qaph; fyitia 20 ypl;lh; jz;zPh; fye;J ,f;fiurypy; ehw;Wfspd; nth;g;gfjpia 20-30 epkpl';fs; eidj;Jg; gpd;dh; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

elt[ tay; jahh; bra;a[k; Kiw

moa[ukply; kw;Wk; Kd; bra;neh;j;jp

            epyj;ij 4-5 Kiw ed;F cHt[ bra;J filrp cHtpd; nghJ vf;lUf;F 25 ld; kf;fpa bjhGcukpl;L fyf;fntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 45 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; ghh;fs; mikf;fntz;Lk;.

 

,urhad cumst[ (moa[uk;) vf;lUf;F

            30 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J              (70 fpnyh a{hpah)

            60 fpnyh kzpr;rj;J              (375 fpnyh Ng;gh; gh!;ngl;)

            30 fpnyh rhk;gy;rj;J             (50 fpnyh kpa{hpnal; M@g; bghl;lh#;)

 

            nkny Twg;gl;l ,urhad cu';fis xd;whff; fye;J ghh;fspd; xUg[wk; gl;ilahff; nfhykpLtJ nghd;W ,l;L kz;qld; fye;Jtplntz;Lk;.

 

            elt[ bra;a[k; Kd;g[ 2 ypl;lh; ngrypd; vd;w fiyf;bfhy;ypia 500 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J/ ifj;bjspg;ghdpd; cjtp bfhz;L epyj;jpy; ed;F eida[k;go bjspf;fntz;Lk;. ,t;thW bjspf;Fk;nghJ kUe;J bjspg;gth; gpd;ndhf;fp ele;J bry;y ntz;Lk;. kUe;J moj;j epyj;jpy; ePh; gha;r;Rk; Kd;dh; fhyhy; kpjpf;ff;TlhJ. clnd ePh; gha;r;rp ehw;Wfis elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. ehw;Wfis ghh;fspd; cukpl;l rhptpy; cukpl;l ,lj;jpypUe;J 5 br.kP. cauj;jpy; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. xU Fj;Jf;F 2 ehw;Wfs; tPjk; 30 br.kP ,ilbtspapy; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

ePh; gha;r;Rjy;

            elt[ bra;a[k; bghGJk;/ el;l \d;whk; ehSk; gpd;g[ thuk; xU Kiwa[k; ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. kiHf;fhy';fspy; ePh;gha;r;rhJ tofhy; trjpiag; bgUf;fntz;Lk;.

 

nkYukply; (vf;lUf;F)

            elt[ bra;j 30k; ehs;              30 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J (70 fpnyh a{hpah)

            60k; ehs;                                  30 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J (70 fpnyh a{hpah)

            90k; ehs;                                  30 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J (70 fpnyh a{hpah)

 

            xt;bthU Kiw cukpLk;nghJk; brofspypUe;J Rkhh; 10 br.kP. js;sp cuj;ij itj;Jg; gpd;g[ kz; mizj;J ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. kpsfha; mjpf taJila gapuhifahy; ,t;thW jiHr;rj;ij gphpj;J ,Ltjd; \yk; gapUf;Ff; fpilf;fhky; ePhpy; fiue;J btspnaWk; jiHr;rj;jpd; msitf; Fiwf;fKoa[k;.

 

gpd;bra; neh;j;jp

            elt[ bra;j 30Mk; ehs; fisf;bfhj;J bfhz;L fis ePf;fk; bra;jgpwF cukpl;L kz; mizj;J ePh; gha;r;Rjy; ntz;Lk;. elt[ bra;j 20/ 40/ 60 kw;Wk; 80Mk; ehl;fspy; l;iuanfhd;ldhy; 125 gp.gp.vk;. kUe;ij (2.5 k.yp. tpg[y; vd;w kUe;ij 10 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J) ifj; bjspg;ghdpd; cjtpahy;,iyfs; nky; gLk;go bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. ,J gaph;fspd; xspr;nrh;f;ifj; jpwid nkk;gLj;jp kfNiy mjpfhpf;fr; bra;fpwJ.

 

            g{f;fs; bfhl;Ltijf; Fiwf;ft[k;/ gp";R cjph;tijj; jtph;f;ft[k; elt[ bra;j 60 kw;Wk; 90Mk; ehl;fspy; 50 gp.gp.vk;. eh@g;jypd; mrpof; mkpyj;ij (1 kpyp gpshndhgpf;!; kUe;ij 4.5 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J) g{f;fs; kw;Wk; gp";Rs; kPJ bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. nkw;Twg;gl;l kUe;Jfisj; bjspf;Fk;nghJ cg;g[ ePiu cgnahfpf;fyhfhJ.

 

gaph; ghJfhg;g[        

            elt[ bra;j 15 Mk; ehs; rhW cwp";Rk; g{r;rpfshd ,iyg;ngd; mRtdp kw;Wk; nth; E}w;g[Gf;fs; Mfpatw;iwf; fl;Lg;gLj;j vf;lUf;F 10-12 fpnyh @gpa{uhlhd; FUiz kUe;ij brofspypUe;J 5 br.kP. js;sp xU Fr;rpahy; Jisapl;L ,lntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ nky; kz;zhy; \o ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 25 ehl;fSf;F xUKiw CLUtpg;gha[k; kUe;jhd nuhfhh; nghd;w kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 1 kpyp vd;w mstpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. bts;is mRtpzp jhf;fj;jpdhy; FUj;J ,iyfs; RU';fp tsh;r;rp Fd;wp fhzg;gLk;. ,e;j mRtzp g{r;rpfs; xUtpj ,dpg;g[ jputj;ijr; Rug;gjpdhy; mjpy; fUk;g{rdk; tsh;e;J ,iyfspy; gug;g[ KGtJk; fUg;g[J}s; nghy; goe;JtpLk;. mRtpzp jhf;fk; mjpfkhFk;nghJ brofs; fUg;ghfp koe;JtpLk; tha;g;g[z;L. ,jidf; fl;Lg;gLj;j mrngl; (mrlhg;) vd;w eida[k; J}is 1 ypl;lUf;F 2 fpuhk; tPjk; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. ,j;Jld; 10 ypl;lh; nrhw;Wf; f";rpia kpjkhd NLld; fye;J bjspf;f fUk;g{rzk; cjpUk;. rhk;gy; nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j eida[k; fe;jfj;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 2 fpuhk; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. Edpf;fUfy; kw;Wk; gHmGfy; nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 2 fpuhk; ,d;nlh@gpy; vk;-45 vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

mWtil kw;Wk; kfNy;

            elt[ bra;j 75-Mk; ehspypUe;J ed;F gGj;j gH';fs; mWtil bra;J btapypy; fhaitf;f ntz;Lk;. gr;ir kpsfha mWtil bra;a ed;F Kw;wpa gr;irf; fha;fis mWtil bra;a ntz;Lk;. vf;lUf;F 9000 - 10000 fpnyh tiu gr;irf; fha;fs; fpilf;Fk;. tw;wyhf mWtil bra;jhy; 1800-2500 fpnyh tiu fpilf;Fk;.

 

bts;shp kw;Wk; bts;shp ,dg;gaph;fs;

            bts;shp/ ePs;bts;shp/ btof;Fk; gHbts;shp Mfpait ,e;j gaph; tiffisr; nrh;e;jit.

 

            bts;shpapy; njhypd; g[wg;gFjp Kl;fSld; fhzg;gLk;. ePh; bts;shpapy; nky; njhy; Kl;fspd;wp kpUJthf ,Uf;Fk;. btof;Fk; gHbts;sphpapy; fha;fs; ePz;L gUj;J gGj;jgpd; btof;Fk;.

 

            ,tw;iw rhjhuzkhf fha;fwpahf rikf;fg; gad;gLj;jhky; ,sk;gp";Rg; gUtj;jpy; gwpj;J gr;ir fha;fshfnth/ gr;ro nghd;w czt[g;bghUl;fs; jahhpf;fnth/ gGj;jgpd; ehl;Lr; rh;f;fiua[k; nrh;j;njh gy gHf;fyit bra;anth gad;gLj;Jfpwhh;fs;.

 

            mjpf btg;gkz;lyj;jpy; gapuhFk; Fiwe;j taJg;gaph; tiffs; ,it.

 

,uf';fs;

            bts;shpapy; $g;ghd; ePsg;gr;ir/ neh; vl;L nghd;w ,uf';fSk; ePs;bts;shpapy; nfh 1/ mh;fh #pl;ly;/ ePsg;gr;ir ePs; bts;is nghd;w ,uf';fSk; cs;sd.

 

tpijf;Fk; gUtk;

1.          $%d; - $%iy

2.         ork;gh; - $dthp

 

Kd;bra; neh;j;jp

            epyj;ij 3-4 Kiw ed;F cGJ 15 kPl;lh; ,ilbtspapy; 60 br.kP. mfy tha;f;fhy;fs; mikj;jpl ntz;Lk;. ,tw;wpy; 1 kPl;lh; ,ilbtspapy; 45 f. br.kP mst[s;s FHpfs; njhz;o mtw;wpy; 10 fpnyh bjhGcuk; 100 fpuhk; 6:12:12 fyg;g[uk; nky; kz; Mfpatw;iw ,l;L epug;gp FHpf;F 5 tpijfs; tPjk; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. Xh; vf;lh; tpijf;f Rkhh; 2 fpnyh tpij njit.

 

gpd;bra; neh;j;jp

            tpij;j 20-Mk; ehs; bjhl';fp 15 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw fisf;bfhj;J gad;gLj;jp fis ePf;fk; bra;antz;Lk;. vj;uy; gaph; Cf;fp bjspg;gjd; \yk; (2.5 kpyp - 10 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F tpij;j 15-Mk; ehs; bjhl';fp thuk; xU Kiwahf \d;W Kiw) bgz; g{f;fis mjpfg;gLj;jyhk;

 

nkYukply;

            tpijj;j 30-Mk; ehs; FHp xd;Wf;F 50 fpuhk; a{hpah ,l;Lf; fye;J jz;zPh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.

 

gaph; ghJfhg;g[

            ,iy tz;ilf; fl;Lg;gLj;j brtpd; (2 fpuhk; - 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPh;) mof;fntz;Lk;. fha;fisj; Jisf;Fk; gHhapd; g[Gf;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j khyj;jpahd; nghd;w kdpj er;Rj;jd;ik Fiwe;j kUe;ij cgnahfpf;fntz;Lk;. rhk;gy; nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j eida[k; fe;jfk; 1 ypl;lh; jz:zPUf;F 2 fpuhk; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. bghJthf gp";R gpoj;jgpd; kUe;J mog;gijj; jtph;f;f ntz;Lk;. Vbddpy; gp";Rfis gr;irahf cz;gjhy; ,J kpft[k; Kf;fpak;.

 

mWtil kw;Wk; kfNy;

            tpijj;j 45-50 ehl;fspy; Kjy; mWtil bjhl';Fk;. njitf;nfw;g gp";Rfshnth/ fha;fshfnth gH';fshfnth mWtil bra;ayhk;.

 

            gp";R                            -           5-10 ld; vf;lUf;F

            fha;fs;-gH';fs;         -           15-20 ld; vf;lUf;F

 

jh;g{rzp

            Mg;gphpf;fhtpd; btg;gkz;lyg; gpunjrj;jpy; njhd;wpa ,g;gaph; cyfpd; btg;g kz;lyj;jpy; cs;s vy;yh ehLfspYk; gutpa[s;sJ. ed;F Kw;wpg; gGj;j gH';fspd; rijg;gFjp ,dpikahd Rita[lDk; mjpf rhWld; ,Uf;Fk;. ghiytdg; gFjpfspy; jhfj;ij mlf;Fk;. Kf;fpa gHkhf ,J gad;gLfpwJ. g{rzp ,dg; gaph;fspnyna ,g;gHj;jpy;jhd; ,Uk;g[r;rj;J kpf mjpfkhf ,Uf;fpwJ.

 

 

kz; tsj;njit kw;Wk jl;gbtg;gepiy

            mjpf btg;gj;Jld; fhw;wpy; <uj;jd;ik Fiwtha[k;/ ey;y Nhpa btspr;rj;JlDk; cs;s jl;gbtg;gepiy ,e;jg;gaph; gaph; bra;a Vw;wJ. Fiwe;j btg;gepiyapy; tpijfs; Kisg;gJ Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk;. fha;fs; Kjph;r;rpaila[k; gUtj;jpy; mjpf btg;gepiy epyt[tJ gH';fspd; ,dpg;g[j;jd;ikia mjpfhpf;Fk;. gdp bga;jhy; gaphpd; tsh;r;rp jilg;gLk;. kzy; fye;j ,Ukz;ghl;L epyk; kpft[k; cfe;jJ. kz;zpd; fhu mkpy epiy 6.5 - 7.0 vd;w mstpy; ,Ug;gJ kpft[k; ey;yJ. ,Ug;gpDk; mkpyj;jd;ik 5.0 vd;w mst[ tiuapYk; Tl ,g;gaph; jh';fp tsUk;. ,witg;gapuhfg; gaph; bra;ag;gl;lhYk; Fs';fspy; ePh; tw;wpat[ld; fpilf;Fk; <uj;ijf;bfhz;nl ,g;gapiug; gaph; bra;ayhk;.

 

,uf';fs;

epa{ Qhk;#ah; kpl;b$l;

            If;fpa mbkhpf;f ehLfspypUe;J jUtpf;fg;gl;l Xh; ,ufk;. gH';fs; rpwpaitaha[k; ePs; cUz;il totpYk; ,Uf;Fk;. gH';fspd; ruhrhp vil 1.5 - 2.0 fpnyh. njhy; gRikahd epwj;Jld; fUk;gr;ir nfhLfSld; fhzg;gLk;. rijg;gFjp rptg;g[ epwk; bfhz;lJ.

 

Rfh; nggp

            ,e;j ,ufKk; mbkhpf;fhtpypUe;J jUtpf;fg;gl;ljhFk;. gHj;jpd; vil 4-5 fpnyh/ cUz;ikahd totKk; fUePyj;njhYk; bfhz;lJ rijg;gFjp MH;e;j rptg;g[epwk; bfhz;lJ. ,jd; tpijfs; ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLfpwJ.

 

M#hQpakhnlh

            ,J $g;ghd; ehl;oypUe;J bfhz;L tug;gl;l Xh; ,ufk;. gH';fspd; njhy; ,nyrhd gRik epwKilaJ. nkny bky;ypa nfhLfs; bfhz;lJ. rijg;gFjp fU";rptg;g[ Cjh epwKilaJ. gH';fspd; ruhrhp vil 7-8 fpnyh. ,Jt[k; ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jhy; jUtpf;fg;gl;L ek; ehl;ow;F Vw;w ,ufk; vdj; njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;lJ.

 

bghpaSk; 1

            ,J bghpaFsj;jpYs;s njhl;lf;fiyf; fy;Y}hpapy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. gH';fs; cUz;ilahft[k; fUk;gr;ir epwj;njhYlDk; rptg;g[ epw rijg; gw;WlDk; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F rkhh; 37 ld; kfNy; mspf;Fk; taJ 120-135 ehl;fs;.

 

mh;fh khdpf;

            ,J ,e;jpaj; njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; fUxl;L \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;L (I.I.vr;.Mh;. 21 x fphpk;rd; !;tPl;) njh;e;bjLf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. gH';fs; cUz;ilahft[k; ePs; cUz;ilahft[k; ,Uf;Fk;. njhy; gRik epwkha[k; fUk;gr;irf; nfhLfSld; fhzg;gLk;. rijg;gFjp MH; Cjh fye;j rptg;g[ epwk; bfhz;lJ. gH';fspd; ruhrhp vil 6 fpnyh. vf;lUf;F 60 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,jd; taJ 100 Kjy; 110 ehl;fs; tiuahfk;.

 

Jh;fhg[uh kPJ kw;Wk; Jh;fhg[uh nfrh;

            ,e;j ,uz;L ,uf';fSk; ,uh$!;jhd; khepyj;jpd; Jh;fhg[uhtpYs;s tptrha Muha;r;rp epiyaj;pjpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lit.

 

            nkny Twg;gl;l ,uf';fisj;jtpu rpy tPhpa xl;L ,uf';fSk; cs;sd.

 

mh;fh n$hjp

            ,J I.I.vr;mh; 20 x fphpk;rd; !;tPl; vd;w fU xl;od; Kjy; jiyKiw tPhpa xl;L ,ufk; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. gH';fspd; ruhrhp vil 6 Kjy; 8 fpnyh tiu ,Uf;Fk;. rijg;gw;W Cjh fye;j ey;y rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; mjpf ,dpg;g[j; jd;ik bfhz;lJ. gH';fspy; tpijapd; vz;zpf;if Fiwt[. gHj;jpd; njhy; btsph;gr;ir epwj;Jld; fUk;gr;ir nfhLfSld; fhzg;gLk;. gH';fs; bjhiy J}uj;jpw;F mDg;gpdhYk; mjpf ehl;fs; bfl;Lg;nghfhky; ,Uf;Fk; jd;ik bgw;wit. Rkhh; 90 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 80 - 85 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;y ,ufk; ,J.

 

g{rh ngjdh

            g[J bly;ypapYs;s ,e;jpa tptrha Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. gH';fspy; tpijapy;yhjJ ,jd; rpwg;g[ e;dik. bll;uh 2 x g{rh uhry; vd;w fU xl;od; Kjy; jiyKiw tPhpa xl;L ,e;j ,ufk;. rijg;gFjp mjpf ,dpg;g[r; Rit bfhz;lJ.

 

mk;Uj;           

            kQpnfh epWtdj;jpduhy; cUthf;fg;gl;l tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. gH';fs; rpwpJ ePs; cUz;il totpy; 6-8 fpnyh vila[ld; fhzg;gLk;. nky; njhy; fUk;gr;ir epwj;Jld; rijg;gw;W MHe;j rptg;g[ epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. Rkhh; 95-100 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 100 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yU.

 

gUtk;

            $dthp - gpg;uthp khj';fspy; tpijf;fg;gLk; gaph; nfhil fhyj;jpy; mWtilf;Fj; jahuhfk;. nfhil fhyj;jpy; mWtil bra;ag;gLk; gH';fSf;F mjpf tpiy fpilf;fpwJ. ,ijj;jtpu $%d; - $%iy khj';fspYk; tpijg;g[ bra;ag;gLfpwJ.

 

epyk; jahhpg;g[ Kd;bra; neh;j;jp kw;wk; moa[ukply;

            epyj;ij 3-4 Kiw ed;F cHt[ bra;a ntz;Lk. filrpa[Htpd; nghJ vf;lUf;F 30 ld; kf;fpa bjhGcukpl;L kz;qld; fye;J bra;a ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 2 kPl;lh; ,ilbtspapy; 60 br.kP. mfyKk; tha;f;fhy;fs; mikj;jplntz;Lk;. ,e;j tha;f;fhy;fspd; cl;g[wk; kPl;lh; ,ilbtspapy; 45/ 45/ 45 br.kP. ePs/ mfy/ MH mstpy; FHp njhz;l ntz;Lk;. ,f;FHpfspy; rk mst[ nky; kz; kw;Wk; bjhGcuk; Mfpatw;Wld; fPnH Twg;gl;l ,urhad cu';fisf; fye;J ,lntz;Lk;.

 

vf;lUf;Fj; njitahd ,urhad cu';fs;

jiHr;rj;J      -           30 fpnyh (a{hpah 66 fpnyh)

kzpr;rj;J      -           65 fpnyh (Ng;gh; gh!;ngl; - 406 fpnyh)

rhk;gy;rj;J     -           85 fpnyh (kpa{hpnal; M@g; bghl;lh#; 142 fpnyh)

          bkhj;j FHpfs; 5000. vdnt FHp xd;wpw;F 13 fpuhk; a{hpah/ 80 fpuhk; Ng;gh; gh!;ngl; kw;Wk; 30 fpuhk; kpa{hpnal; M@g; bghl;lh#; fye;J ,l ntz;Lk;.

 

tpijast[ kw;Wk; tpijg;g[

            xh; vf;lh; tpijf;f Rkhh; 3-4 fpnyh mst[ tpij njit. FHp xd;Wf;F 4-5 tpijfs; tpijj;J gpd;dh; Kisj;J te;jt[ld; FHpf;F 3 brofs; ,Uf;FkhW fiyj; tplntz;Lk;.

ePh;g;ghrdk;

            gUt kiHf;fhy';fspy; ,J khdhthhpahfg; gaph; bra;ag;gLfpwJ. nfhilf;fhyj;jpw;F mWtil bra;ag;gLk; gaph; ghrdg; gapuhfg; gaph; bra;ag;gLfpwJ. khdhthhpapy; kiH te;jt[ld; FHpfs; njhz;o tpijg;g[ bra;antz;Lk;. ,witapy; tpijg;gjw;f Kd;dh; FHpfspy; ePh; Cw;wpg; gpd;dh; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 3-Mk; ehSk; mjd;gpd;dh; 7-10 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiwa[k; ePh; Cw;w ntz;Lk;. tpijfs; Kisj;J te;j gpd;dnu tha;f;fhy;fs; \yk; ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. ePh; gha;r;Rjy; xnu rPuhd ,ilbtspapy; bra;a ntz;Lk;. (Rkhh; 10 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw vd) mjpf ehl;fs; ePh; gha;r;rhky; kz;zpd; <uj;jd;ik kpff;Fiwthd epiyf;F nghd gpd;dh; jpObud;W ePh; gha;r;rpdhy; fha;fs; btoj;JtpLk;. ,t;thW btoj;j fha;fs; tpw;gidapy; tpiy Fiwe;J nghf VJthFk;.

 

gpd; bra; neh;j;jp kw;Wk; nkYukply;

            tpijj;j 15 kw;Wk; 30 Mk; ehl;fspy; fisf;bfhj;J bfhz;L bfhj;jpf; fisePf;fk; bra;antz;Lk;. tpijj;j 15-Mk; ehs; (gaph; 2 ,iyfSld;,Uf;Fk;nghJ) ogh vd;w gaph; Cf;fpia 25-50 gp.gp.vk; vd;w mstpy; fiuj;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. (25-50 kp. fpuhk; / xU ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F my;yJ 250 kp. fpuhk; - 500 kp. fpuhk; 10 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F vd;w mstpy; fyf;f ntz;Lk;) kPz;Lk; xUthuk; fHpj;J ,nj mstpy; fye;J xUKiw bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            ,jw;F gjpyhf Vj;uy; vd;w gaph; Cf;fpia 4 Kiw bjspf;fyhk;. (2 kp.yp. kUe;J 10 ypl;lh; jz;zPh; vd;w mstpy; fye;J)

            1.          Kjy; ,uz;L ,iyg;gUtk;

            2.         xU thuk; fHpj;J

            3.         nkYk; xU thuk; fHpj;J

            4.         kPz;Lk; xUthuk; fHpj;J vd 4 Kiw bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            bfhofs; glu Muk;gpj;jt[ld; tha;f;fhy;fspypUe;J vLj;J ,ilg;gFjpapy; glur;bra;a ntz;Lk;. tpijj;j 30 Mk; ehs; vf;lUf;F 30 fpnyh jiHr;rj;ij nkY}ukhf ,l;L ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. ,jw;F FHp xd;wpw;F 13 fpuhk; a{hpah ,lntz;Lk;.

 

gaph;ghJfhg;g[

            ,iy fof;Fk; tz;Lfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j eida[k; brtpd; kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 2 fpuhk; vd;w mstpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. rhk;gy; nehapidf;fl;Lg;gLj;j 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 2 fpuhk; bgtp!;od; vd;w mstpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. gH <f;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j khyj;jpahd; nghd;w kdpj er;R Fiwe;j kUe;jpid cgnahfg;gLj;jyhk;. Vbddpy; gH';fis ehk; rikj;njh ntfitj;njh rhg;gpLtjpy;iy. kw;w g{rzp ,dg;gaph;fisg; nghd;nw ,jw;Fk; o.o.O. gp.vr;.rp nghd;w g{r;rp kUe;Jfisa[k; jhkpug;g{rzf; bfhy;ypa[k; gad;gLj;jyhfhJ.

 

mWtil

            gH';fs; Kw;wpg;gGj;J mWtilf;Fj; jahuhFk; epiyiaf; fPH;f;Fwpg;gpl;l milahs';fs; itj;J mwpe;J bfhs;syhk;.

m.    ed;F Kw;wpg; gGj;j gHj;ij tpuyhy; jl;og;ghf;Fk; nghJ xU ke;jkhd xyp cz;lhFk;. gGf;fhj fha;fisj; jl;og; ghh;f;Fk; nghJ kzp nghd;w xir vGg;g[k;.

M.   gHj;jpy; jiuiaj; bjhl;Lf; bfhz;oUf;Fk; gFjp gRik epwk; khwp k";rs; my;yJ btsph; k";rs; epwkila[k;.

,.    bfhoapy; gHj;jpd; mUfpYs;s gw;wpg;glUk; fk;gpr;RUs; fha;e;JtpLk;.

<.     gH';;fisf; ifapy; vLj;J mGj;jk; bfhLf;Fk; nghJ mg;gFjp vspjpy; cile;J beU';;Fk;.

 

            rhjuzkhf kyh; tphpe;J kfue;jr; nrh;f;if ele;J Rkhh; 30-40 ehl;fspy; gH';fs; mWtilf;Fj; jahuhFk;. nkw;Twg;gl;l vy;yhtpj milahs';fisa[k; gad;gLj;jpg;ghh;j;J mWtil bra;tJ rhyr; rpwe;jJ. vf;lUf;F Rkhh; 45-60 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

 

mtiu

            ,J ,e;jpa gPd;!; vd;Wk; miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;jpa ehl;oy; cUthdJ ,g;gaph;. bkhr;ir vdg;gLk; xU gaph; ,nj FLk;gj;ijr; nrh;e;jJ. bkhr;irapy; fha;fspd; ehh;j;jd;ik kpft[k; tpiuthf cUthfpwJ. Mdhy; mtiuapy; ehh; cUthFk; fhyk; rw;W TLjy; MFk;.

 

            bkhr;irapy; tpijfs; gUj;J Kw;wpa epiyapy; fha;fspypUe;J gphpj;bjLf;fg;gl;L cgnahfg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. Mdhy; mtiuapy; ehh;r;rj;J cUthf;Ftjw;F Kd;g[ fha;fs; gwpf;fg;gl;L rikaYf;Fg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.

 

kz; tsk; kw;Wk; jl;gbtg;gepiy

            mtiu tsh;r;rpf;F btg;gkhd jl;gbtg;gepiy njit. mtiuapy; bfho ,ufKk; Fj;J ,ufKk; cs;sd. bfho ,ufj;jpw;F Fr;rpfs; el;L glu tplntz;Lk;. Fj;J ,ufj;jpw;F ,t;thwhd Fr;rpfs; elt[ bra;aj; njitapy;iy. bfho ,uf';fspy; bgUk;ghyhdit Fwpg;gpl;l gUt';fspy; kl;Lk; gaph; bra;a Vw;wit. ,e;j ,uf';fspd; taJ Rkhh; 7-8 khj';fs; MFk;. Fj;J ,uf';fs; FWfpa fhy taJila it. Rkhh; 90-120 ehl;fspy; mWtil Koj;J tpLfpd;wd. mtiu btg;g kz;lyj;jpYk; kpj btg;g kz;lyj;jpYk; gaph; bra;a Vw;wJ. Mdhy; gdpg; bghHpitg; jh';fhJ mijg;nghy; kpf mjpfkhd btg;gj;jpYk; g{f;fs; cUthfhJ. g{f;fs; ,Ue;jhYk; fha;fs; gpog;gjpy;iy. btt;ntW tpjkhd kz; tiffspy; mtiu tsUk; kz;zpd; mkpy-fhuj; jd;ik Rkhh; 6.5 Kjy; 8.5 vd;w mstpDs; ,Ug;gJ kpft[k; ey;yJ.

 

bfho ,uf';fs;

            ,tw;wpw;F Fr;rpfs; Cd;wpnah ge;jy; mikj;njh glur; bra;a ntz;Lk;.

           

g{rh Vh;yp g;uhyp@gpf;

            ,J ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l mjpf tpisr;ry; juty;y xh; ,ufk;. fha;fs; jl;ilahf ,nyrhd gRik epwj;Jld; 9.3 br. kP ePsKk; 1.5 br.kP mfyKk; bfhz;litaha; ,Uf;Fk;. Rkhh; 200-215 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 14 ld; fha; kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ. E}W fha;fspd; ruhrhp vil 315 fpuhk;.

 

nfh. 2

            ,J jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. nfhit khtl;lj;jpy; gaph; bra;ag;gLk; rpd;d mtiu vd;w ehl;L ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdptHpj; njh;t[ Kiwapy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J Nhpa btspr;r fhy mstpw;F cl;gl;L g{f;Fk; jd;ika[ilajhy; Fwpg;gpl;l gUtj;jpy; kl;Lk; tpijg;g[ bra;a Vw;wJ. $%iy-Mf!;;l; khj';fspy; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. jz;L ,sk; Cjh epwKilaJ. ,iyfs; gRikaha[k; ,sk; Cjh euk;g[fSlDk; fhzg;gLk;. g{f;fs; Cjh epwKilait.

 

            fha;fs; ,sk; gr;ir epwj;jpy; Cjh tpspk;g[fSld; ,Uf;Fk; fha;fspd; ePsk; 9.3 br. kP. mfyk; 2.1 br.kP EW fha;fspd; vil 617 fpuhk;. Rkhh; 210-220 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 11.8 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ. tpijfs;; fUik epwkhdit.

 

nfh 3

            nfhit khtl;lj;jpy; gaph; bra;ag;gLk; ahidf;fhJ vd;w cs;~h; ,ufj;jpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;J cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. $%iy - Mf!;l; khj';fspy; tpijg;g[ bra;a Vw;wJ. jz;L gRikahd epwj;Jld; Cjh epwg;gl;ilfSlDk; kw;Wk; fqf;fs; Cjh epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. fha;fs; gRikaha[k; rpwpJ Cjh epw g[s;spfSlDk; fhzg;gLk;. fhapd; ePsk; 10.6 br.kP. mfyk; 48 br.kP. 100 fha;fspy; ruhrhp vil 1177 fpuhk; tpijfs; fUik epwkhdit.

 

nfh 4

            nfhit khtl;lj;jpy; gaphplg;gLk; rptg;g[ mtiu vd;w cs;~h; ,ufj;jpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;L jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. $%iy - Mf!;l; khj';fspy; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. jz;L brt;t{jh epwj;jpYk;/ ,iy gRikaha[k; brt;t{jh euk;g[fSlDk; fhzg;gLk;. fha;fs; Cjh fye;j rptg;g[ epwkhf jl;ilahf ,Uf;Fk;. fha;fspd; ePsk; 10.2 br.kP. mfyk; 3.3 br.kP. 100 fha;fpd; vil 743 fpuhk; tpijfs; fUik epw';bfhz;lit. Rkhh; 215-220 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 13.5 ld; tiu kfNy; ju ty;yJ ,e;j ,ufk;.

 

nfh 5

            ,J "nfhHpf;fhy; mtiu" vd;w ,ufj;jpypUe;J jdptHpj;njh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; xy;ypahf ePskhf ,Uf;Fk;. btSg;ghd gr;ie epwf;fha;fs; FHy; totj;jpy; cs;ns fhw;wilj;jJ nghd;W bgUj;Jf; fhzg;gLk;. fha;fs; rpwpnj tise;J Xuk; uk;gk; nghd;w mikg;g[ld; ,Uf;Fk;. tpijfs; rhf;fnyl; epwkhdit. $%iy - Mf!;l; khj';fspy; kl;Lnk tpijf;f cfe;j ,e;j ,ufk; Rkhh; 230 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 6-7 ld; fha; kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. E}W fha;fspd; ruhrhp vil 526 fpuhk;.

 

nfh 1 ge;jy; mtiu

            ,J jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; fha;fwpj;Jiwahy; 1993-Mk; Mz;L btspaplg;gl;l Xh; cah; tpisr;ry; ,ufk;. Qhpahdh khepyj;jpypUe;J jUtpf;fg;gl;l vr;.o. 18 vd;w tsh;g;gpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;j cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk; $%iy Kjy; brg;lk;gh; tiu tpijg;g[ bra;a Vw;wit.

 

            fha;fs; fUk;gr;ir epwj;jpy; kpft[k; fth;r;rpfukhf ,Uf;Fk;. rijg;gw;W kw;w ,uf';fisf; fhl;oYk; kpft[k; mjpfk;. E}W fha;fspd; vil Rkhh; 970 fpuhk; kw;w ge;jy; ,uf';fisf; fhl;oYk; ,jd; taJ kpft[k; Fiwt[. Rkhh; 160-180 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 18-20 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;Fk; jpwd; tha;e;jJ. ,e;j ,ufj;ij Fj;Jr; broahft[k; khw;wp tsh;f;f Koa[k;. jiuapypUe;J Rkhh; 60 br.kP. tsh;e;jt[ld; Edpf;FUj;ijf; fps;sptpl ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW bra;a[k; nghJ gf;ff; fpisfs; tsh;e;J g{f;fs; cUthfp fha;gpof;Fk;. tpijfs; fUik epwkhdit.

 

u$dp

            fhd;g{hpYs;s rp.v!;.M!hj; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; gpu";r gPd;!; nghd;w njhw;wk; bfhz;lit. gRik epwkhdit. fha;fspd; ePsk; 10.4 br.kP mfyk; 1.2 br.kP. 100 fha;fspd; vil 178 fpuhk;. Rkhh; 200 - 210 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 7-8 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;ff;ToaJ.

 

jruhty;

            ,J kfhuh#;ouhtpYs;s mnfhyh ntshz;ikf; fy;Y}hpapy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; jl;ilahf/ rhk;gy; fye;j gRik epwj;jpy; ,uz;L Xu';fspYk; Cjh epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. fha;fspd; ePsk; 7.8 br.kP mfyk; 2 br.kP E}W fha;fspd; vil 320 fpuhk;. Rkhh; 200 - 210 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 7-8 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

jPghspty;

            ,Jt[k; mnfhyh ntshz;ikf; fy;Y}hpapy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; kpft[k; ePskhdit (18.4 br.kP.) bts;is epwj;jpy; xt;bthU tpijg;gFjpapYk; fhw;wilj;jJ nghd;w Cjpg;bgUj;Jf; fhzg;gk; mfyk; 2.7 br.kP. fha;fs; ,nyrhdit. E}W fha;fspd; vil Rkhh;  150 fpuhk;. ,J 200 - 210 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 6-8 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;y ,ufk;.

 

n$.o.vy;. 79

            ,J kj;jpag;gpunjrj;jpd; $gy;g{hpYs;s $tQh;yhy; neU ntshz;ikf; fy;Y}hpapy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; btsph;gr;ir epwj;Jld; tpij mike;jpUf;Fk; Xug;gFjpapy; fpspg;gr;ir epwg;gl;ila[ld; fhzg;gLk;.

 

            ePsk; 11.8 br.kP. mfyk; 3.6 br.kP. 100 fha;fspy; vil 150 fpuhk; Rkhh; 200 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 5-6 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;ff;ToaJ.

 

n$.o.vy;. 53

            ,Jt[k; $gy;g{hpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; btsph;gr;ir epwj;jpy; Cjh epw Xu';fSld; bkhr;irf;fha; nghd;w njhw;wj;Jld; ,Uf;Fk;. fha;fs; rpwpa mstpy; jl;ilahf 7.2 br.kP. ePsj;Jld; 1.8 br.kP. mfyj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. E}W fha;fspd; vil 375 fpuhk;. ,jd; taJ 200 - 220 ehl;fs; vf;lUf;F 10-12 ld; kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

nf.o.gp. 403

            ,J fhd;g{hpYs;s rp.v!;. M!hj; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. fha;fs; 12.9 br.kP. ePsj;Jld; 1.2 br.kP. mfyj;Jld; gsg;gsg;ghd gr;ir epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. E}W fha;fspd; ruhrhp vil 200 fpuhk;. Rkhh; 180-120 ehl;fspy; 5-6 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

nf.o.gp. 405

            fha;fs; xy;ypahf ePz;L (9.6 x 1.3 br.kP) FHy; nghd;w mikg;g[ld; gpu";r gPd;!; nghd;w njhw;wj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. fha;fs; ePsthf;fpy; eLtpy; fUk;gr;ir epwj;JlDk; ,uz;L Xu';fspy; btsph; gr;ir epwj;JlDk; fhzg;gLk;. E}W fha;fspd; ruhrhp vil 100 fpuhk;. Rkhh; 180-200 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 3-4 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;ff;ToaJ.

 

nfh. 1

            ,J mtiuiaa[k;/ bkhr;iriaa[k; fU xl;L nrh;j;J cUthf;fg;gl;ljhy; ,jd; fha;fs; mtiuf;Fk; bkhr;irf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l njhw;wj;ijf; bfhz;oUf;Fk;.

 

Fj;J ,uf';fs;

nfh 6

            ,J nfhit jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; o.vy. 3169 nfh.5 vd;w fU xl;oypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; rpwpJ tise;J fhw;wilj;Jg; gUj;j FHy; nghd;W ,Uf;Fk;. vf;lUf;F 12 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fpwJ. ,jd; taJ 240 ehl;fs;.

 

nfh 7

            ,Jt[k; o.vy;. 3169 x nfh. 5 vd;w fU xl;oypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;l Xh; ,ufk;. fha;fs; bghpa ePz;l/ jl;ilahd/ gRik epw';fye;j btz;ik epwkhdit. tpijfs; mstpy; bghpaitahf ,Uf;Fk;. Rkhh; 240 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 12 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;fty;yJ.

 

nfh. 8

            ,J nfh. 5 x o.vy;. 3169 vd;w fU xl;oypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; btsph; gRikahft[k;/ FHy; nghd;Wk;/ rijg;gw;Wld; ,Uf;Fk;. fha;fs; 120 ehl;fspy; 4-5 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. tpijfs; rhf;fnyl; epwKilait.

 

nfh. 9

            ,J jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; rLjp khw;W Kiwapy; cUthf;fg;gl;l xU Fj;J ,ufk;. fha;fs; gr;ir epwkhdit. Kw;wpa tpijfSk; cgnahfpf;fg;gLk;. k";rs; njky; er;Rhp neha;f;F Xust[ vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;lJ. Rkhh; 120 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 7-8 ld; fha; kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ.

 

nfh. 10

            nfh. 6 ,uf tpijfis fhkhf; fjphpaf;f Kiwapy; rLjp khw;wk; bra;J cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. g{f;fs; Cjh epw';bfhz;lit. jz;Lg;gFjpa[k; Cjh epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. fha;fs; FHy; nghd;w mikg;g[ld; gRik fye;J bts;is epwj;Jld; rpwpJ tise;J fhzg;glk;.

 

nfh. 11

            nfh.9 x bts;is ahidf;fhJ vd;w fU xl;oypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;L cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. fha;fs; ,sk; gr;ir epwj;jpy; jl;ilahd mikg;ig bgw;wit ePsthf;fpy; Cjh epw Xuk; bfhz;lit. vf;lUf;f 8-10 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. tpijfSk; KG Kjph;rpaile;j gpd;g[ cgnahfg;gLj;j cfe;jit.

 

nfh. 12

            nfh. 9 x nfh. 4 vd;w fU xl;oypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;l ,ufk; fha;fs; fU Cjh epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 10-12 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;Fk; jpwd; bgw;wJ. ,jd; taJ rkhh; 110 ehl;fs;.

 

nfh. 13

            fha;fs; ePz;L gRik epwkhf ,Uf;Fk;. g{f;fs; bts;is epwkhdit. taJ 110-120 ehl;fs;. vf;lUf;F 10 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

 

mh;fh b$a; (bryf;#d; 1)

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpypUe;J btspaplg;gl;l ,ufk;. (bQg;ghy; mtiu 3 c I.I.vr;.Mh;. 99) fha;fs; gr;ir epwj;Jd; jl;ilahff; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 12 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ. ,jd; taJ 75-80 ehl;fs; MFk;.

 

mh;fh tp$a; (bryf;#d; 2)

            ,Jt[k; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. (bQg;ghy; mtiu 3 x g{rh vh;yp g[uhtp@gpf;). fha;fs; Fl;ilahft[k; fUk;gr;ir epwj;JlDk; bkhr;ri thrida[lDk; ,Uf;Fk;. 80 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 12 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

 

bfh';fd; g{#z; (o.gp.o.vy;.1)

            ,J kQhuh#;ouhtpd; jnghypapYs;s bfh';fd; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.. fha;fs; gr;ir epwj;Jld; FHy; nghd;w tot[ld; fhzg;gLk;. vf;lUf;F 6 ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,jd; taJ 100-110 ehl;fs;

 

tpijf;Fk; gUtk; kw;Wk; Kd;bra; neh;j;jp

            bfho my;yJ ge;jy; ,uf';fs; bghJthf $%iy - Mf!;l; khj';fspy; tpijf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ge;;jypy; glUtjhy; ,e;j ,uf';fSf;F thpirf;F thpir 1.5 kP. -2 kP. ,ilbtspa[k; thpirapy; FHpf;F FHp 75 br. kP. Kjy; 1 kPl;lh; ,ilbtspa[k; njit.  FHpfspd; mst[ 45 x 45 x 45 br. kP. FHp xd;Wf;F 5-0 fpnyh kf;fpa bjhG cuj;Jld; nky; kz;izf; fye;J ,l;L epug;gpagpd;/ 4-5 tpijfs; tPjk; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. Kisj;J te;jgpd;g[ ey;y brofshf \d;wpid tpl;Ltpl;L Vida brofisf; fiyj;Jtpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            Fj;J ,uf';fis tUlk; KGtJk; tpijg;g[ bra;ayhk;. Fj;J ,uf';fis tpijg;g[ bra;a epyj;ij 4-5 Kiw ed;f cHt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. filrp cHtpd; nghJ vf;lUf;F 20 ld; kf;fpa bjhG cukpl;L fye;Jtplntz;LK;. gpd;g[ 60 br. kP. ,ilbtspapy; ghh;fs; mikj;J ghh;fspd; xU g[wr;rhptpy; 15 br. kP. ,ilbtspapy; Fj;Jf;F 2 tpijfs; tPjk; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

gUtk;

rpghhpR bra;ag;gLk; ,uf';fs;

Mog;gl;lk; ($%iy - Mf!;L)

ge;jy; mtiu

br';fy;gl;L/ jh;kg[hp/ nfhaKj;J}h;

nfh.1/ nfh.3/ nfh.4/ nfh.5

Mog;gl;lk;

Fj;J ,uf';fs;

kJiu/ jpz;Lf;fy;

nfh.6/ nfh.8/ nfh.9

jpUtz;zhkiy/ ,uhkehjg[uk;/ tpUJefh;/ rptf';if/ bey;iy/ J}j;Jf;Fo nryk;/ j";rht{h;/ jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp/ g[Jf;nfhl;il/ fd;dpahFkhhp <nuhL/ g[ul;lhrpg;gl;lk; (brg;lk;ghh; - etk;gh;)

Fj;J ,uf';fs;

br';fy;gl;L/ jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp/ jpUtz;zhkiy/ ntY}h;/ flY}h;/ tpGg;g[uk;/ rptf';if

nfh. 6/ nfh.7/ nfh.8/ nfh.9/ nfh.10/ nfh.11/ nfh.12 ge;jy; mtiu nfh.1 ge;jy; mtiu

g[Jf;nfhl;il/ <nuhL/ nfhak;g[j;J}h;/ kJiu/ jpz;Lf;fy;/ bey;iy J}j;Jf;Fo/ j";rht{h; nfhilg;gl;lk; (Vg;uy;) br';fy;gl;L/ ntY}h;

nfh.8/ nfh.9/ nfh.10/ nfh.11

            bfho ,uf';fSf;F vf;lUf;F 10 fpnyh tpija[k; Fj;J ,uf';fSf;F vf;lUf;F 20-25 fpnyh tpija[k; njitg;gLk;.

 

            tpijg;gjw;F Kd; 18 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J (39 fpnyh a{hpah) 72 fpnyh kzpr;rj;J (450 fpnyh Ng;gh; gh!;ngl;) 72 fpnyh rhk;gy; rj;J (120 fpnyh kpa{hpnal; M@g; bghl;lh#;) Mfpatw;iw FHpfspnyh ghh;fspd; rhptpnyh ,l;Lf; fye;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. tpijfis fhh;bgd;lrpk; my;yJ jph;uk; kUe;Jld; (1 fpnyh tpijf;F 2 fpuhk; tPjk;) fye;J/ 24 kzp neuk; fHpj;J iunrhgpak; ghf;Ohpak; Ez;qapUld; fye;J tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. \d;W Kjy; Ie;J bghl;ly';fs; ghf;Ohpay; fyitia njitahd mst[ nrhw;Wf; f";rpa[ls; fye;J ,f;fyitia tpijapd; nkypl;L fye;J 15 epkplk; fhaitj;Jg; gpd;dh; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

ePh;g;ghrdk;

            tpijg;g[ bra;jt[ld; ePh;g;ghrdk; bra;antz;Lk;. kPz;Lk; \d;whk; ehs; caph;j;jz;zPh; tplntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ thuk; xUKiw jz;zPh; gha;r;rntz;Lk;.

 


 

,ilbra; neh;j;jp kw;Wk; nkYukply;

            tpijj;j 20-25 ehl;fspy; Kjy; Kiw fis ePf;fk; bra;a ntz;Lk;. bfho ,uf';fSf;F bky;ypa \';fpy; ehw;Wf; Fr;rpfis el;L bfhoia ge;jYf;F Vw;wptplntz;Lk;.

 

            Fj;J ,uf';fSf;F tpijj;j 30 Mk; ehs; vf;lUf;F 18 fpnyh jiHr;rj;ij (39 fpnyh a{hpahit) nkYukhf ,l;Lf; fye;J tpl;L ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 15-20 ehl;fspy; ,ilbtspapy; ,uz;L Kiqw fis ePf;fk; bra;J kz;iz bfhj;jp tplntz;Lk;.

 

            bfho ,uf';fSf;F 36 fpnyh jiHr;rj;ij (78 fpnyh a{hpah) ,uz;L rk jtizahfg; gphpj;J tpijf;f 60 Mk; ehs; xU Kiwa[k; 120 Mk; ehs;kW Kiwa[k; ,lntz;Lk;.

 

gaph;ghJfhg;g[

            bfhofs; cUthfp/ g[jpa fpisfs; cUthFk;nghJk;/ g{f;fs; cUthFk; nghJk;/ gp";Rfs; gpof;Fk; nghJk; mRtzpg; g{r;rp jhf;Fjy; fhzg;gLk;. CLUtpj; jhf;Fk; g{r;rp bfhy;ypahd nuhfhh; my;yJ bkl;lh rp!;lhf;!; nghd;w kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 1.5 kpyp vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. Md;j;uhf;neh!; vdg;gLk;. ,iyg; g[s;sp nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j ,z;nlh@gpy; vk;.45 vd;w g{";rhzf; bfhy;ypia 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 2 fpuhk; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

mWtil

            ed;F tsh;e;j fha;fis Kw;Wtjw;F Kd; gwpj;J Tilfspy; epug;gp tpahghu ,l';fSf;F mDg;gpl ntz;Lk;. vf;lUf;F bfho ,uf';fspy; 8-12 ld; tiuapYk; Fj;J ,uf';fspy; 4-6 ld; tiuapYk; kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

 

KU';if

            bjd;dpe;jpa rikaypy; kpf Kf;fpa ,lk; tfpf;Fk; fha;fwpfspy; KU';ifa[k; xd;W. rhk;ghhpd; kzj;ija[k; Ritiaa[k; Tl;lf; ToaJ. KGtJk; Kw;Wtjw;F Kd;dh; gwpf;fg;glll ,f;fha;fspd; rijg;gw;W kw;Wk; KGtJk; Kw;whj tpijfs; Mfpait rikg;gjw;F rpwg;ghd Ritiag; bgw;wit.  ,k;kuj;jpd; ,iy kpfr; rpwe;j rj;Jf;fs; epiwe;j fPiuahFk;. Kf;fpakhf ,jpy; ,Uk;g[r;rj;J/ itl;lkpd; 'V'/ 'gp'/ kw;Wk; 'rp' epiwe;jJ. KU';iff; fhapYk; g[ujk;/ ,Uk;g[r;rj;J/ itl;lkpd; 'gp'/ itl;lkpd; 'rp' Mfpait ml';fpa[s;sd.

 

            KU';if kuk; xU gy;yhz;Lg; gapuhapDk; jw;nghJ xnu tUlj;jpy; fha;f;ff; Toa bro KU';if ,uf';fs; cUthf;fg; gl;Ls;sd. rkPg fhyj;jpy; KU';iff;fha;fs; ntf itf;fg;gl;L/ cyh;j;jg;gl;L/ bgho bra;ag;gl;L gjg;gLj;jg;gl;L btspehLfSf;F Vw;Wkjp bra;ag;gLfpd;wd. btspehl;oy; bra;ag;gLk; ,e;jpa rikay; tiffSf;F cldoahf cgnahfg; gLj;jg;gLk; jahh; epiyg; bghoahf ,J gad; gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

 

kz; kw;Wk; jl;gbtg;gepiy

            KU';if vy;yh tpjkhd kz; tiffspYk; tsh;e;J gad; juf;ToaJ. m';ff; rj;J epiwe;j kzy; fye;j tz;ly; kz;zpy; ,J ed;F brHpj;J tsUk;. twl;rpahd gFjpfspy; mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLk;. vdpDk; rkPg fhyj;jpy; ,ij ey;y neh;j;jpa[ld; gaph; bra;J mjpf mstpy; kfNy; bgwf;Toa tHp Kiwfis fz;lwpe;Js;sdh;. Fwpg;ghf bro KU';if vdg;gLk; tifapid ey;y ePh;g;ghrdj;jpy; ,urhad cu';fspl;L gaph; ghJfhg;g[ Kiwfisf; filgpoj;J mjpf kfNy; mile;J tUfpd;wdh;. kz;zpd; fhu mkpyj; jd;ik 6-7.5 vd;w mst[ ,jd; tsh;r;rpf;F kpft[k; cfe;jJ. fhw;wpd; btg;gepiy 25-30o bry;rpa!; vd;w mstpy; ,J ed;F brHpj;J tsh;e;J gyd; jUfpwJ. btg;gepiy 40o bry;rpa!; vd;w mstpw;F nky; nghFk;nghJ g{f;fs; bfhl;o tpLtjhy; kfNy; rpwpJ ghjpf;fg;gLk; mnjnghy; kpft[k; Fiwe;j btg;g epiy kw;Wk; gdpg;bghHpt[ Mfpa epiyfisa[k; ,g;gaph; jh';fhJ.

 

,uf';fs; / tiffs;

            gy;yhz;L tif KU';ifapy; xU rpwpa ,uf';fs; cs;sd. $h@g;dh vdg;gLk; xU tif ,y';if ehl;oypUe;J jUtpf;fg;gl;lJ. Rkhh; 60-90 br.kP ePsKs;s rijg;gw;Ws;s fha;fisf; bfhz;lJ. ,jw;F ahH;g;ghz KU';if vd;w bgaUk; cz;L.

 

            kw;bwhU ,ufk; ,y';ifapy; rhtfr; nrhp vd;w gFjpapypUe;J bfhz;L tug; gl;ljhff; fUjg; gLfpwJ. rhtfr; nrhp KU';if vd;w bgah; ,e;j ,ufj;jpw;F epiyj;J tpl;lJ. ,jf; fha;fs; mjp ePskhdit (90-120 br.kP).

 

            brk;KU';if vdg;gLtJ kw;bwhU gy;yhz;L KU';if tif. ,jd; fha;fspd; Edpfs; rw;nw rpte;J fhzg;gLtjhy; ,jw;F ,g;bgah; te;jJ. ,e;j ,ufk; Mz;L KGtJk; g{f;ff;ToaJ.

 

            fhL KU';if vdg;gLk; kw;bwhU tifapy; kpft[k; Fl;ilahd rijg;gw;ww;w fha;fs; vdg;gLk;.

 

            rpy ,uf';fspy; g{f;fns cUthfhj epiy fhzg;gLtjhy; mit fPiuf;F kl;Lnk gad;gLfpd;wd.

 

            ghy; KU';if vdg;gLk; tifapy; fha;fspd; rijg;gw;W mjpfkha[k; ey;y rija[ilajha[k; ,Uf;Fk;. nkw;Twg;gl;l gy;yhz;L tiffspy; ku';fspd; jz;Lg;gFjpapd; joj;j nghj;Jf; Fr;rpfshy; ,dg;bgUf;fk; bra;ag;gLfpd;wd.

 

            bfhof;fhy; KU';if vd;W miHf;fg;gLk; xUtif/ jpUr;rp khtl;l';fspy; btw;wpiyf; bfhof;Fg; glUk; bfhk;g[fshfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,tw;wpd; fha;fs; Rkhh; 15-20 br. kP ePsk; ,Uf;Fk;. ,it bghJthf tpijfs; \yk; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLfpwJ. tpijfs; \yk; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLk; xuhz;L tiffspy; rpy cah; tpisr;ry; ,uf';fSk; cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,it bghJthf broKU';if ,uf';fs; vd miHf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

 

FLkpahd; kiy (nf.vk;.1)

            ,J g[Jf;nfhl;il khtl;lj;jpy; FLkpahd; kiyapYs;s mz;zh gz;izapy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. tpij \yk; ,dg;bgUf;fk; bra;ag;gLk; xh; cs;~h; ,ufj;jpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;lJ. fha;fs; Fl;ilahft[k; (20 br. kP ePsKk;) Rit kpFe;j rijg;gw;WlDk; fhzg;gLk;. kuk; xd;wpw;F Rkhh; 400-500 fha;fs; tiu fha;f;Fk;. ku';fs; Fl;ilahf mjpf caukpy;yhjpUg;gjhy; fha;fs; gwpf;f vspjhapUf;Fk;. ku';fis epyj;jpypUe;J 1 kPl;lh; cauj;jpw;F tpl;L btl;otpl kPz;Lk; Jsph;j;J kW tUlKk; fha;fs; mWtilf;F tUk;. mWtil Koe;jt[ld; ku';fis ePf;fptpl;L g[jpajhf tpijg;g[ bra;ayhk;.

 

gp. nf. vk;.1 (bghpaFsk; - 1)

            ,J bghpaFsj;jpYs;s njhl;lf;fiyf; fy;Y}hpapy; cUthf;fg; gl;;l bro KU';if ,ufk;/ ku';fs; Rkhh; 4-5 kPl;lh; cauk; tsuf; Toait. elt[ bra;a 90-100 ehl;fspy; g{f;f Muk;gpf;Fk;/ Rkhh; 160-170 ehl;fspy; Kjy; mWtil bjhl';Fk;. xt;bthU kuKk; ruhrhpahf 200-226 fha;fs; fha;f;Fk; (33 fpnyh) fha;fs; Rkhh; 65-70 br. kP. ePsKk; 6.3 br. kP. Rw;wst[k;/ 150 fpuhk; vila[k; bfhz;lit. fha;fs; rijg;gw;W kpFe;jit. ku';fis 3 tUlk; tiu kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; fthj;J bra;J itj;jpUf;fyhk;.

 

Kd;bra; neh;j;jp

            epyj;ij 3-4 Kiw ed;F cHt[ bra;J vf;lUf;F 20 ld;fs; kf;fpa bjhGcukpl;L kz;qld; fye;J tplntz;Lk;. gy;yhz;L ,uf';fSf;F 6 x 6 kP vd;w ,ilbtspapYk;/ bro KU';if ,uf';fSf;F 2.5 kP x 2.5 kP vd;w ,ilbtspapYk; 45 br.kP. x 45 br. kP x 45 br.kP vd;w mst[s;s FHpfs; njhz;lntz;Lk;. FHp xd;wpw;F 10 fpnyh bjhGcuj;ij nky; kz;qld; fye;J epug;g ntz;Lk;.

 

tpijg;g[ kw;Wk; elt[

            gy;yhz;L tiffs; ku';fspd; fpisfis btl;o nghj;J eLjy; \yk; ,dg;bgUf;fk; bra;ag;gLfpd;wd. Rkhh; 100 br. kP ePsKk;; 5-8 br. kP. tpl;lKk; bfhz;l fpisfis btl;o FHpfspd; eLtpy; el ntz;Lk;. bro KU';if ,uf';fs; tpijfs; \yk; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gl;L fpd;wd. tpijfis neuoahf FHpfspy; tpijf;fnth my;yJ ghypjPd; igfspy; tpijj;J ehw;whf tsh;j;J xU khjk; fHpj;J elnth bra;;ayhk;. xh; vf;lh; eLtjw;F Rkhh; 500 fpuhk; tpij njitg;gLk;. neuo tpijg;gpd; nghJ Rkhh; 50-60 ehw;Wf;fis TLjyhfg; ghypjPd;igfspy; jahh; bra;antz;Lk;. tpij Kisf;fhj FHpfspy; ghLthhp elt[ bra;a ,it gad;gLk;. tpijj;j xU khjk; fHpj;J ,t;thW ghLthrp elntz;Lk;.

 

,ilbra; neh;j;jp kw;Wk; cukply;

            brofs; 75 br. kP mst[ tsh;e;jt[ld; Ezpiaf; fps;sptpl;L gf;ff;fpisfs; bgUFtjw;F tplntz;Lk;. elt[ bra;j 2 khj';fspy; fHpj;J xt;bthu FHpf;Fk; 100 fpuhk; a{hpah/ 100 fpuhk; Ng;gh; gh!;ngl; kw;Wk; 50 fpuhk; kpa{hpnal; M@g; bghl;lh#; vd;w mstpy; cu';fis ,l;L kz;qld; fye;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk; kPz;Lk; nkYukhf FHpf;F 100 fpuhk; a{hpahit ,l;L ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.

 

ePh;g;ghrdk;

            tpijg;gjw;F Kd; FHpfSf;F ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. tpij tpijf;f \d;whk; ehs; caph; jz;zp tplntz;Lk;. tpij Kisj;J tUk; tiu kz;zpd; <uk; fha;e;J tplhjthW ghh;j;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 10-15 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw ePh; gha;r;rpdhy; nghJkhdJ. kz;zpy; <uk; kpft[k; Fiwe;J fha;e;Jtpl;lhy; g{f;fs; cjph;e;JtpLk;. mnj rkak; kz;zpy; mjpf <uk; ,Ue;Jtpl;lhy; g{f;fs; cUthFtJ Fiwe;J mjpf ,iyfns te;J bfhz;oUf;Fk;. cUthd g{f;fSk; cjph;e;JtpLk; vdnt kz;zpy; rhpahd <ug;gjk; ,Uf;FkhW ghh;j;Jf;bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. elt[ bra;j Kjy; 3-4 khj';fs; tiu CL gapuhf jl;ilg;gapW/ cSe;J/ ghrpg;gapW/ btz;il/ fPiu nghd;wtw;iwg; gaphplyhk;.

 

gaph;g;ghJfhg;g[

            gp";Rfs; cUthfp tsh;r;rpaila[k; gUtj;jpy; fha; <f;fspd; g[Gf;fshy; jhf;fg;gl;L mjdhy; Vw;gLk; Jthuj;jpypUe;J gprpd; nghd;w jputk; toa[k;. ,jidf; fl;Lg;gLj;j Ethd; (ilFnshnuhth!;) my;yJ @bgd;jpahd; kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 1 kpyp. vd;w mstpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. kPz;Lk; gjpide;J ehl;fs; fHpj;J xUKiw bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. mokuj;jpy; fk;gspg;g{r;rpfs; njhd;Wk;nghJ fk;gsp g{r;rpfs; Kjy; gUtj;jpnyna (mit kpfr;rpwpa F";Rshf ,Uf;Fk; nghJ mtw;wpd; nky; gFjpapy; cnuhk';fs; tsu Muk;gpf;Fk; Kd;ng) ypz;nld; rj eida[k; J}is 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 2 fpuhk; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J mtw;wpd; nky; ed;F gLk;go bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. tsh;r;rp bgw;w fk;gspg;g{r;rpfis kUe;J bjspj;J mspg;gJ kpft[k; fodk;. vdnt beUg;g[g; ge;j';fisf; bfhz;L fk;gspg; g[Gf;fspd; nky; nja;j;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW bra;a[k; nghJ mokuj;jpw;F jP';F Vw;glhjthW ghh;j;Jf;bfhs;s ntz;Lk;.

 

mWtil kw;Wk; kfNy;

            gy;yhz;L tiffs; 8-9 khj';fspy; Kjy; mWtilf;F tUk;. gy;yhz;L tiffis tpij \yk; cw;gj;jp bra;tjhy; mWtilf;F tu kpft[k; fhyjhkjkhFk;. rpy rkak; 3 Mz;Lfs; tiu Tl Mfyhk;. vdnt me;j tiffis tpij \yk; cw;gj;jp bra;af;TlhJ. nghj;Jfspd; \yk; ,dg;bgUf;fk; bra;ag;gLk; nghJ Kjy; ,uz;L tUl';fSf;F kfNy; kuk; xd;wpw;F Rkhh; 80-90 fha;fs; tiu fpilf;Fk;. Mz;Lfs; bry;yr; bry;y ,J mjpfkhfp Ie;jhtJ tUlk; Rkhh; 500-600 fha;fs; tiu Tl fpilf;f tha;g;g[s;sJ. bghJthf khh;r; Kjy; $%d; khjk; tiu fha;fis mWtil bra;ayhk;. brk;lk;gh; - mf;nlhgh; khj';fspy; ,uz;lhk; nghf mwtil fpilf;Fk;.

 

            bro KU';if ,uf';fs; $%d;-$%iy khj';fspy; tpijf;fg;gl;lhy; tpijj;j MwhtJ khjj;jpy; Kjy; mWtilf;F tUk;.

 

            ed;F tsh;r;rpaile;j fha;fis ehh;fs; cUthFk; Kd;dh; mWtil bra;Jtplntz;Lk;. mWtilg; gUtk; Rkhh; 2-3 khj';fs; tiu ePof;Fk;. kuk; xd;wpw;F 250 Kjy; 400 fha;fs; tiu mWtil bra;ayhk;. mWtil Koe;jt[ld; mokuj;ij jiuapypUe;J 1 kPl;lh; mst[ tpl;L/ btl;otpl;L Kd;dh; Fwpg;gpl;l jiH/ kzp/ rhk;gy; rj;Jf;fis mspj;J ePh;; gha;r;rpl/ kPz;Lk; 4-5 khj';fspy; mLj;j mWtil bjhl';Fk;. gy;yhz;L tiffis el;l 15 tUl';fs; tiu tpl;L itf;fyhk;.  gpwF mtw;iw vLj;Jtpl;L g[jpa ku';fis elt[ bra;ayhk;. my;yJ jiuapypUe;J 0.3 kP - 0.4 kP mst[ tp;l;L btl;o tpl;L jiHf;fr; bra;ayhk;. kuk; xd;wpw;F xt;bthU tUlKk; 25 fpnyh kf;fpa bjhGcuKk; Fwpg;gplg;gl;l jiH/ kzp/ rhk;gy; rj;Jf;fSk; ,lntz;Lk;.

 

 

 

 

 

 

           

 

 

 


 

bghpa bt';fhak;

my;yJ

bgy;yhhp bt';fhak;

            ,J xU btg;gkz;lyg; gaph;. MapDk; btt;ntW jl;g btg;gepiyfspy; gaph; bra;ayhk;. mjpf btg;gk; kw;Wk; mjpf Fsph; ,y;yhj kpjkhd jl;gbtg;g epiyapy; mjpf kfNy; bgw Koa[k;.

 

            bt';fhaj;jhs; cUthfp tsUk; gUtj;jpy; 13-24o bry;rpa!; vd;w btg;gepiya[k;/ bt';fhak; gUf;Fk;nghJ 16-21o bry;rpa!; vd;w btg;gepiya[k; ,g;gaphpd; rhpahd tsh;r;rpf;Fk; mjpf kfNy; fpilf;ft[k; VjthFk;. kzy; fye;j my;yJ tz;ly; fye;j ,Ukz;ghl;L epyk; bt';fhag; gaphpd; tsh;r;rpf;F cfe;jJ. kz;zpd; mkpy-fhuj; jd;ik 5.8-6.5 vd;w mst[ kpft[k; cfe;jJ. bt';fhak; xU ePz;l gfw; bghGJ  gUtg;gaph;. mjhtJ gfw;bghGJ ePz;oUf;Fk;. gUtfhyj;jpy; bt';fha jz;Lf; fpH';Ffs; ntfkhf cUthfp gUj;J Kjph;r;rpaila[k;. gfy; - ,ut[ ePog;g[g; gUtepiyahy; ghjpf;fg;glhj ,uf';fSk; cs;sd.

 

,uf';fSk;

g{rh rptg;g[

            g[J bly;ypapYs;s ,e;jpa Muha;r;rp epWtdj;jpy; cs;Sh; ,ufj;jpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;l xh; ,ufk;. b;t';fhak; jl;ilahd cUz;il totpy; btt;t{jh epwj;jpy; fhzg;gLk;. xUbt';fhaj;jpd; ruhrhp vil 80-95 fpuhk;. Fiwe;j fhuj;jd;ik bfhz;l ,ufk;.

 

g{rh uj;dh

            ,Jt[k; g[Jbly;ypapYs;s ,e;jpa tptrha Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. bt';fhak; bghpa mstpy; cUz;il totpy; rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. btFehl;fs; nrkpj;J itf;f Vw;wJ.

 

Vh;yp fpnuhndh

            mbkhpf;fhtpypue;J jUtpf;fg;gl;l ,e;j ,ufj;jpd; bt';fhak; k";rs; epwk; bfhz;lJ. Fiwe;j fhuj;jd;ika[iljhy; gr;irahf mhpe;J rhg;gpl Vw;wJ. elt[ bra;a 95 ehl;fspy; bt';fhak; mWtilf;Fj; jahuhFk;. vf;lUf;F 47 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ ,e;j ,ufk;. vdpDk; btFehl;fs; nrkpj;J itf;f cfe;jjy;y.

 

vd;. gp. 53

            nuh!; fye;j rptg;g[ epw bt';fhaj;ijf; bfhz;l ,ufk;. vf;lUf;F 19-20ld; tiu kfNy; mspf;f ty;yJ. ,J ehrpf; rptg;g[ vd;W miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. $%d; - $%iy khj tpijg;g[f;F Vw;w ,ufk;.

 

mh;fh gpufjp

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. cUz;ilahd totj;ija[k; bky;ypa fGj;Jg; gFjpiaa[k; bfhz;lJ ,e;j ,ufk;. btspg;gFjp njhy; Cjh fye;j rptg;g[ epwk; bfhz;lJ. bt';fhaj;jpy; fhuj;jd;ik mjpfk; bfhz;lJ. $%d; - $%iy tpijg;g[f;Fk; mf;nlhgh;-etk;gh; tpijg;g[f;Fk; cfe;j ,ufk;. bt';fhaj;ij mjpf ehl;fs; bfl;Lg; nghfhky; nrkpj;J itf;f Koa[k;. Rkhh; 130 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 45 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

 

 

mh;fh epnfjd;

            ,e;j ,ufk; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpaj; njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. bt';fhak; cUz;ilahd tot[ld; ,nyrhd Cjh epwk; bfhz;ljha; ,Uf;Fk;. rhwpYs;s fhiua[k; jplr; rj;Jg; bghUl;fs; Rkhh; 13-14 rjk; MFk;. rhw;wp;y; fhuj;jd;ika[k; mjpfk;. $%d; - $%iy kw;Wk; mf;nlhgh; - etk;gh; gUt tpijg;g[f;f Vw;w ,ufk; Rkhh; 145 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 42 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

 

mh;fh gpe;J

            ,e;j ,ufKk; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J btspehl;ow;F Vw;Wkjp bra;a Vw;w ,ufk;. cs;~h; nuh!; epw bt';fha ,ufj;jpypUe;J (I. vr;. Mh; 402) bfhj;Jj; njh;t[ tHpKiw \yk; njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;lJ. ,e;j ,ufj;jpy; bt';fhak; rpwpa mstpYk; (2.5 br. kP. 3.5 br. kP vd;w mst[ FWf;F tpl;lk; bfhz;ljha[k;) ey;y rptg;g[ epwj;JlDk; jl;ilahf cUz;ilahdjhft[k; fhzg;gLk;. bt';fhar; rhw;wpy; mjpf fhuKk;/ fiua[k; jplg;bghUs; 14-16 rjk; vd;w mst[lDk; ,Uf;Fk;. Rkhh; 75-78 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 25 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

 

I.I.vr;.Mh; tPhpa xl;L bt';fhak;

            rp. vk;. v!;. 65 x bryf;d; 13-1-1 vd;w fU xl;L \yk; bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;j njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,e;j tPhpa xl;L ,ufj;jpd; bt';fhak; ey;y rptg;g[ epwj;jpy;/ cUz;ilahd totpy;/ eLj;juk; Kjy; mjpf mst[ vila[ld; fhzg;gLk;. bt';fhak; ey;y bfl;oj;jd;ik tha;e;jJ. Rkhh; 140 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 45-50 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

g";rhg; rptg;g[ cUz;il

            ,e;j ,ufj;jpd; bt';fhak; cUz;il totpy; 5-6 br. kP. FWf;F  tpl;lj;Jld; rptg;g[ epwj;jpy; fhzg;gLk;. ey;y bfl;oj;jd;ik tha;e;jt[ld; mjpf ehs; nrkpj;J itf;ft[k; cfe;jJ. fU Cjh thly; nehiaj; jh';Fk; jpwd; bgw;wJ. Y}jpahdhtpYs;s g";rhg; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf; fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. bt';fhar; rhw;wpy; 12.7 rjk; fiua[k; rj;Jg;bghus; cs;sJ. Rkhh; 140-150 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 40-45 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

mh;fh fy;ahz;

            ,J bg';f~hpYs;s ,e;jpa njhl;lf;fiy Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j ,ufj;jpy; bt';fhak; fU Cjh epwj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;. cl;g[w rUF ,iy rijg;gw;W kpFe;J bfl;oahff; fhzg;gLk;. $%d; - $%iy khj tpijg;g[f;F kl;Lk; Vw;w ,ufk;. kw;w gUt';fspy; gaph; bra;a Vw;wjy;y. Cjh fUfy;  neha;f;F xust[ vjph;g;g[j; jpwd; bfhz;lJ. Rkhh; 140 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 47 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

mf;hp@bgsz;l;btsph; rptg;g[

            etk;gh;-ork;gh; khj tpijg;g[f;F Vw;w ,ufk;. ,J V.Vo. v@g; ,ize;j ntshz; mgptpUj;jpf; fHfk;) vd;w epWtdj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j ,ufj;jpy; bt';fhak; btsph; rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; FWf;F tpl;lk; Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk;. bt';fhar; rhw;wpy; 11.9 rjk; bkhj;jf;fiua[k; jplr;rj;Jg; bghUs; cs;sJ. Rkhh; 130 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 15-20 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

 

mf;hp@bgsz;l; fU";rptg;g[

            etk;gh; khj tpijg;g[f;F Vw;w kw;bwhU ,ufk;. ,e;j ,ufj;jpd; bt';fhak; fU";rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. bt';fhar; rhwpy; cs;s bkhj;j fiua[k; jplr;rj;Jg;bghUs; 12 rjk; MFk;. Rkhh; 130-140 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 25-30 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

 

g{rh khj;tp (g{rh njh;t[ vz;.102-1)

            ,J g[J bly;ypapYs;s ,e;jpa tptrha Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;. taJ 140 ehl;fs;/ vf;lUf;F kfNy; 25-30 ld;. bt';fhak; rhwpy; cs;s fiua[k; jplrrj;Jg;bghUs; 12.5 rjk;.

 

tpij kw;Wk; tpijg;g[

            xh; vf;lh; elt[r; bra;aj; njitahd ehw;Wfisj; jahh; bra;a 8 fpnyh tpijia 12 brd;l; nkl;L ehw;w';fhypy; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. tpijg;gjw;F Kd;dh;/ ehw;w';fhy; epyj;ij ed;F bfhj;jp/ 1 rJu kPl;lUf;F 1 fpnyh vd;w mstpy; tp.V. vk; vd;w ed;ik bra;a[k; g{rzf; fyitiaf; fye;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ tpijfis mnrh!;ighpy;yk; vd;w ghf;Ohpahitf; bfhz;L (1 fpnyh tpijf;F 100 fpuhk; mnrh!;ighpy;yk; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J tpij neh;j;jp bra;a ntz;Lk;. gpwF ghj;jpfspd; FWf;nf 1-2 br. kP. ,ilbtspapy; nfhLfs; fpHpj;J. mtw;wpy; tpijfis fyf;fkhfj; J}tp tpijj;J nky; kz; bfhz;L \otplntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ ,g;ghj;jpfspd; nky; itf;nfhy; my;yJ fha;e;j g[y; bfhz;L bky;ypa nghh;it nghd;W \o g{thspapd; cjtpf;bfhz;L ePh; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. tpijj;j 7-8 ehl;fspy; tpijfs; Kisf;fj; bjhl';Fk;. gpd;g[ itf;nfhy; my;yJ g[y; nghh;itia ePf;fp/ brofSf;F neuoahf g{thspapd; \yk; ePh; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. ehw;Wfs; Rkhh; 45-50 ehl;fspy; elt[ bra;aj; jahh; epiyia mila[k;.

 

 

 

elt[ tay; jahhpg;g[/ moa[uk; kw;Wk; elt[

            epyj;ij 4-5 jlit ed;F cGJ filrpa[Gtpd; nghJ xh; vf;lUf;F 25 ld; bjhGcuk;/ 50 fpnyh Jj;jehf ry;ngl; my;yJ ,Uk;g[ ry;ngl; Mfpatw;iw ,l;Lf; fye;J tplntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ njitahd mstpy; ghj;jpfs; mikj;jpl  ntz;Lk;. elt[ bra;a[k; Kd;dh; xh; vf;lUf;F 30 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J (66 fpnyh a{hpah)/ 60 fpnyh kzpr;rj;J (375 fpnyh Ng;gh;gh!;ngl;) 30 fpnyh rhk;gy;rj;J (50 fpnyh kpa{hpnal; M@g; bghl;lh#;) Mfpa mstpy; cu';fis ,l;Lf; fye;J tpl ntz;Lk;. elt[ bra;tjw;F 8 kzp neuk; Kd;dh; ,nyrhd ePh;g;ghrdk; bra;J ehw;Wfis eLtjd; \yk; mjpf btg;gepiyapd; jhf;FjypypUe;J ,sk; ehw;Wfisg; ghJfhf;fyhk;. nkYk; ,jd; \yk; mjpf kfNiya[k; ey;y jukhd bt';fha';fisa[k; bgw Koa[k;. nkYk; fpzw;wpd; nkhl;lhUf;F kpd;rhuk; fpilf;Fk; neu khw;w';fspdhy; elt[ bra;j ehw;W thotplhky; ghh;j;Jf; bfhs;s Koa[k;. ehw;Wfis 30 x 10 br. kP. ,ilbtspapy; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

,ilbra; neh;j;jp

            bt';fhak; gUf;Fk; gUtj;jpy; mjpf mHkhf bfhj;jptpl TlhJ. nknyhL fisfis kl;Lk; bfhj;jp ePf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

ePh;g;ghrdk;

            elt[ bra;a[k; Kd;dUk; ehSk;/ gpd;g[ thuk; xUKiwa[k; ePh;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. bt';fhak; gUkdila[k; gUtj;jpy; kz;zpd; <uk; Fiwe;Jtplhky; ghh;j;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. ,e;j gUtj;jpy; twl;rp Vw;god;/ bt';fhak; gpog;gJ ghjpf;fg;gLk;. eltpypUe;J mWtil tiu ruhrhpahf 18-20 jlit ePh;g;ghrdk; bra;a ntz;oapUf;Fk;.

 

gaph; ghJfhg;g[

            bt';fha ,iyfisj; jhf;fp rhW cwp";Rk; ,iyg;ngd; Edp fUfr; bra;fpwJ. ilbkj;njhnal; (nuhfhh;) my;yJ kpijy;blkhd; (bkl;lhrp!;lhf;!;) nghd;w CLUtpg; gha[k; kUe;ij 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 1 kpyp. vd;w mstpy; fye;J bjspg;gjd; \yk; ,iyg; ngidf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;. bt';fha mof;fhpg; g{l;il nehapdhy; jhf;fg;gLk; nghhJ ehw;Wfspd; mog;gFjpapy; ePz;l fUg;ghd g{rz bghoj; J}ty; gutj; bjhl';Fk;. taypy; ,e;j g{rz nehapd; jhf;fk; bjhpe;jJk; bgtp!;od; vd;w kUe;J 1 fpuhk; mst[ 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

mWtil kw;Wk; kfNy;

            mWtilf;F 15 ehl;fSf;F Kd;dh; khypf;iQl;ui!L vd;w gaph; Cf;fpia 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 500 kp. fpuhk; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J ,iyapd; nky; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. ,e;j gaph; Cf;fp bt';fhaj;jpd; eLf;FUj;Jg;gFjpia mile;J mWtilahdgpd; nrkpj;J itf;Fk;nghJ Kisf;fhjthW jLf;fpwJ. ,e;j Kiwapy; neh;j;jp bra;j bt';fha';fis mWtil bra;j 6-7 khj';fs; tiu Kisj;J tplhjthW nrkpj;J itf;f Koa[k;. nrkpg;g[f;fpl';fpy; bkJ mGfy; neha; jhf;fhky; ,Uf;f (bt';fhaj;jpd; fGj;Jg;gFjpapy; Muk;gpj;J fPH;nehf;fp gutj; bjhl';Fk;) bt';fhaj;ij ed;whf fhaitj;J nrkpf;f ntz;Lk;. mWtilf;F xU thuj;jpw;F Kd;g[ ePh;g;ghrdj;ij epWj;jptpl ntz;Lk;. gaphpd; 75 rj ,iyfs; thoat[ld; bt';fhaj;ij njhz;o vLf;fyhk;. njhz;Lk; nghJ bt';fhaj;jpw;F mjpf nrjk; Vw;glhjthW ghh;j;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. vf;lUf;F 15-20 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilf;Fk;. taJ Rkhh; 120-130 ehl;fs;.

 

rpwpa bt';fhak;

            bghpa bt';fhak; nghyd;wp rpwpa bt';fhak; tpijfshy; ,dtpUj;jp bra;ag;gLtjpy;iy. rpwpa bt';fhaj;jpd; Kw;wpa gf;ff; Fl;o bt';fhag; gw;fisf; bfhz;L ,dg;bgUf;fk; bra;ag;gLfpwJ. mjhtJ tpijapy;yh ,dg;bgUf;fk; Kiwapy; ,dtpUj;jp bra;ag;gLfpwJ.

 

jl;gbtg;g epiy kw;Wk; kz;tsj; njit

            btg;gkhd gUtepiyapy; nghJkhd mst[ kz;zpd; <ug;gjj;jpy; ,g;gaph; ed;F brHpj;J tsUk;. tpij bt';fhak; Kisj;J tUk;nghJk; kw;Wk; g[jpa bt';fhak; cUthFk; gUtj;jpYk; mjpf kiH ,Ug;gpd; mJ gaphpd; tsh;r;rpiaa[k; kfNiya[k; ghjpf;Fk; kz;zpd; mkpyfhuj;jd;ik 6-7 vd;w mstpy; ,J ed;F tsUk;. ey;y tofhy; trjpa[ld; Toa ,Ukz;ghl;L epyk; bt';fhak; rhFgo bra;a kpft[k; cfe;jJ. fspkz; epyj;jpy; bt';fhak; gpog;gJ kpft[k; fodk;.

 

            Vg;uy; - nk khj';fns rpwpa bt';fhak; rhFgo bra;a kpfr; rpwe;j gUtk;.

 

,uf';fs;

nfh.1

            ,J rp. v!;.450 vd;w kz;zr;rey;Y}h; cs;~h; ,ufj;jpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;lJ. jkpH;ehl;oy; bt';fhak; rhFgo bra;a[k; vy;yhg; gFjpfSf;Fk; Vw;wJ. vf;lUf;F 9-10 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ. ,jd; taJ Rkhh; 85 ehl;fs;. bt';fhak; bghpa mstpYk; Cjh fye;j rptg;g[ epwj;jpYk; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

nfh.2

            ,J rp.v!;.911 vd;w gaph; kugpay; nrkpg;g[ thpirapypUe;J njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;lJ. Rkhh; 65-70 ehl;fspy; vf;lUf;F 12 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ. bt';fhak; bghpa mstpYk; nuh!; fye;j bre;epwj;jpYk; fhzg;gLk;.

 

nfh.3

            ,J rp.v!;.450 vd;w ,ufj;jd; may; kfue;jr; nrh;f;if \yk; bgwg;gl;l tpijapypUe;J cUthd ehw;wpy; njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;l ,ufk;. kfNy; 15-16 ld;/vf;lh; taJ 65-70 ehl;fs;.

nfh. 4

            ,J V.rp. 863 nfh. 3 vd;w fU xl;oypUe;J bgwg;gl;l ehw;WfspypUe;J njhe;bjLj;J. mjd; gpd;dh; tpijapy;yh ,dg;bgUf;f Kiwapy; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLk; tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;. ,jd; taJ 65 ehl;fs; vf;lUf;F 19 ld; tiu kfNy; juty;yJ. xt;bthU bfhj;Jk; 90 fpuhk; vila[s;sJ. mWtil bra;J 150 ehl;fs; tiu bt';fhak; Kisf;fhky; nrkpf;fToaJ.

 

Kd;bra;neh;j;jp kw;Wk; moa[ukply;

            epyj;ij ,uz;L Kjy; \d;W Kiw cHt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. filrp cHtpd; nghJ vf;lUf;F 25 ld; bjhGcukpl;Lf; fye;J tpl ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 45 br.kP. ,ilbtspapy; ghh;fs; mikj;jplntz;Lk;.

 

            moa[ukhf vf;lUf;F

            30 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J                        (66 fpnyh a{hpah)

            60 fpnyh kzpr;rj;J                        (375 fpnyh Ng;gh; gh!;ngl;)

            30 fpnyh rhk;gy;rj;J                       (50 fpnyh kpa{hpnal; M@g; bghl;lh#;)

            Mfpatw;iwf; fye;J ghh;fspd; rhptpd; fPH; ,Ug[wKk; gl;ilahfj; J}tp kz;qld; fye;Jtpl ntz;Lk;.

 

tpijg;g[ kw;wk; ePh;g;ghrdk;

            xh; vf;lh; elt[ bra;a 1500 fpnyh tpij bt';fhak; njit. ed;F fha;e;j eLj;ju mst[s;s tpij bt';fhaj;ij ghh;fspd; ,Ug[wKk; rhptpy; 10 br. kP ,ilbtspapy; elt[ bra;jpl ntz;Lk;. tpijg;gjw;F 8 kzp neuk; Kd;g[ ,nyrhd ePh;g;ghrdk; xd;W bra;J itg;gJ kpft[k; gad;juf;ToaJ. ,jd; \yk; tpijg;g[ bra;j tpij bt';fhak; fhw;wpd; mjpf btg;gj;jpdhy; fha;e;Jtplhky; jLf;f Koa[k;. tpijj;j \d;whk; ehs;/ gpd;g[ thuk; xUKiw vd ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.

 

gaph;ghJfhg;g[

            ,iyg;ngidf; fl;Lg;gLj;j 1 kpyp/ bkl;lhrp!;lhf;!; kUe;ija[k;/ ,iyf;fUfy; nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j ilj;njd; vk;.45 (,d;nlh@gpy; vk;.45) vd;w kUe;ij 2 fpuhk; vd;w mstpYk; 1 ypl;lh; ePhpy; fiuj;j mof;f ntz;Lk;.

 

mWtil

            mWtilf;F 15 ehl;fSf;F Kd;dh; khypapf;iQl;ui!L vd;w gaph; Kisg;g[f; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; gaph; tpisapay; ,urhadg; bghUis 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;f 500 kp. fpuhk; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J ,iytHp \yk; ifj;bjspg;ghdhy; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. ,jd; \yk; bt';fhaj;jpd; nrkpg;g[f; fhyj;ij mjpfg;gLj;jyhkk;. bt';fhaj;jhs; Rkhh; 60-75 rjk; fhaj; bjhl';fpat[ld; mWtil bra;ayhk;. bghJthf mWtilf;F 10 ehl;fs; Kd;g[ ePh; gha;r;Rtij epWj;jptpl ntz;Lk;. jhs;fSld; nrh;j;J bt';fhaj;ijg; gpL';fpa gpd;dh; nky; jhs;fis ePf;fp bt';fhaj;ijg; fhaitf;f ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ ey;y fhw;nwhl;lKs;s miwfspy; nrkpj;J itf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

fwpntg;gpiy

            fwpntg;gpiy ekJ md;whl cztpy; mjd; Ritiaa[k; kzj;ija[k; Tl;Ltjw;F gad;gLk; Kf;fpa nrh;bghUshFk;. bjd;dpe;jpa czt[ tiffshd rhk;ghh;/ ,urk; kw;Wk; ,ju fha;fwpfisf; bfhz;L bra;ag;gLk; Tl;L nghd;wtw;wpy; fwpntg;gpiy vd;gJ jtph;f;f KoahjjhFk;. vdpDk; ,ij thridf;F cgnahfg; gLj;JtnjhL rhp. czt[ tiffisg; gwpkhwpat[ld; fwpntg;gpiyia vLj;J vwpe;J tpLfpnwhk;. ,J kpft[k; jtW. E}W fpuhk; fwpntg;gpiyapy; kpf ,d;wpaikahj rj;Jf;fshd 6.1 fpuhk; g[ujk;/ 10 fpuhk; bfhGg;g[/ 18.7 fpuhk; kht[r;rj;J/ 8.30 kp. fpuhk; Rz;zhk;g[/ 57 kp. fpuhk; gh!;gu!;/ 0.93 kp. fpuhk;/ ,Uk;g[r;rj;J 7.56 kp. fpuhk; fnuhl;Od; vd;Dk; itl;lkpd; 'V' rj;J/ 4 kp. fpuhk; itl;lkpd; 'rp' Mfpait ml';fpa[s;sd.  

 

            tPLfspd; njhl;lj;jpy; xU fwpntg;gpiy kuk; itj;jpUg;gjd; \yk; ekJ md;whl cztpw;fhd njitiag; g{h;j;jp bra;J bfhs;syhk;. jkpH;ehL/ Me;jpuh/ fh;ehlfh nghd;w khepy';fspy; ,J mjpf mst[ tpahghu Kiwapy; gaph; bra;ag;gLfpwJ. jkpH;ehl;oy; Fwpg;ghf nfhit/ nryk;/ jpUr;rp nghd;w khtl;l';fspy; ,J mjpf mstpy; gaphplg;gLfpwJ. nfhit khtl;lj;jpy; fhukil/ nkl;Lg;ghisak;/ jhaY}h; nfhtD}h; nghd;w gFjpfspy; Fwpg;ghf gaphplg;gLfpwJ.

 

jl;gbtg;g epiy kw;Wk; kz;tsj; njit

            fwpntg;gpiy gyjug;gl;l kz;tiffspYk; gaphplf; Toa bjd;whYk; ey;y tofhy; trjpa[s;s/ kzy; rhhpahd/ brk;kz; epyk; kpft[k; Vw;wJ. ,J xust[ twl;rpiaa[k; jh';fp tsuf;ToaJ. ,J xU btg;g kz;lyg; gapuhifahy; mjpfgl;r btg;gepiy 26o bry;rpa!; Kjy; 37o bry;rpa!; tiuapYk; Tl ed;F tsUk;. Mdhy; Fiwe;j gl;r btg;gepiy 16o bry;rpa!; vd;w mstpw;Fk; Fiwa[k; nghJ ,iybkhl;Lfs; btof;fhky;/ g[Jf;fpisfs; njhd;WtJ FiwfpwJ. ,J ,ufj;jpw;F ,ufk; khWgLfpwJ.

 

,uf';fs;

            jkpH;ehl;oy; gaphplg;gLk;. ,uf';fspy; br';fhk;g[ vd;w ,ufk; ey;y thrida[ilajhff; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,jd; ,iyf;fhk;g[ kw;Wk; eL euk;g[ Mfpait rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. kw;bwhU tifapy; fhk;g[ gr;ir epwj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;. ,jpy; thrid rpwpnj Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk;. fh;ehlfhtpd; jhh;thl; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf; fHfj;jpy; ,uz;L ,uf';fs; njh;e;bjLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. mit jhh;thl; 1 kw;Wk; jhh;thl; 2 vd;gitahFk;. jhh;thl; 1 ,ufj;jpy; ,iyfs; fUk;gr;ir epwj;JlDk; mjpf thrida[lDk; fhzg;gLk;. ,iyfspy; 5.22 rjk; thfid vz;iz cs;sJ. fhaitj;J ,iyg;bgho bra;a jhh;thl; 1 vd;w ,ufk; kpft[k; Vw;wJ.

 

ehw;Wfs; tsh;j;jy;/ epyk; jahhpg;g[ kw;Wk; elt[

            ey;y kfNy; jUk; ku';fspypUe;J $%iy-Mf!;l; khj';fspy; ed;F Kw;wpg; gGj;j gH';fis mWtil bra;J/ clnd mtw;wpypUe;J tpijfis gpJf;fp vLj;J tpijg;gjw;Fg; gad;gLj;j ntz;Lk;. ,uz;L \d;W ehl;fSf;F nky; tpijfis itj;jpUf;f TlhJ. fhyjhkjk; bra;jhy; Kisg;g[j;jpwd; kpft[k; ghjpf;fg;gLk;.

 

            ehw;Wfs; cUthf;f ehw;w';fhy; jahhpg;gjw;F/ ey;y tofhy; trjpa[ld; Toa ,l';fisj; njh;e;bjLf;f ntz;Lk;. jz;zPh; rpwpnj nj';fp ,Ue;jhYk; Kisf;Fk; kw;Wk; Kise;j ehw;Wfis fLikahf ghjpf;Fk;. xU brd;l;Lf;F 50 fpnyh vd;w mstpy; kf;fpa bjhGcukpl;L kz;qld; fye;J. gpd;g[ 1 kPl;lh; mfyKk;/ 30 br. kP. cauKk;/ njitahd mst[ ePsKk; bfhz;l nkl;Lg;ghj;jpfs; mikf;f ntz;Lk;. ,g;ghj;jpfspd; FWf;nf 10 br. kP ,ilbtspapy; nfhLfs; fpHpj;J/ tpijfis thpirap;y; 5 br. kP. ,ilbtspapy; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. tpijfis ghypjPd; igfspYk;/ tsh;j;Jg; gpd;dh; elt[k; bra;ayhk;. Rkhh; 10 Kjy; 12 khj taJila ehw;Wfs; elt[ bra;a Vw;wit.

 

            elt[ taiy 3-4 Kiw ed;F cHt[ bra;J filrp cHtpd;nghJ vf;lUf;F 20 ld; kf;fpa bjhG cukpl;Lf; fye;J tpl ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 30 br. kP x 30 br. kP mst[s;s FHpfis 1.2 kP. x 1.2 kPl;lh; vd;w ,ilbtspapy;/ eLtjw;F xU khjk; Kd;g[ njhz;o Mwg;nghl ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ kf;fpa bjhGcuk; nky; kz; Mfpatw;iwf; fye;J ,l;L FHpfis epug;g ntz;Lk;. mjd; gpd;dh; ey;y Mnuhf;fpakd fd;Wfisj; njh;e;bjLj;J ,f;FHpfspy; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. elt[ bra;j clDk;/ gpd;g[ thuk; xUKiwa[k; ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. ehd;fhk; Mz;L Kjy; 15 ehl;fSf;F xUKiw ePh;g;gha;r;rpdhny nghJk;.

 

cukply; kw;Wk; ,ilbra; neh;j;jp

            rhjhuzkhf fwpntg;gpiyf;F ,urhad cu';fs; ,lg;gLtjpy;iy. a{hpah nghd;w cu';fis ,Ltjhy; mWtilf;Fg; gpd;dh; mjpf ,iya[jph;t[ Vw;gLfpwJ. xt;bthU Kiw mWtil bra;aj gpd;dUk; bro xd;Wf;F 20 fpnyh kf;fpa bjhGcukpl;L kz;zpy; fye;J tplg;gLfpwJ. ,ilbtspfspy; mt;tg;nghJ njhd;Wk; fisfisf; fisf;bfhj;J bfhz;L ePf;f ntz;Lk;. brofs; 1 kPl;lh; cauk; tsh;e;jt[ld; Edp fps;sg;gl;L mjpf fpisfs; cUthfj; J}z;lg;gLfpwJ. brof;F 5-6 Kf;fpa fpisfs; ,Uf;FkhW bra;tjd; \yk; Fj;r;brofshf itj;Jf; bfhs;s Koa[k;. kpf caukhf tsUk; fpisfis mt;tg;nghJ ePf;fp tpLtjd; \yk; bghpa kukhf tsuhky; jLf;fyhk;. Fj;Jr;brofshf itj;Jf; bfhs;tjd; \yk; gaph; ghJfhg;g[ kw;Wk; mWtil Mfpatw;iw vspjpy; bra;ayhk;.

 

gaph; ghJfhg;g[

            fwpntg;gpiyiaj; jhf;fk; g{r;rpfspy; vYkpr;ir tz;zj;Jg;g{r;rpapd; g[G Kf;fpa ,lk; tfpf;fpwJ. ,jd; rpwpa g[Gf;fs; fUk;gGg;g[ epwj;jpy; bts;isg; g[s;spfSld; fhzg;gLk;. ,it ,iyfis btl;oj; jpd;fpd;wd. ed;F tsh;r;rpaile;j g[Gf;fs; fUk;gr;ir epwj;Jld; cUis totpy; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

            ,g;g[Gf;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j mit Fiwe;j mstpy; bjd;gLk; nghnj iffshy; bghWf;fp mHpj;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. rhW cwp";Rk; rpy;ypl; g{r;rpfs; Edpf;FUj;J ,iyfisf; Tl;lkhf ,Ue;J Jhf;fp njrg;gLj;Jfpd;wd. ,tw;wpd; clypypUe;J btspg;gLk; njd; nghd;w jputj;jpdhy; vWk;g[fSk; NH;e;jpUf;Fk; kw;Wk; fUk;g{rzk; tsut[k; VJthFk;. jhf;fg;gl;l FUj;Jf; fpisfis ,iya[ld; fps;sp vhpj;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ khyj;jpahd;/ Rkj;jpahd nghd;w Fiwe;j mst[ kdpj er;Rf; bfhz;l kUe;jpy; xd;iw 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 2 kp. yp. tPjk; fye;J ifj;bjspg;ghd; \yk; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. kpf mjpf mst[ jhf;Fjypd; nghJ ilbkj;njhnal;/ Etf;uhd; nghd;w kUe;Jfis cgnahfpf;fyhk;. Mdhy;/ ,e;j kUe;Jfis moj;J 10 ehl;fs; tiu mWtil bra;af;TlhJ. ,iyg;g[s;sp nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j fhh;bgd;lrpk; kUe;ij 1 fpuhk; 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPh; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. ,e;j gapUf;F fe;jf bghUl;fs; epiwe;j g{rzf;bfhy;ypfis bjspf;fTlhJ. Vbddpy;/ fe;jf g{rzf;bfhy;ypfis bjspe;jt[ld; ,iyfs; cjph;tilfpd;wd.

 

mWtil kw;Wk; kfNy;

            elt[ bra;J xU tUl Kotpy; xh; vf;lhpy; 250-400 fpnyh ,iy kfNy; fpilf;Fk;.

            2 MtJ tUlk; kw;Wk;

3 MtJ tUlk;            -     xt;bthU ehd;F khjj;jpw;Fk; xU Kiw vf;lUf;F 1800 fpnyh ,iy kfNy;

4Mk; tUlk;                -     \d;W khjj;jpw;F xUKiw vf;lUf;F 2500 fpnyh

5 Mk; tUlk; Kjy;      -     \d;W khjj;jpw;F xU Kiw vf;lUf;F 5000 fpnyh.

 

bfhj;ky;ypf; fPiu

            fwpntg;gpiyia mLj;J ekJ md;whl rikaypy; ,lk; bgWk; Kf;fpa thridf; fPiu bfhj;Jky;ypf;fPiu/ urk; nghd;w Kf;fpa czt[ tiffspy; kzj;ija[k; Ritiaa[k; Tl;Ltjw;F ,g;gaphpd; ,sk; ,iy kw;Wk; jz;L Mfpait mhpe;J nghlg;gLfpd;wd. gr;ir kpsfha[ld; nrh;j;J rl;dp nghd;Wk;/ g[spa[lDk; nrh;j;J bfhj;J ky;ypg; bghoahft[k; jahhpf;fg;gl;L gf;f czthfg; gad;gLj;jg; gLfpwJ. bt';fhak;/ jf;fhspa[ld; nrh;j;J gr;ro nghd;w gf;f czt[ jahhpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,tw;iwj; jtpu gr;irf; fha;fwpf; Tl;oy; (rhyl;) bt';fhak;/ jf;fhsp/ gr;irkpsfha; (bts;shp/ Ks;s';fp Mfpatw;Wld; nrh;f;fg;gLk; Kf;fpa gr;irf; fPiu bfhj;Jky;ypahFk;. E}W fpuhk; bfhj;J ky;ypf;fPiuapy; 6.918 kp fpuhk; fnuhl;od; itl;lkpd; V)/ 3.3 fpuhk; g[ujr;rj;J/ 0.6 fpuhk; bfhGg;g[r;rj;J/ 6.3 fpuhk; kht[r;rj;J/ 184 kp. fpuhk; Rz;zhk;g[r;rj;J/ 71 kp. fpuhk; gh!;gu!;/ 142 kp. fpuhk; ,Uk;g[r;rj;J/ 0.05 kp.fpuhk; itl;lkpd; 'gp1' (jahkpd;)/ 0.06 kp fpuhk; itl;lkpd; 'gp2' (hpngh@gpnstpd;)/ 0.8 kp.fpuhk; itl;lkpd; 'gp3' (epahrpd;) kw;Wk; 1.35 kp.fpuhk; itl;lkpd; 'rp' Mfpa rj;Jf;fs; ml';fpa[s;sd.

 

kz; tsk; kw;Wk; jl;gbtg;gepiy

            ey;y tofhy;  trjpa[s;s ,Ukz;ghl;L epyk; bfhj;Jky;yp gaphpl kpft[k; cfe;jJ. ePh;nj';fp epw;gJ ,g;gaph; Kisg;gjw;Fk; tsh;r;rpf;Fk; CW tpistpf;Fk;. kz;zpd; mkpy-fhu epiy 6-8 tiuapy; ,Uf;Fk; nghJ ,g;gaph; ed;F tsUk;. xust[ fsh; cth; epyj;jpYk; ,J jh';fp tsuf;ToaJ. fhw;wpd; btg;gepiy 20-28o bry;rpa!; vd;w mstpy; ,Uf;Fk; nghJ gaphpd; tsh;r;rp ed;F mika[k;. kpft[k; mjpf btg;gk; (35-40o bry;rpa!;) ,jd; tsh;r;rpia ghjpf;Fk;. mjpf kiHg;bghHpit ,J jh';Ftjpy;iy.

 

gl;lk;

            $%d; - $%iy kw;Wk; etk;gh; - ork;gh;

            Fsph;fhy tpijg;ghd; etk;gh; - ork;gh ; tpijg;g[ mjpf kfNy; juty;yJ.

 

Kd;bra; neh;j;jp/ moa[ukply; kw;Wk; tpijg;g[ epyj;ij 3-4 Kiw ekf;f cGJ/ kz;iz kpUJthd gjj;jpw;F bfhz;Ltu ntz;Lk;. filrp cHtpd; nghJ vf;lUf;F 10-15 ld; kf;fpa bjhG cukpl;L kz;qld; fyf;fntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ njitahd mstpy; rkg;ghj;jpfs; mikj;jpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            bfhj;Jky;yp tpij \yk; ,dg;bgUf;fk; bra;ag;gLfpwJ. Kw;wpa fha;fns tp;ijahf cgnahfg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. KGf;fha;fis (tpijahfg; gad;gLj;j) brhubrhug;ghd jiuapy; gug;gp/ brUg;g[ nghd;w fodkhd bghUspdhy; nja;j;J ,uz;ouz;lhf cilf;f ntz;Lk;. cilf;fhky; KG tpijfis tpijj;jhy; tpij Kisf;fh.

 

            tpijg;gjw;F Kd;g[ moa[ukhf vf;lUf;F

10 fpnyh jiHr;rj;J             (22 fpnyh a{hpah)

40 fpnyh kzpr;rj;J            (250 fpnyh Ng;gh; gh!;nll;)

 

            Mfpa cu';fis ,l;L kz;qld;/ fye;J tpl ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ tpijfis thpirahfnth/ J}tpnah tpijf;fyhk;. thpirahf tpijj;jhy; thpirf;F thpir 20 br. kP. ,ilbtspa[k;/ thpirapy; brof;Fr; bro 15 br. kP. ,ilbtspa[k; ,Uf;fntz;Lk;. xh; vf;lh; tpijf;f Rkhh; 10-12 fpnyh tpij njitg;gLk;. tpijj;j 8-12 ehl;fspy; tpijfs; Kisj;J tUk;.

 

,uf';fs;

nfh. 1

            ,J nfhit jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; njhl;lf;fiyj; Jiwapy; tsh;g;g[fs; gytw;wpdpd;Wk; njh;t[ Kiwapy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. tpijj;j 30-35 ehl;fspy; ,iy mWtil bra;ayhk;. mjd;gpd; brofis tpij mWtilf;F tplyhk;.

 

nfh. 2

            F$uhj; khepyj;jpypUe;J jUtpf;fg;gl;l gp 2 vd;w tsh;g;gp ypUe;J kWnjh;t[ \yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j ,ufk; tpijj;j 40 ehl;fspy; vf;luf;F 10 ld; tiu jiH kfNy; fpilf;Fk;. mjd; gpd;dh; tpijfs; cUthFtjw;F tpl;Ltplntz;Lk;. Rkhh; 90-100 ehl;fspy; tpijfis mWtil bra;J tplyhk;. ,e;j ,ufk; jkpH;ehl;od; twl;rp kpFe;j gFjpfspy; rhFgo bra;tjw;F cfe;jJ.

 

 

nfh 3

            ,e;jpa ntshz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpd; tsh;g;g[ vz;.695 ypUe;J kW njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;L nfhit jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l ,ufk;/ thly; neha;f;Fk;/ jhdpaf; fUk;g{rz neha;f;Fk; vjph;g;g[j; jpwd; bfhz;lJ. twl;rpiaa[k; jh';fp tsuf;ToaJ. $%d; - $%iy kw;Wk; mf;nlhgh - etk;gh; tpijg;g[f;F Vw;wJ.

 

ePh;g;ghrdk;

            tpijj;jt[ld; Kjy; jz;zPh; fl;l ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 3-k; ehs; caph;j; jz;zPh; tpl ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 7-10 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.

 

,ilbra; neh;j;jp

            thpir tpijg;gpd; \yk; ,ilbtspapy; Kisf;Fk; fisf; brofis vspjpy; vLj;Jtplyhk;.

 

mWtil

            tpijj;j 20k; ehspy; brofssf; fiyj;JtpLtjd; \yk; ,sk; fPiufis mWtil bra;ayhk;. gpd;g[ 30k; ehspYk; kw;Wk; 40k; ehspy; kPz;Lk; xU Kiwa[k; mWtil bra;ayhk;. kw;w brofis tpijf;F tpl;L tplyhk;.

 

gaph; ghJfhg;g[

            rhjhuzkhf fPiuahf mWtil bra;a[k; gapUf;F kUe;J bjspg;gJ ey;yjy;y. vdpDk; rhk;gy; neha; jhf;Fk; nghJ eida[k; fe;jfk; 0.2 rjk; (vf;lUf;F 2 fpnyh 500 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J) my;yJ fhh;bgd;l!pk; 0.1 rjk; (500 fpuhk; kUe;ij 500 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J) bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

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