Home page

thiH

Download or open PDF file

Unable to read this page? Install Tamil Chitra font

  1. thiH - Xh; mwpKfk;
  2. kz; kw;Wk; jl;gbtg;g epiy
  3. thiH rhFgo Kiwfs;
  4. ,uf';fs;
  5. fd;W njh;t[k; elt[k;
  6. Cl;lr;rj;J FiwghLfSk; epth;j;jp KiwfSk;
  7. tpidapay; FiwghLfSk; epth;j;jp KiwfSk;
  8. thiHiaj; jhf;Fk; g{r;rpfs;
  9. thiHiaj; jhf;Fk; neha;fs;
  10. mWtil kw;Wk; kfNy;

  

tPonah glk;

i.

thiHr; rhFgo

ii.

thiHapy; mlh; elt[ Kiw kw;Wk; ePh;tHp cukply;

iii.

nee;jpud; thiHapy; jz;Lj; Jisg;ghidf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jjy;

 

 

            Kf;fdpfSs; thiH/ kh/ gyhtpw;F mLj;J \d;whk; ,lj;ij tfpf;Fk; gHg; gapuhFk;. thiH btg;g kz;lyg; gH tiffspy; kpf Kf;fpakhdJ. thiH Mrpahf; fz;lj;ijj; jhafkhff; bfhz;lJ. ,J bjd;dpe;jpahtpy; Kf;fpa czt[g; gapuhft[k;/ md;whl r\f thH;f;ifapy; g{i$ kw;Wk; gz;oiff; fhy';fspy; Kf;fpag; bghUshft[k; gad;gLj;jg;gl;L tUfpwJ. ,g;gHk; midj;J kf;fshYk; tpUk;gp cz;zg;gLfpwJ. "brhh;f;fj;jpd; Mg;gps;" / "Mjhkpd; mj;jp" vdt[k; ,g;gHk; miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. thiHia czt[g; gapuhf nehf;Fk;bghGJ bey;/ nfhJik Mfpatw;wpw;F mLj;jgoahf cyfstpy; \d;whtJ ,lj;ij tfpf;fpwJ.

 

            ,e;jpahtpy; gaphplg;gLk; gHg;gaph;fspd; gug;gpy; thiH/ kh';fdpf;F mLj;jgoahf ,uz;lhtJ ,lj;ija[k;/ cw;gj;jpapy; Kjyplj;ija[k; tfpf;fpwJ. thiH cw;gj;jpapy; gpnurpy;/ jha;yhe;J/ gpypg;igd;!;/ gdhkh/ cfz;lh/ bfd;ah/ lhd;rhdpah/ kw;Wk; ,e;jpah Mfpa ehLfs; Kd;dpiy tfpf;fpd;wd. ,tw;wpy; gpnurpy; cw;gj;jpapYk;/ gug;gpYk; Kd;dpiy tfpf;fpd;wd. ,tw;wpy; gpnurpy; cw;gj;jpapYk;/ gug;gpYk; Kd;dpiy tfpf;fpd;wJ. ,e;jpahtpy; kfhuh#;ouk;/ jkpHfk;/ nfusk; kw;Wk; m!;!hk; Mfpa khepy';fspy; mjpf mstpy; rhFgo bra;ag;gLfpwJ.

 

            jkpH;ehl;il bghWj;jtiuapy; thiHr; rhFgoapy; jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp khtl;lk; Kjyplj;ija[k; (14/700 vf;lh;) J}j;Jf;Fo khtl;lk; ,uz;lhk; ,lj;ija[k; (9/ 989 vf;lh;) jpUbey;ntyp khtl;lk; \d;whk; ,lj;ija[k; (7/727 vf;lh;) tfpf;fpd;wd. nkYk;/ nryk;/ kJiu/ ntY}h;/ flY}h;/ <nuhL/ j";rht{h;/ fd;ahFkhp Mfpa khtl;l';fspYk; thiH mjpf mstpy; gaph; bra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. khtl;l thhpahf thiH rhFgo bra;ag;gLk; gug;gst[/ cw;gj;jp kw;Wk; gaphpLk; ,uf';fs; Mfpait ml;ltiz 1-y; bfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 


 

ml;ltiz 1

gug;gst[/ cw;gj;jp kw;Wk; gaphplg;gLk; ,uf';fs;

t. vz;.

khtl;lk;

gug;gst[ (vf;lh;)

cw;gj;jp (Mapuk; ld;fs;)

Kf;fpa ,uf';fs;

1.

fh";rpg[uk;/ jpUts;~h;

1725

49.1

bkhe;jd;/ fw;g{uts;sp

2.

flY}h;

4020

97.7

g{td;/ buhg!;lh

3.

tpGg;g[uk;

1199

53.1

g{td;/ buhg!;lh

4.

ntY}h;

6328

236.5

u!;jhsp/ buhg!;lh

5.

jpUtz;zhkiy

2240

99.3

u!;jhsp/ buhg!;lh/ g{td;

6.

nryk;/ ehkf;fy;

2143

78.9

buhg!;lh/ brt;thiH/ fw;g{uts;sp/ bkhe;jd;/ nkhhp!;

7.

jh;kg[hp

787

24.2

Fs;sthiH/ yfhld;/ buhg!;lh

8.

nfhit

4036

157.8

buhg!;lh/ nee;jpud;

9.

<nuhL

4291

190.3

bkhe;jd;/ u!;jhsp/ g{td;/ Fs;sthiH/ buhg!;lh/ nee;jpud;

10.

jpUr;rp/ f+h;/ bguk;gY}h;

14700

796.2

u!;jhsp/ fw;g{uts;sp/ ehld;/ nee;jpud;/ g{td;

11.

g[Jf;nfhl;il

3451

173.9

g{td;/ u!;jhsp

12.

j";rht{h;

3922

153.0

g{td;/ u!;jhsp

13.

ehfg;gl;odk; & jpUth+h;

988

43.8

g{td;/ u!;jhsp

14.

kJiu & njdp

6763

455.1

g{td;/ tay; thiH/ u!;jhsp/ buhg!;lh/ Fs;s thiH

15.

jpz;Lf;fy;

3204

47.3

g{td;/ buhg!;lh/ brt;thiH/ rpWkiy/ tpUg;ghl;rp

16.

,uhkehjg[uk;

165

7.3

g{td;/ tay;thiH

17.

tpUJefh;

841

37.3

g{td;/ bjhGtd;

18.

rptbf';if

488

21.6

g{td;

19.

jpUbey;ntyp

7727

308.9

buhg!;lh/ tay;thiH

20.

J}j;Jf;Fo

9989

514.1

nkhhp!;

21.

ePyfphp

252

5.9

g{td;/ brt;thiH

22.

fd;dpahFkhp

3987

113.6

g{td;/ brt;thiH/ nee;jpud;/ buhg!;lh/ kl;o/ g{td;/ u!;jhsp

 

bkhj;jk;

83255

3692.3

 

 

 

thiHapd; gad;fs;

            FHe;ijfs; Kjy; bghpath;fs; tiu thiH rpwe;j czthf gad;gLfpwJ. fha;/ jz;L kw;Wk; thiHg; g{ Mfpait czthfg; gad;gLfpd;wd. ,J kl;Lkpd;wp thiHj;jz;Lfs; fhy; eilj; jPtdkhft[k; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. nkyk; ,it kUj;Jtf; Fz';fs; cilajhft[k; tps';Ffpd;wd. thiHg;gHk; kyf;flypd; gzpia rPh;gLj;jp kyr;rpf;fiy nghf;Fk; mUkUe;jhFk;. thiH \isiag; gyg;gLj;jp epidthw;wiyj; jUtJld; clypy; Rj;j ,uj;jj;ijr; Ruf;fr; bra;fpwJ. \yneha;/ njhy; neha;fs; kw;Wk; Fly;g[z; Mfpa neha;fisa[k; Fzkhf;Fk; jd;ika[ilaJ. jz;Lfs; kw;Wk; g{f;fs; rpWePuf nfhshWfisr; rhpbra;at[k;/ tp#f;fo itj;jpaj;jpyk; gad;gLfpd;wd. ,e;jpahtpy; czt[g; gw;whf;Fiwiag; nghf;ft[k; ,J gad;gLfpwJ.

 

            fdpe;j thiHg; gHj;jpy; itl;lkpd; - V mjpf mstpy; cs;sJ. nkYk; itl;lkpd; - gp/ gp-2/ kw;Wk; itl;lkpd; rp-a[k; cs;sd. thiHapy; cs;s rj;Jg;bghUl;fs; ml;ltiz ,uz;oy; bfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

ml;ltiz - 2

t.vz;.

rj;Jg;bghUl;fs;

mst[

1.

ePh;g;bghUs; (%)

70.00

2.

bkhj;j rf;jp (fnyhhp/100 fp)

116.00

3.

kht[g;bghUs; (fp)

27.20

4.

ehh;g;bghUs; (fp)

0.50

5.

g[ujk; (fp)

1.20

6.

bfhGg;g[r;rj;J (fp)

0.30

7.

rhk;gy; rj;J (fp)

0.90

8.

Rz;zhk;g[r;rj;J (kp.fp)

17.00

9.

gh!;gu!; (kp.fp.)

36.00

10.

,Uk;g[r;rj;J ((kp.fp)

0.90

11.

fnuhl;Od; (kp.fp)

78.00

12.

jakpd; (kp.fp)

0.05

13.

iunghgpnstpd; (kp.fp)

0.08

14.

eahrpd; (kp.fp)

0.50

15.

itl;lkpd; rp (kp.fp)

7.00

 

            nkYk; thiH ehh; fhfpj ml;il jahhpf;ft[k;/ jpR ngg;gh; jahhpf;ft[k; gad;gLfpd;wJ. thiH ,iy czt[ rhg;gplt[k;/ k';fs tpHhf;fspYk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. thiHf; fhapypUe;J rpg;!;/ thiHg;gHj;jpypUe;J kht[/ FHe;ij czt[/ $hk;/ Fsph;ghdk; nghd;wita[k; jahhpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. Mg;gphpf;fh ehLfspy; (cfhz;lh/ lhh;$hdpah) thiHg;gHk; gPh; jahhpf;ft[k; gad;gLfpwJ. thiH ehUk; gutyhf cgnahfg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. cyf mstpy; thiH xU kpf Kf;fpakhd tpahghug; gapuhff; fUjg;gLfpwJ.

 

kz; kw;Wk; jl;gbtg;g epiy

            ekJ ehl;oy; tofhy; trjpa[s;s midj;J tif epy';fspYk; thiH rhFgo bra;ag;gLfpwJ. ,Ug;gpDk; ey;y tofhy; trjpa[s;s tz;ly; kz; epynk rhFgof;F Vw;wjhFk;. thiH ry;yp nth;fisf; bfhz;l gapuhf ,Ug;gjhy; m';ffg; bghUl;fs; epiwe;j tskhd kz; mtrpakhFk;. fhu/ mkpy epy';fs; kw;Wk; mjpf kzw;gh';fhd epy';fSk; rhFgof;F Vw;wjy;y.

 

            thiH btg;gkz;lyk; Kjy; kpj btg;gkz;lyg; gpunjr';fspYk; tsUk; jd;ik cilaJ. ,Ug;gpDk; <ug;gjKs;s btg;gkz;lyg; gpunjrnk rhFgof;F kpfr; rpwe;jJ. fly; kl;lj;jpypUe;J 1/200 kPl;lh; cauk; tiu cs;s ,l';fspy; ed;F tsUk; jd;ik cilaJ. thiH 10o Kjy; 40o bry;rpa!; tiu btg;gk; cs;s ,l';fspy; ed;F gapuhFk;. mjpf Fsph; cs;s gFjpfspy; thiHapd; taJ mjpfhpg;gJld; Fiyapd; mst[ btFthf FiwfpwJ. gj;J ofphpf;Fk; Fiwthd btg;gepiy thiHr;rhFgof;F cfe;jjy;y. kpf mjpf btg;gepiyapy; rpy ,uf';fspy; ku';fspy; Fiy rhptu btsptuhJ.

 

rhFgo Kiwfs;

            fhu mkpyj;jd;ik Fiwthf cs;s epy';fspy; thly; neha; mjpfk; bjd;gLk;. vdnt fhu mkpyj;jd;ik 7.0 - 7.5 tiu cs;s epy';fs; Vw;wit. thiHf;F Fiwe;jJ xU kPl;lh; MHk; tiu kz; ,Ug;gJ mtrpak;. thiHr;rhFgoapy; Kf;fpakhf ftdpf;f ntz;oaJ mof;fo g[ay; bts;sj;jhy; ghjpf;fg;gLk; gpunjr';fspy; thiHr;rhFgoia jtph;f;f ntz;Lk; vd;gnj. Vbddpy; fhw;wpdhy; thiH ku';fs; ntUld; rha;e;J mjpfgl;r bghUshjhu ,Hg;g[ Vw;glk;. ,t;thW cs;s gFjpfspy; Fl;il ,uf';fisg; gaphpLtJ ey;yJ. tUlj;jpw;F ruhrhpahf 1200-1500 kp.kP. tiu kiH fpilf;Fk;. gpunjr';fs; thiHr;rhFgof;F kpft[k; Vw;witahFk;. jz;zPh; nj';Fk; ,l';fs; thiHr;rhFgof;F cfe;jitay;y.

 

            jkpHfj;jpy; thiH ehd;F Kiwfspy; rhFgo bra;ag;gLfpwJ.

 

1. njhl;lf;fhy; tiH

            ,t;thiH njhl;l thiH vd;W miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. vy;yh khtl;l';fspYk; ey;y ePh;g;ghrdk; cs;s gFjpfspy; rhFgo bra;ag;gLfpwJ. bgUk;ghYk; ghj;jp ghrdnk eilbgWfpd;wJ. jkpHfj;jpy; rhFgoahFk; thiHapy; bgUk;gFjp (60 rjk;) ,k;Kiwapy; gapuhfpwJ.

 

2. gLif thiH

            fhtphp Mw;Wg; gLif ,l';fspy; Fwpg;ghf j";rht{h; gFjpapy; Mw;Wg; gLif epy';fspy; khdhthhpahf rhFgo bra;ag;gLfpwJ. kWjhk;g[ gapUk; tplg;gLfpwJ. j";ir khtl;lj;jpy; ,iyf;fhf kl;Lk; ,k;Kiwapy; rhFgo bra;ag;gLfpwJ.

 

3. tay; thiH (m) ed;bra; thiH

            jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp/ <nuhL/ j";rht{h;/ kJiu kw;Wk; fd;dpahFkhp khtl;l';fspy; ed;bra; epy';fspy; rhFgoahfpwJ. bgUk;ghYk; bey; mWtilf;Fg;gpd; gaphplg;gLfpwJ. Rkhh; 20 rjk; thiH jkpH;ehl;oy; ,k;Kiwapy; gaphplg;gLfpwJ.

 

4. kiy thiH

            jpz;Lf;fy; khtl;lj;jpy; fPH;g;gHdpkiy kw;Wk; rpWkiyg; gFjpapy; khdhthhpahfg; gaphplg;gLfpwJ. jw;nghJ Kof;bfhj;J nehapd; jhf;Fjy; fhuzkhf rhFgo gug;gst[ btFthf Fiwe;Js;sJ.

 

elt[g;gUtk;

            ePh;g;ghrdk; trjpapUg;gpd; thiHia tUlk; KGtJk; gaphplyhk;. ,Ug;gpDk; me;je;j gFjpfspy; epyt[k; jl;gbtg;g epiyia bghWj;J fd;W eLk;gUtk; khWk;. Kf;fpakhf rpj;jpiu RHy;fhw;W/ Mokhjf;fhw;W/ kiHf;fhy NwhtspapypUe;J thiHiaf; fhg;ghw;w fd;W eLk; gUtKk; khWgLk;. btt;ntW tif thiHfSf;F Vw;w gUt';fs; ml;ltiz - 3y; bfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

ml;ltiz - 3

t.vz;.

tif

gUtk;

Vw;w ,uf';fs;

1.

tay;thiH

m) $dthp - khh;r;

g{td; / u!;jhsp/ bkhe;jd;/ fw;g{uts;sp

 

 

M) khh;r; - Vg;uy;

nee;jpud;/ buhg!;lh

2.

njhl;lf;fhy; thiH

m) $dthp - gpg;uthp

buhg!;lh

 

 

M) etk;gh; - ork;gh;

nee;jpud;

3.

gLif thiH

m) $dthp - gpg;uthp

g{td;/ bkhe;jd;

 

 

M) Mf!;l; - brg;lk;gh;

g{td;/ bkhe;jd;

4.

kiy thiH

m) Vg;uy; - nk

g{td;/ bkhe;jd;

 

 

M) $Pd; - Mf!;l;

rpWkiy/ tpUg;ghl;rp

,uf';fs;

m. g{td;

            ,ij fjyp kw;Wk; g';fshthiH vd;Wk; miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. kuk; caukhf tsUk; jd;ika[ilaJ. jhhpy; 10-12 rPg;g[fSk;/ 150 Kjy; 200 fha;fs; tiu ,Uf;Fk;. jhhpd; vil Rkhh; 20-25 fpnyh ,Uf;Fk;. gH';fs; k";rs; epwj;jpy;/ g[spg;g[ Rita[ld; ,Uf;Fk;. ,jd; ,Ug;g[ itf;Fk; jd;ik mjpfk;. fha;f;fhft[k; ,iyf;fhft[k; gaphplyhk;. Xust[ twl;rpia jh';fp tsUk; jd;ika[ilaJ. gdhkh thly; neha;/ ghf;Ohpah fpH';F mGfy; neha;/ Td;tz;L Mfpait jhf;fhJ. Mdhy; Kof;bfhj;J kw;Wk; njky; neha; ghjpg;g[ cz;L. E}w;g[Gj; jhf;Fjy; mjpfk; fhzg;gLk;. bfhl;il thiHg; gpur;rid cz;L. kW jhk;g[ rhFgof;F cfe;j ,ufk;.

 

M. u!;jhsp

            ku';fs; 12-14 mo cauk; tsuf;ToaJ. ,e;j ,ufj;jpd; taJ Rkhh; 14-15 khj';fs;. jhhpy; 7-9 rPg;g[fSk;/ 80-150 fha;fSk;/ ,Uf;Fk;. jhhpd; vil 15-20 fpnyh. gH';fs; eLj;jukhf/ gUkdhf kpFe;j Rita[ld; fhzg;gLk;. gHj;jpd; njhy; bky;ypajhf k";rs; epwj;Jld; ,Uf;Fk;. gH';fspd; ,Ug;g[ itf;Fk; jd;ik kpft[k; Fiwt[. ed;F gGj;j gH';fs; FiyapypUe;J cjpUk;. ,e;j ,ufk; thly; nehahy; mjpfk; ghjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,iyg;g[s;sp neha; kw;Wk; E}w;g[Gtpd; nrjk; Mfpaita[k; mjpfk;.

 

,. bkhe;jd;

            ,e;j ,ufk; xust[f;F twl;rpiaj; jh';fp tsUk; ,ay;g[ilaJ. ku';fs; caukhf tsUk;. taJ 13-14 khj';fs;. ,e;j ,ufj;ij ,iyf;fhfg; gaphplyhk;. jhhpd; vil Rkhh; 20-25 fpnyh tiu ,Uf;Fk;. jhhpy; 4-6 rPg;g[fspy; 45-60 fha;fs; cs;s ,ufk;. epHw;gh';fhd gFjp kw;Wk; bjd;id nghd;w gaph;fspy; CL gapuhf rhFgo bra;ayhk;. fha;fs; ,sk; gr;ir epwj;Jld; rikaYf;F kpft[k; Vw;wJ. ,e;j ,ufj;ij thly; neha; mjpfk; jhf;fk;. ,iyg;g[s;sp kw;Wk; E}w;g[Gj; jhf;Fjiy Xust[ jh';fp tsUk;. fpH';F mGfy; neha; jhf;Fjy; ,y;iy.

 

<. fw;g{uts;sp

            tPhpaKld; kpf caukhf tsUk; ,ufk;. twl;rpahd gFjpfSf;Fk;/ fsh; epy';fSf;Fk; Vw;w ,ufk;. ,jd; taJ 13 Kjy; 14 khj';fs;. jhhpy; 10 Kjy; 14 rPg;g[fSk;/ 150-240 fha;fSk; ,Uf;Fk;. gHj;njhypd; nky; rhk;gy; g{rpaJ nghd;W ,Ug;gjhy; ,J rhk;gy;thiH vd;Wk; miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. gH';fs; kpFe;j Rita[ld; ,dpg;ghf ,Uf;Fk;. gH';fs; mjpf ehs; bflhky; jhhpy; ,Uf;Fk;. ,e;j ,ufj;ij gH';fSf;Fk;/ ,iyf;fhft[k; gaphplyhk;. thly; neha; kw;Wk; E}w;g[Gj; jhf;Fjy; mjpf mstpy; fhzg;gLk;. Td; tz;L jhf;Fjy; Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk;.

 

c. buhg!;lh

            ,J gr;ir thiH vd;Wk; miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,J mjpf kfNy; bfhLf;Fk; Xh; ,ufk;. jhhpy; 10 Kjy; 12 rPg;g[fs; tiu 25 Kjy; 30 fpnyh vila[ld; ,Uf;Fk;. gH';fis ,Ug;g[ itf;dFk; jd;ik Fiwt[. gH';fs; gGj;jt[ld; jhhpd; fhk;gpypUe;J xoe;JtpLk;. ,e;j ,ufj;ij g{";rhz thly; neha; jhf;fhJ. ,iyg;g[s;sp/ Td;tz;L/ fpH';F mGfy;/ njky; neha;fs; mjpfkhf jhf;Fk;. ,e;j ,ufj;jpw;F mjpf mstpy; Cl;lr;rj;J/ mjpf ePh;/ jFe;j gaph; ghJfhg;g[ bfhLj;jhy; epiwe;j kfNy; bgwKoa[k;.

 

C. nkhhp!;

            ,J Fs;sthiH kw;Wk; FHpthiH vd;w bgah;fspy; miHf;fg;gLfpwJ. Fl;ilahf tsUk; ,ay;g[ilaJ. mjpff;fhw;W tPRk; gFjpfsf;F cfe;j ,ufk;. gj;J Kjy; 12 rPg;g[fSld; 25 Kjy; 30 fpnyh vila[ila jhh;fis njhw;Wtpf;Fk; 120 Kjy; 160 fha;fs; xt;bthU jhhpYk; ,Uf;Fk;. gH';fs; tise;Jk;/ njhy; gUkdhft[k; gr;ir epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. rijg;gFjp Rita[ld; ,dpg;ghf ,Uf;Fk;. gH';fspd; ,Ug;g[ itf;Fk; jd;ik kpff;Fiwt[. gdhkh thly; neha;f;F vjph;g;g[ rf;jp bgw;wJ. Kof;bfhj;J kw;Wk; ,iyg;g[s;sp neha; jhf;FjYf;F cs;shFk;.

 

v. nee;jpud;

            nfushtpy; tpUk;gg;gLk; ,e;j ,ufj;jpd; taJ 11 Kjy; 12 khj';fs;. eLj;ju cauk; bfhz;l ,e;j ,ufj;jpy; 6-8 rPg;g[fs; tiuf; fhzg;gLk;. jhhpy; Rkhh; 50 fha;fs; ,Uf;Fk;. Fiyfspy; fha;fs; beUf;fkhf gpof;fhJ. rpg;!; kw;Wk; Ritahd gjhh;j;j';fs; bra;a Vw;wJ. thly; neha; jhf;fhJ. Mdhy;/ ,iyg;g[s;sp neha; kw;/Wk; E}w;g[Gj; jhf;Fjy; mjpfk; ,Uf;Fk;. fpH';F mGfy; neha; jhf;Fk;. kWjhk;g[ tpLtjw;F Vw;wjy;y.

 

V. brt;thiH

            cybf';Fk; gaphplg;gLk; Xh; ,ufkhFk;. mjpf cauk; tsUk; ,e;j ,ufj;jpd; taJ Rkhh; 18-20 khj';fs;. rPg;g[fs; MWKjy; vl;L tiuapy; 60-100 fha;fs; bfhz;ljhf ,Uf;Fk;. njhy; rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; gH';fs; bghpajhf ,Uf;Fk;. njhy; rptg;g[ epwj;Jld; gH';fs; bghpajhf ,Uf;Fk;. kiyg;gFjpapYk;/ rkbtspapYk; gaphplyhk;. g{";rhz thly; neha; ,e;j ,ufj;ij jhf;fhJ. Mdhy; Kof;bfhj;J neha; kw;Wk; ,iyg;g[s;sp neha; Mfpatw;why; ghjpf;fg;gLk;.

 

I. kiythiH

            tpUg;ghl;rp/ rpWkiy vd;W ,uz;L ,uf';fs; cs;sd. ey;y cauj;Jld; ku';fs; tsUk;. MW Kjy; vl;L rPg;g[fSld; jhhpy; Rkhh; 60-90 fha;fs; ,Uf;Fk;. gH';fs; ey;y kzj;Jld; Urpahf ,Uf;Fk;. kiyg; gpunjrj;jpy; 2000 mo Kjy; 4000 mo cauKs;s fpH;g;gHdp kiyfspy; khdhthhpahf fhg;gpj; njhl;l';fspy; gaphplg;gLfpwJ. thly;neha;/ E}w;g[G/ Td;tz;L/ ,iyg;g[s;sp neha; kw;Wk; Kof;bfhj;J neha; mjpf mstpy; jhf;Fk;.

 

x. nfh 1

            jkpH;ehL ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfk;/ nfhak;g[j;JhpypUe;J btspaplg;gl;l Xh; fyg;gpd ,ufk; MFk;. yhld;/ fhl;LthiH kw;Wk; fjyp nghd;w ,uf';fis ,df;fyg;g[ bra;J cUthf;fg;gl;l Xh; cah; tpisr;ry; ,ufk;. tpUg;ghl;rpia nghd;nw kzk;/ Rit kw;Wk; gUkDilaJ. kiyg;gFjpapYk;/ Fsph; epiwe;j rkbtspg;gFjpapYk; gaphplyhk;. jhhpy; VG rPg;g[fSld; 80 Kjy; 85 gH';fs; ,Uf;Fk;. ,jd; taJ 12-14 khj';fs;.

 

fd;W njh;t[k; elt[k;

            neha;j; jhf;fhj 1.5 Kjy; 2.0 fpnyh tiu vila[s;s <l;o thiHf; fd;Wfis njh;t[ bra;antz;Lk;. eLKd; fd;wpd; nth;fis rPtptpl ntz;Lk;. fd;wpd; jz;Lg;gFjp 20 br.kP cauk; ,Uf;FkhW btl;otpl ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ fd;Wfis ghf;Ohpah kw;Wk; g{";rhs nehapypUe;J ghJfhf;f 0.1 rjk; vkprhd; fiurypy; (1 fpuhk; - 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPh;) Ie;J epkplk; Kf;fp vLf;f ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ fd;Wfis ehd;F g';F fspkz;/ Ie;J g';F ePh; fye;j nrw;Wf; fyitapy; fpH';F ghfk; ed;F eida[k;go Kf;fp vLj;J fd;W xd;Wf;F 40 fpuhk; fhh;nghg[a{uhd; FUizfs; vd;w tpjj;jpy; J}tp el ntz;Lk;.

 

epyk; jahhpj;jy;

            tay;thiHf; fd;Wfis epy kl;lj;jpy; itj;J Rw;wpYk; kz; mizj;J elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. njhl;lf;fhy; thiH kw;Wk; gLif epy thiHia FHp vlj;J/ FHpapd; nky; kz;qld; 10 fpnyh bjhG cuk; nrh;j;J elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

elt[ ,ilbtsp

            ,ufj;ijg; bghWj;J fd;Wfs; ,ilbtspa[k; khWgLk;. ,ilbtsp ml;ltiz 4-y; bfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

ml;ltiz - 4

t. vz;.

tif

,uf';fs;

,ilbtsp

fd;Wfspd; vz;zpf;if (vf;lUf;F)

1.

njhl;lf;fhy; thiH

buhg!;lh

1. 8 x 1.8 kP

3086

 

 

nee;jpud;

1. 5 x 1.5 kP

4444

2.

tay;thiH

g{td;/ bkhe;jd;/ u!;jhsp/ fw;g{uts;sp

2.1 x 2.1 kP

2267

3.

kiythiH

tpUg;ghl;rp/ rpWkiy

3.6 x 3.6 kP

77.1

 

cu eph;thfk;

,urhad cuk;

            ng+l;lr;rj;Jf;fshd jiH/ kzp kw;Wk; rhk;gy; rj;Jf;fis ml;ltiz 5-y; bfhLf;fg;gl;l tpfpjj;jpy; mspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

ml;ltiz - 5

,ufk;

\d;whtJ khjk;

 

 

Ie;jhtJ khjk;

 

 

 

VHhtJ khjk;

 

 

 

 

(fpuhk;/fd;W/tUlk;)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a{hpah

Ng;gh;

bghl;lh#;

a{hpah

Ng;gh;

bghl;lh#;

a{hpah

Ng;gh;

bghl;lh#;

u!;jhsp

140

155

130

230

155

320

90

-

170

g{td;

110

155

130

155

155

320

90

-

175

nee;jpud;

140

110

145

230

110

360

90

-

215

kw;w ,uf';fs;

110

110

130

155

110

300

90

-

160s

 

            fd;W eltpd; nghJ FHp xd;Wf;F 12 fpnyh mstpy; kf;fpa bjhG cuk; ,l;L elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

caph; cuk;

            thiHf;F \d;W Kiw mnrh!;ighpy;yk; Ez;qaph; cuj;ij ,lntz;Lk;. fd;W el;l \d;W/ Ie;J kw;Wk; VHhk; khjk; fd;iwr;Rw;wp xU Vf;fUf;F 6 bghl;lyk; mnrh!;ighpy;yk; ,l ntz;Lk;. mnrh!;ighpy;yk; caph; cuj;Jld; 10 fpnyh kzy; my;yJ 10 fpnyh kf;fpa bjhG cuj;Jld; fye;J rPuhf ,lntz;Lk;. mnrh!;ighpy;yj;ij kw;w ,urhad cu';fSld; nrh;j;J ,lf;TlhJ. mnrh!;ighpy;yk; thiHf;F ,Ltjpdhy; mjpf jiHr;rj;J fpilf;f VJthfpwJ.

 

ePh; eph;thfk;

            rPnjh#;z epiyiaa[k;/ kz;zpd; jd;ika[k; bghWj;J thihf;F ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. el;lt[ld; ePh;g;gha;r;Rjy; mtrpak;. nkYk; 4-tJ ehs; ePh;g; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ thuk; xU Kiw ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. tay; thiHf;F 10-15 ehl;fSf;bfhU Kiw ePh;g;gha;r;rpdhy; nghJkhdJ. ed;bra; rhFgo vd;why; fpH';Ffspy; vg;bghGJk; ePh; nj';fpapUf;ff;TlhJ. mt;tg;bghGJ tofhy;fs; \yk; mjpfg;goahd ePiu toj;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. cuk; itj;j gpd; Ie;J ehl;fSf;bfhU Kiwahf ,UKiw ed;whf ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. jhh;tpLk; jUzj;jpypUe;J mWtil tiu twl;rp ,Uf;ff;TlhJ. ehd;F Ie;J ehl;fSf;F bjhlh;e;jhw;nghy; ePh; nj';fpapUf;ff;TlhJ. ehw;gj;jp vl;L kzpneuk; XLk; jz;zPUk; 24 kzp neuk; tiu nj';Fk; jz;zPUk; ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;Jk;.

 

fis eph;thfk;

            thiHapy; mjpf ,ilbtsptpl;L elg;gLtjhy; Muk;g fhy';fspy; fisfs; mjpfkpUf;Fk;. vdnt fisfis fl;lg;gLj;j fis Kisf;Fk; Kd; bjspf;f Toa ila{uhd; vd;w fisf;bfhy;ypia xU vf;luf;F Ie;J fpnyh vd;w mstpy; thih elt[ bra;J xU thuj;jpw;fs; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. gpd;dh; Kisf;Fk; fisfis fl;Lg;gLj;j ghuhFthl; nghd;w bjhLe";R fisf;bfhy;ypia ypl;lUf;F 16 kpyp tPjk; fye;J fisfs; g{f;Fk; Kd; bjspf;fyhk;. nfhiu kw;Wk;  mUF nghd;w epue;ju fisfs; fhzg;gl;lhy; mitfis fl;Lg;gLj;j CLUtp gha[k; fisf;bfhy;ypahd fpisnghnrl; xU ypl;lh; ePUf;F 10 kpyp kUe;Jld; 20 fpuhk; mnkhdpak; ry;ngl; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. fisfs; 3-4 ,iyfs; ,Uf;Fk;bghGJ fisfs; kPJ kl;lk; gLk;go kUe;J bjspj;jhy; ey;y fl;Lg;ghL fpilf;Fk;.

 

gf;ff;fd;Wfis ePf;Fjy;

            gjpide;J ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw gf;ff; fd;Wfis Fj;jpbaLj;J ePf;f ntz;Lk;. kW jhk;gpw;F jha; kuk; Fiytpl;l gpwF xU fd;iw xJf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

CL gaph;

            el;lt[ld; thiHapy; CLgapuhf bt';fhak;/ Ks;s';fp/ jl;ilg;gapW/ nrhahbkhr;ir kw;Wk; mtiu gaphplyhk;. g[ly;/ ghfy;/ Riu/ gw';fp/ gPh;f;F nghd;w g{rzp tifg; gaph;fis rhFgo bra;jhy;/ thiHapy; njky; neha; gut[k;. vdnt ,g;gaph;fis thiHapy; rhFgo bra;af;TlhJ. thiH mWtilapd; nghJ mHpthiHapy; vk;.rp.ap. 5 ,ufg; gUj;jp rhFgo bra;ayhk;. mHpthiHapy; glUk; fha;fwpg; gaph;fisa[k; gaph; bra;ayhk;. btw;wpiyj; njhl;l';fspYk; thiH CL gapuhf rhFgo bra;ag;gLfpwJ. ,sk; ghf;F njhl;l';fspYk; thiHiag; gaphplyhk;.

 

Cl;lr;rj;J FiwghLfSk; epth;j;jp KiwfSk;

m. jiHr;rj;J

            thiHg; gaphpd; tsh;r;rpf;F rhk;gy; rj;Jf;F mLj;jgoahf jiHr;rj;J mjpf mstpy; njitg;gLfpwJ. ,r;rj;jpd; gw;whf;Fiwapdhy; ,iyfs; gGj;J btspwpa epwkhf khwptpLk;. nkYk; ,iyf;fhk;g[/ eL ,iyj;jz;L kw;Wk; jz;Lg;gFjp ,sk; rpfg;g[ epwj;jpw;F khwptpLk;. xU ,iyf;Fk; kw;w ,iyf;Fk; cs;s ,ilbtsp Fiwe;J mLf;fhf fhzg;gLk;. jiHr;rj;J gw;whf;Fiw bghJthf fiwe;j nth;fs; vz;zpf;if cila ku';fspYk;/ mjpf fisfs; cs;s tay;fspYk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. jz;zPh; gw;whf;Fiw cs;s epy';fs; kw;Wk; ePh; nj';fpa[s;s tay;fspYk; jiHr;rj;jpd; gw;whf;Fiw fhzg;gLk;. jiHr;rjij 3-4 Kiw gphpj;Jf; bfhLg;gjd; \yk; gw;whf;Fiw jtph;f;fg;gLfpwJ. nkYk; ntg;gk;g[z;zhf;F my;yJ jhh; fye;j a{hpah totpy; jiHr;rj;ij thiHf;F ,Ltjd; \yk; MtpahtJ jtph;f;fg;gl;L jiHr;rj;J ku';fSf;F bjhlh;e;J fpilf;f VJthfpwJ.

 

M/ kzpr;rj;J

            thiHf;F kzpr;rj;jpd; njit kw;w rj;Jf;fisf; fhl;oYk; Fiwe;j mst[ ,Ue;jhy; nghJkhdJ. ,e;j rj;jhdJ broapd; xU gFjpapypUe;J kw;w gFjpf;F bry;yk; jd;ika[ilajhy; gw;whf;Fiwapdhy; ku';fspy; Fwpg;gpLk;goahd mwpFwpfs; bjd;gLtjpy;iy. ,Ue;j nghjpYk; nghJkhd mst[ kzpr;rj;J ,y;yhikahy; nth;fspd; tsh;r;rp ghjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. thiHf;F bfhLf;fg;gLk; kzpr;rj;jpy; 15-20 rjk; msnt gapUf;F fpilf;fpwJ. mkpy epy';fspy; mYkpdpak; gh!;ngl;lhft[k;/ fhu epy';fspy; fhy;rpak; gh!;ngl;lhft[k; khwp gapUf;F fpilf;fhj totj;ij bgWfpwJ. ,tw;iw rhp bra;a ku';fSf;F 50 fpuhk; mstpy; gh!;nghghf;Ohpah Ez;qaph; cuj;ij ,Ltjd; \yk; rj;Jf;fs; gapUf;F bjhlh;e;J rPuhf fpilf;Fk;.

 

,. rhk;gy; rj;J

            thiHf;F mjpf mstpy; rhk;gy; rj;ij ,lntz;Lk;. rhk;gy;rj;Jg; gw;whf;Fiwapd; fhuzkhf thiHapy; gy;ntW tifahd FiwghLfs; njhd;Wfpd;wd.

1.          mo ,iyfs; Mu";R fye;j k";rs; epwkhf khwp ,iy Xu';fs; fhaj;bjhl';Fk;.

2.         ,iyfspd; taJ mjhtJ xspr;nrh;f;if bra;J czt[ jahhpf;Fk; fhyKk; btFthff; Fiwa[k;.

3.         ,iyfspd; eLj;jz;L tise;J ,iy Edp kuj;jpd; mog;gFjpia nehf;fp fhzg;gLk;.

4.         ,iyfs; mLf;fLf;fhff; fhzg;gLk;

5.         ,iyfspd; tsh;r;rp ghjpf;fg;gl;L rpWj;J ,Uf;Fk;.

6.         Fiwe;j fha;fspd; vz;zpf;if kw;Wk; rpwpa fha;fns jhh;fspy; ,Uf;Fk;.

7.         g{f;fs; jhkjkhf njhd;Wk;.

8.         fha;fs; tsh;r;rp epiyapd; nghJ bghl;lhrpak; rj;J gw;whf;Fiwapdhy; ,iyfspy; cs;s bghl;lh#; rj;Jf;fs; fha;fSf;F brd;WtpLtjhy; ,iyfs; cldoahf k";rshf khwp fhaj;Jt';Fk;.

 

<. kf;dPrpak;

            kf;dPrpag; gw;whf;Fiw bghJthf thiH gapiu bjhlh;e;J gy tUl';fshf gaphpLk;nghJk;/ bghl;lh#; rj;Jf;fis mjpf mst[ gad;gLj;Jk;nghJk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,iyfspd; tsh;r;rpapy; khWjy; ,Uf;fhJ. ,iyfspy; gr;iraj;jpd; mst[ Fiwe;J btsph; gr;ir epwj;Jld; ,Uf;Fk;. ,iyfspd; Xuk; fUf Muk;gpf;Fk;. fUfypd; Xuj;jpy; nfhLfs; bjd;gLk;. ,iyf;fhk;g[fs; btsph; rpfg;g[ epwj;Jld; jz;Lld; gykpy;yhky; xl;of;bfhz;oUf;Fk;. mjpf mst[ Fiwghl;odhy; ,iyfs; moj;jz;oypUe;J xoe;JtpLk;. ,f;Fiwghl;il ePf;f kw;w cu';fisg; nghy; elt[ bra;j \d;whk; khjj;jpy; fd;W xd;Wf;F 50 fpuhk; kf;dPrpak; ry;ngl; cuj;ij bfhLf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

c. Jj;jehfk;

            thiHapy; Ez;q}l;r; rj;Jf;fspy; Jj;jehf gw;whf;Fiw mjpf mstpy; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,jd; gw;whf;Fiw bghJthf fsh; kw;Wk; cth; jd;ika[s;s ,l';fspy; mjpf mstpy; bjd;gLfpwJ. nkYk; mjpf Rz;zhk;g[ epiwe;j tay;fspYk; ,jd; gw;whf;Fiw mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLk;. gw;whf;Fiwahy; ,sk; ,iyfs; rpWj;Jk;/ ePz;Lk; fhzg;gLk;. ,iyfspy; k";rs; kw;Wk; gr;ir epw jpl;Lf;fs; khwpkhwp fhzg;gLk;. ,f;Fiwghl;il ePf;f 0.5 rj (xU ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 5 fpuhk;) Jj;jehf ry;ngl; fiuriy bjspf;fyhk;. my;yJ fd;W xd;Wf;F 15 Kjy; 25 fpuhk; Jj;jehf ry;ngl;il ,lyhk;.

 

C. ,Uk;g[

            ,Uk;g[r;rj;J FiwghL Rz;zhk;g[ fye;j kz; tiffspy; mjpfk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. Fiwg;ghL cs;s gFjpfspy; ,sk; ,iyfs; k";rs; epwkhf khwptpLk;. nkYk; g[jpajhf njhd;Wk; ,iyfs; bts;isahf btsptUk;. twl;rpahd rka';fspy; ,jd; gw;whf;Fiw mjpf mstpy; njhd;WfpwJ. Rkhh; 80 rj ,Uk;g[r;rj;J njit thiH tsh;r;rpapd; Kjy; 5-6 khj';fspy; ,Uf;Fk;. ,Uk;g[r; rj;J Fiwghl;il ePf;f 0.5 rj (xU ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 5 fpuhk;) ,Uk;g[ ry;ngl; fiuriy bjspf;fyhk;. nkYk; ,j;Jld; xU rj a{hpah (xU ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 10 fpuhk;) fiuriy fye;J bjspj;jhy; ey;y gyd; fpl;Lk;.

 

v. nghuhd;

            nghuhd; rj;Jg; gw;whf;Fiwapd; fhuzkhf ,iyfs; rpWj;J khWgl;l njhw;wj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. ,iyfspd; mog;gFjpapy; euk;g[fSf;F FWf;F thl;oy; nfhLfs; njhd;Wk;. ,e;Ez;q}l;lr;rj;J thiHapy; rh;f;fiur; rj;ij ,iyfspypUe;J tsUk; fha;fSf;F mDg;g[tjpy; bgUk; g';F tfpf;fpwJ. xU Vf;fUf;F Rkhh; ehd;F fpnyh mst[f;F nghuhf;!; ,Ltjd; \yk; ,r;rj;jpdhy; njhd;Wk; FiwghLfis ePf;fyhk;. my;yJ fd;W xd;Wf;F nghuhf;!; 10 fpuhk; vd;w mstpy; ,urhad cuk; ,Lk;nghJ bfhLf;fyhk;.

 

tpidapay; FiwghLfSk;/ epth;j;jp KiwfSk;

m. bfhl;il thiH

            ,J g{td; ,ufj;jpy; kl;Lnk Vw;gLk; xU tpidapay; FiwghL. ,f;Fiwghl;oid Fiy tUk; tiu fz;lwpa Kotjpy;iy. ghjpf;fg;gl;l fha;fspd; Edp rpWj;J mog;ghfk; gUj;Jk; gH';fs; tpijfSlDk; fhzg;gLk;. rpy jhh;fspy; fha;fns ,y;yhky; btWk; ,iy kl;Lk; btsptUk;. bfhl;ilf; fhapd; tPhpaj;ijg; bghWj;J rpy ku';fspy; mit ey;y jhh;fshf khWtJk; cz;L. ,jd; ghjpg;g[ kWjhk;g[ gaphpy; mjpfk; ,Uf;Fk;. ,jw;fhd mog;gilf; fhuzk; gaph; tsh;r;rp Cf;fpahd "Mf;rpd;" Fiwthf ,Uf;fyhk; vd;W fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sJ.  Fwpg;ghf bfhl;il thiH ku';fspypUe;J eLtjw;fhd fd;Wfisj; njh;t[ bra;af;TlhJ. ,jidj; jLf;f FiyapypUe;J filrp rPg;g[ btspte;j 10 Kjy; 15 ehl;fSf;Fs; 2/4-o vd;w tsh;r;rp Cf;fpia 25 gp.gp.vk;. vd;w mstpy; xU Kiw jhhpd; kPJ bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ xU fpuhk; 2/4-o kUe;ij 20 kpyp vhprhuhaj;jpy; fiuj;J gpd;dh; 40 ypl;lh; jz;zPUld; nrh;j;J 200 jhh;fSf;F ifj;bjspg;ghd; \yk; bjspf;fyhk;. kUe;J bjspf;Fk;nghJ rPuhf vy;yh fha;fspd; nkYk; gLkhW bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. ghjpf;fg;glhj jhh;fspy; 2/4-o kUe;ij bjspg;gj;d \yk; 10 Kjy; 12 rjk; mjpf kfNy; bgwyhk; vd fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

M. gp";rpy; gGf;Fk; FiwghL

            ,f;FiwghLk; g{td; thiH ,ufj;jpy; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,g;gpur;rid kl;ilf; fha;r;ry; vdg;gLk;. ,J "rpfhlhnfh" ,iyg;g[s;sp mjpfk; jhf;fpa njhl;l';fspy; Vw;gLfpwJ. jhh;fspy; xU rpy Kw;whj fha;fs; gGf;f Muk;gpf;Fk;. gpd;dh; xU rpy ehl;fspy; midj;J gp";RfSk; gGj;J/ jhh;fs; ey;y tpiyf;F nghfhJ. ,f;Fiwghl;oid ePf;f Kjypy; fha;e;j rUFfis clDf;Fld; btl;o njhl;lj;jpid tpl;L mg;g[wg;gLj;jp vhpj;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. bghJthf jhh;fs; ed;F cUthfpl 15 Kjy; 18 tiu gr;ir ,iyfs; ,Uj;jy; mtrpak;. ,jdhy; xspr;nrh;f;if ed;F eilbgw;W jhh;fs; bghpajhf tsu VJthFk;. Fiwthd ,iyfs; cs;s NH;epiyapy; ,iy tHpahf cukpl;L jhh;fspd; tsh;r;rpia Jhpjg;gLj;jyhk;. rpWfkzp fUk;g[ Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; eilbgw;w Muha;r;rp Kotpd;go gp";rpy; gGj;jiyf; fl;Lg;gLj;j xU rj a{hpah kw;Wk; ,U rj bghl;lh#; fiuriy ,iy tHpahf 15 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiwahf ,uz;L Kiw g{tpLk; jUzj;jpy; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; jhh;fspd; tsh;r;rp mjpfhpf;fpwJ vdf; fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

,. Jth;g;ghd fodg;gFjp

            ,f;FiwghL u!;jhsp gH';fspy; kl;Lnk fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,jw;fhd fhuzk; ,d;Dk; fz;Lgpof;fg;gltpy;iy. ,jid gH';fs; rhg;gpLk;nghJ kl;Lnk fhzKoa[k;. nknyhl;lhf ghh;f;Fk;nghJ gHj;jpy; ve;jtpj khWjYk; bjhpahJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf gHj;jpd; Rit Kw;wpYk; khWgLk;. ,jw;fhd fhuzk; gH';fs; gGf;Fk;nghJ cz;lhFk; ntjpapay; khw;w';fs; rhptu epfHhky; ,Uf;Fk; vd;W fUjg;gLfpwJ. nkYk; rhptu bghl;lh#; rj;Jf;fs; fha;fs; bgUFk;nghJ ,y;yhjJk; ,jw;F cz;lhd fhuzkhf ,Uf;fyhk;. rkPg fhy Ma;t[fspd;go u!;jhsp thiHf;F nghuhf;!; 50 fpuhk; 3tJ khjk; ,l;L/ gpd;dh; 4 kw;Wk; 6Mk; khjk; ,iy tHpahf nghhpf; mkpyj;ij 0.5 rjk; (xU ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 5 fpuhk;) vd;w mstpy; bjspg;gjhy; gH';fspy; fodj;jd;ik Fiwtjhf fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sJ. nkYk; jhh;fspd; vila[k; mjpfhpf;fpwJ.

 

<. ePh;thiH

            ,J nee;jpud; ,ufj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; FiwghlhFk;. ,J nfushtpy; Vw;gLk; "bfhf;fd;" nehiag; nghy; ,Uf;Fk;. ghjpf;fg;gl;l ku';fspy; jhh;fs; rpWj;Jg; ngha; ,Uf;Fk;. rPg;g[fs; rpwpaitahf Nk;gpg;ngha; ,Uf;Fk;. thiHf; FiyapYs;s Mz; kw;Wk; bgz; g{f;fSf;Fg; gjpyhf \d;whtjhf rpy g{f;fs; njhd;Wfpd;wJ. ,it fha;fshf khWtjpy;iy. fd;Wfisj; njh;t[ bra;a[k; nghJ ePh; thiH jhf;fg;glhj kuj;jpypUe;J njh;t[ bra;tJ kpft[k; mtrpak;. rkPgj;jpy; elj;jg;gl;l Ma;t[fspd;go jpUr;rp khtl;ljpy; 14 Kjy; 22 rj ku';fs; ,t;tif Fiwghl;lhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ fz;Lgpof;fg;gl;lJ. ePh;thiH ku';fSf;Fk; ey;y ku';fSf;Fk; njhw;wj;jpy; tpj;jpahrk; bjhptjpy;iy. nkYk; rj;Jg; bghUl;fspd; mst[fspYk; ve;j khw;wKk; ,y;iy. ku';fspy; I.V.V. Mf;rpnll; vdg;gLk; behjpapd; mst[ 61 rjk; mjpfkhf cs;sJ fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jdhy; fUt[whky; gH';fs; cz;lhFk; Kiwapy; (Pathenoccarpy) ghjpf;fg;gl;oUf;fyhk; vd fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

fsh; cth; epy';fshy; Vw;glk; ghjpg;g[fs;

            rkPg fhykhf/ jpUr;rp khtl;lj;jpy; e";ir epyj;jpy; rhFgo bra;fpd;w thiH ,uf';fspy; fsh; cth; epyj;jhy; ghjpg;g[ Vw;gLtJ fz;Lgpof;fg;gl;lJ. Fwpg;ghf u!;jhsp ,uf';fspy; ,e;jg; ghjpg;g[ mjpfk; bjd;gLfpwJ. g{td;/ nee;jpud; ,uf';fSk; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

 

            kz;zpd; fhu mkpyj;jd;ik 8.0f;F nky; ,Ue;jhy; ,g;ghjpg;g[ njhd;WfpwJ. rpWfkzp fUk;g[ Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; fhumkpyj; jd;ik 8.8 ,Ue;j nghJ u!;jhsp/ nee;jpud; ,uf';fspy; ,iyf; fUfy; bjd;gl;ld. ,g;ghjpg;gpdhy; ,iyfspd; Xu';fs; EdpapypUe;J fha;e;J cs;nehf;fp fUFk;. fUFk; ,lj;jpw;Fnky; k";rs; nfhLfs; fhzg;gLk;. \d;W ehd;F ,iyfs; cs;s NH;epiyapy; midj;J ,iyfSk; FUj;J eP';fyhf Rkhh; 50-60 rjtpfpjk; fUfptpLk;. ,jdhy; xspr;nrh;f;if ghjpf;fg;gl;L tsh;r;rp btFthff; Fiwe;J fd;Wfs; Fl;ilahf fhzg;gLk;. ghjpf;fg;gl;l fd;Wfs; ,we;J tpLtjhy; taypy; fhypapl';fs; ,Uf;Fk;. Rkhh; 50 rjtpfpjk; tiu fd;Wfs; ,Hg;g[ Vw;gLk;. ,iyfs; xd;wd;gpd; xd;whf tUtJ jhkjkhFk;. thiHapy; fsh; cth; epiy ghjpg;g[ ,uz;L khjj;jpypUe;J Mwhk; khjk; tiu btFthfj; bjd;gLk;. jLg;g[ eltof;iffs; vLf;fhtpl;lhy; kfNy; bghpJk; ghjpf;fg;gLk;. bghJthf ,e;j ghjpg;gpy; g{ tUtJ Ie;J khjk; tiu js;spg;nghFk;. ku';fspd; cauk; Fiwe;J fhzg;gLk;.

 

            ghjpg;g[ bjd;gl;lt[ld; mjhtJ ,iyfs; nyrhf Xu';fspy; fUf Muk;gpf;Fk; nghJ (2 khj taJ) $pg;rk; ,lntz;Lk;. xU fd;Wf;F 200 fpuhk; tPjk; xU khj ,ilbtspapy; 5 Kiw ,l;L ed;whf ePh;g;gha;r;rp tof;f ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; g[jpjhf tUk; ,iyfspy; ,iyf;fUfy; tuhJ. $pg;rj;jpw;F gjpyhf kf;fpa fUk;g[ Miyf;fHpt[ Rkhh; 5 fpnyh ,Ltjhy; ghjpg;g[ btFthf Fiwtjhf fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

            fsh; cth; epy';fspy; u!;jhsp/ nee;jpud; ,uf';fs; elt[ bra;tij jtph;f;f ntz;Lk;. nkYk; m';ff cu';fis mjpfk; ,l ntz;Lk;. khw;W ,ufkhf bkhe;jd;/ fw;g{uts;sp gaphplyhk;. ,e;j ,uf';fs; xust[ fsh; ctiuj; jh';fp tsUk;.

 

thiHiaj; jhf;Fk; g{r;rpfs;

m. jz;Lj; Jisg;ghd;

            Td; tz;L tifiar; rhh;e;j ,it rkPg fhy';fspy; gy thiHj; njhl;l';fspy; mjpfst[ nrjj;ij Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. ,g;g{r;rpahdJ Fwpg;ghf nee;jpud; kw;Wk; buhg!;lh thiHapid mjpfkhfj; jhf;Ffpd;wJ. ,J jtpu brt;thiH/ u!;jhsp/ g{td;/ fw;g{uts;sp tiffisa[k; jhf;Ffpd;wJ. rpte;j gGg;g[ epwj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk;. ,t;tz;Lfs; Ie;J Kjy; MW khjkhd ku';fisna bgUk;ghYk; jhf;Ffpd;wd. fd;Wfis jhf;Ftjpy;iy.

 

mwpFwpfs;

bgz; tz;L Kl;ilapLtjw;F jk; \f;fpdhy; rijg;gw;Ws;s thiHj;jz;oy; Fz;?rp mst[ rpwpa Jisfis Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. ,e;j JisfspypUe;J gGg;g[ epwj;jpy; gpRgpRg;ghf jputk; btsptUk;.

btz;ik epw g[Gf;fs; jz;oid File;J cz;qk;. Mdhy; fpH';fpDs; bry;Ytjpy;iy.

,iyfs; btSj;J/ Xu';fs; fha;fpd;wd. rpy neu';fspy; ,iyfs; tphptJk; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jdhy; jz;oypUe;J ,iyfs; bfhj;jhf xnu ,lj;jpypUe;J btsptUtJ nghy; fhzg;gLk;.

g{ btsptUtJ ghjpf;fg;gLk;. g{ btspte;j kuj;ij jhf;fpdhy; fha;fs; Kjph;tJ ghjpf;fg;gLk;.

jPtpu jhf;FjYf;Fs;shd ku';fs; nyrhd fhw;wpy; Tl xoe;JtpLk;.

beUf;fkhd elt[ bra;ag;gl;l njhl;l';fspy; ,t;tz;od; jhf;Fjy; mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

fha;e;j ,iyfisa[k;/ rUFfisa[k; mg;g[wg;gLj;jp J}a;ikahf itj;jpUf;fntz;Lk;

gf;ff;fd;Wfis mjpfk; tsutplhky; btl;o mfw;w ntz;Lk;.

jhf;Fjy; bjd;gl;lJk;/ J}nuhL gpL';fp/ btl;o jPapl;L bfhSj;j ntz;Lk;

jz;Lj;Jisg;ghd; jhf;FjypypUe;J thiHia ghJfhf;f khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; kUe;ij Crp tHpahf (,jw;bfd jdpahf totikf;fg;gl;lJ) 60 br.kP. kw;Wk; 150 br.kP cauj;jpy; vjph;/ vjph;g[wj;jpy; jz;oDs; 30 ofphp rha;thf brYj;jyhk; (150 kpyp jz;zPUld; 350 kpyp khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; fye;j fiurypypUe;J 2 kp.yp fiury; brYj;jg;gl ntz;Lk;) Ie;jhtJ khjk; Kjy; vl;lhtJ khjk; tiu xt;bthU khjKk; kUe;jpid brYj;j ntz;Lk;.

xU kuj;jpw;F 3 fpuhk; fhh;ngh@a{uhd; FUizia nth; gFjpapy; ,l;l ePh;g;gha;r;rt[k;.

 

M. fpH';F Td; tz;L

            fWik epwf; Td; tz;od; g[Gf;fs; fpH';if Jisj;Jr; brd;W cl;gFjpia jpd;W thGfpd;wd.

 

mwpFwpfs;

g[Gf;fs; fpH';fpid File;J bry;Yk;. ,jdhy; fpH';F mGfptpLk;.

fpH';fpypUe;J jz;L gFjpapYk; Tl Jisj;J ,Uf;Fk;.

fpH';F ghjpf;fg;gLtjhy; rj;Jf;fs; cwp";rg;gLtJ jilg;gLfpwJ

,iyfs; k";rshfp/ Kjph;r;rp mila[k; Kd;dnu cjph;e;J tpLk;.

nyrhd fhw;wpy;Tl kuk; rha;e;JtpLk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

Rfhjhuk; kpf Kf;fpak;. Vbddpy; btl;og; nghlg;gl;l thiHj;jz;Lfspy; Kl;ilapl;L ,dg;bgUf;fk; bra;fpd;wd.

ghjpf;fg;gl;l tay;fspy; ,Ue;J fpH';Ffis eltpw;f;F njh;t[ bra;af;TlhJ

fpH';Ffis nyrhf brJf;fptpl;L eLtjhy;/ fpH';Ffspy; xl;of;bfhz;oUf;Fk; Kl;ilfis mfw;wyhk;.

fpH';Ffis 0.1rj khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; fiurypy; 10 epkplk; eidj;J elt[ bra;ayhk;.

elt[f; FHpapy; fd;Wf;F 10 fpuhk; fhh;ngh@a{uhd; FUizfis ,l;L elt[ bra;ayhk;.

 

,. E}w;g[Gf;fs;

            fz;qf;Fg; g[yg;glhj Ez;zpa E}w;g[Gf;fs; nthpid jhf;fp rhw;wpid cwp";rp kuj;jpd; tYit btFthf Fiwf;fpd;wd. nkYk; ,tw;why; Vw;gLj;jg;gLk; fha';fs; tHpahf g{rz';fs; g[Fe;J neha;fs; Vw;gl tHptFf;fpd;wd. E}w;g[Gf;fs; vy;yh thiH uf';fisa[k; jhf;fpdhYk; buhg!;lh/ nee;jpud; kw;Wk; brt;thiHapy; mjpfg; ghjpg;gpid Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

 

mwpFwpfs;

nth;fspy; fUk;g[s;spfs; bjd;gLk;. nthpd; tsh;r;rp Fd;wpapUf;Fk;. ry;yp nth;fs; Fiwe;jpUf;Fk;.

czt[ kw;Wk; ePh; cwp";rg;gLtJ jilg;gLfpwJ. ,jdhy; gaph;btSj;J/ tsh;r;rp Fd;wp fhzg;gLk;.

Fiyapy; gH';fs; vz;zpf;if kw;Wk; gHj;jpd; gUkd; Fiwa[k;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

E}w;g[G ghjpg;g[ mjpfk; cs;s gFjpfspy; thiHf;F Kd;dnu rzg;g[ tpijj;J g{f;Fk; Kd; klf;fp cH ntz;Lk;. rzg;gpd; nthpypUe;J tUk; ,urhadk; E}w;g[Gf;fis fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;.

bjhG cuk;/ Miyf;fHpt[/ nfhHp vU kw;Wk; ntg;gk; g[z;zhf;F mjpfk; gad;gLj;jpdhy; vjphp E}w;g[Gf;fs; bgUf tha;g;gspf;Fk;.

tpijf;fpH';fpd; nky; gFjpapy; cs;s midj;J nth;fisa[k;/ mGfpa gFjpfisa[k;/ mjDs; xl;oapUf;Fk; kz;qld; mfw;wptpl ntz;Lk;. gpd;dh; fspkz; fiurypy; ,jid Kf;fp vLj;J mjd; kPJ fd;Wf;F 40 fpuhk; fhh;ngh@a{uhd; FUizia J}tp elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

my;yJ 0.5 rj khndhFnuhl;nlhg!; kw;Wk; 0.2 rj vobgd;gh!; fiurypy; 10 epkplk; eidj;J fd;wpid elt[ bra;ayhk;.

 

            caphpay; Kiwapy; thiH E}w;g[Gf;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j fd;W el;lt[ld; fd;iwr; Rw;wp JYf;frhke;jp tpijfis J}tp brofs; Kisj;j 50-Mk; ehs; gpL';fp fd;Wfis Rw;wp nghl;L kz; mizf;fyhk;.

 

<. mRtzp

            gGg;g[ epwj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; mRtzpfs; FUj;J/ kw;Wk; ,iya[iw gFjpfspy; Tl;lk; Tl;lkha; fhzg;gLk;. ,it thiHr; rhFgoiana ehrk; bra;a[k;. Kof;bfhj;J neha; vd;Dk; bfhoa nehapid gug;gf; ToaJ. kiythiHapy; ,jd; jhf;Fjy; mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLk;.

 

mwpFwpfs;

,iyfs; gGg;g[ epwkila[k;. kuj;jpd; tsh;r;rp Fd;Wk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

k";rs; xl;Lg;bghwp itj;J mRtzpfisf; fth;e;J mHpf;fyhk;.

vf;lUf;F gh!;nghkplhd; 250 kpyp (m) kPijy; blbklhd; 500 kpyp (m) khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; 250 kpyp FUj;Jg;gFjp ed;F eida[khW bjspj;Jf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;.

 

c. fz;zho ,wf;ifg; g{r;rp

            ,g;g{r;rpahdJ thiHiaj; jtpu bjd;id/ Vyf;fha; kw;Wk; k";rs; brofisa[k; jhf;fp nrjg;gLj;Jk;. ,J rhW cwp";Rk; g{r;rp tifiar; rhh;e;jJ. ,sk; g{r;rpfSk;/ tsh;e;j g{r;rpfSk; Kjph;e;j ,iyapd; mog;g[wj;jpy; Tl;lk;/ Tl;lkha; ,Ue;Jf;bfhz;L rhw;iw cwp";Rfpd;wd.

 

mwpFwpfs;

,iyapd; nkw;gug;gpy; Kjypy; btz;ikahd g[s;spfs; njhd;Wk;. gpd;dh; mit btsph; k";rs; epwkhf khwp btspwpf; fhzg;gLk;. jPtpu jhf;Fjy; ,Ug;gpd; thiH ku';fspy; tsh;r;rp Fd;wp kfNy; ghjpg;g[ Vw;gLk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

jhf;Fz;l ,iyfisa[k;/ rUFfisa[k;/ nrfhpj;J vhpj;Jtpl ntz;Lk;.

,g;g{r;rpapidf; fl;Lg;gLj;j xU ypl;lh; ePUf;F 2 kpyp ilbkj;njhnal; (m) 1 kpyp gh!;nghkplhd; (m) 2 kpyp kPijy;blkplhd; g{r;rpf; bfhy;ypa[ld; Oghy; (xl;Lk; jputk;) (1 kpyp xU ypl;lh; ePUf;F) fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

C. ngd;

1.          g{tpjH; ngd; - ,sk; kw;Wk; tsh;e;j ngd;fs; g{tpjH;fspYk;/ gHj;jpYk; rhw;iw cwp";Rfpd;wd.

2.         fha;g;ngd; - ,sk; kw;Wk; tsh;e;j g{r;rpfs; gp";RfspYk;/ fha;fspYk; rhw;iw cwp";Rfpd;wd.

 

mwpFwpfs;

ghjpf;fg;gl;l ,lk; fodg;gFjpfshf khwptpLk;

ghjpf;fg;gl;l fha; kw;Wk; gH';fspy; njhy; gFjpapy; fUik/ gGg;g[ epwj;jpy; JUg;gpoj;J nghd;w fodg;gFjpfs; bjd;gLk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

g{f;Fk; jUzj;jpy; khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; 1 kpyp ePhpy; fye;J (Oghy; 1 kpyp-ypl;lh; ePhpy;) xl;Lk; jputk; nrh;j;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

thiHiaj; jhf;Fk; neha;fs;

m. gdhkh thly; neha;

            ,J xU g{rzj;jhy; Vw;glf;Toa nehahFk;. Ie;J khjj;jpw;Fk; nkw;gl;l thiHapid ,e;neha; jhf;Ffpd;wJ. ,g;g{rzk; E}w;g[G my;yJ ntWtifapy; njhd;Wk; fha';fs; tHpahf cl;g[Fe;J nehia cz;lhf;Ffpd;wJ. kz;zpy; thGk; ,g;g{rzk; fpH';F \ykhft[k;/ ePh; \ykhft[k; gut[fpd;wJ. E}w;g[G ,Uf;Fk; njhl;l';fspy; ,e;nehapd; mwpFwp kpf mjpf mstpy; bjd;gLk;.

 

            brt;thiH/ u!;jhsp/ bkhe;jd;/ gr;irehld;/ fw;g{uts;sp/ tpUg;ghl;rp kw;Wk; gy ehl;L ,uf tiffis ,e;neha; jhf;fp bgUkst[ nrjj;ij tpistpf;fpd;wJ. Mdhy; Fl;ilthiH/ g{td;/ nee;jpud; nghd;w tiffs; ,e;nehapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy.

 

mwpFwpfs;

neha; jhf;fg;gl;l thiH kuj;jpd; fPH;kl;l ,iyfspd; xuk; Kjypy; k";rshf khWk;. gpd;dh; ,e;neha; jPtpukhFk;nghJ ,iyf;fhk;g[ gFjpapy; xoe;J bjh';f Muk;gpf;Fk;. ehsiltpy; ,iyfs; tho kuj;jpd; jz;oid Rw;wpf; fhzg;gLk;.

,sk; fd;Wfis jhf;fpdhy; ,iyfs; KGtJk; gphpahky; RUz;L fhzg;gLk;. gpd;dh; k";rs; epwkhf khwp thl Muk;gpf;Fk;.

jz;Lg;gFjpapy; ePs;thf;fpy; btog;g[fs; bjd;gLk;.

jz;Lg;gFjpapy; FWf;F thl;oy; ghh;j;jhy; tl;ltl;lkhf ,g;g{rzk; jhf;fp mGfpag; gFjpfisf; fhzyhk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

thly; nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l tay;fspypUe;J fd;Wfis eltpw;F njh;t[ bra;af;TlhJ.

,e;nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ku';fis fpH';Fld; tay;fspy; ,Ue;J mfw;wp vhpj;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW mfw;wg;gl;l FHpfspy; 1-2 fpnyh Rz;zhk;g[ ,lntz;Lk;.

neha; tuhky; jLf;f fd;W elt[ bra;J 3/ 5 kw;Wk; 7-tJ khj';fspy; thiHapd; mog;ghfj;jpy; rpwpjst[ kz;iz mfw;wp fpH';F gFjpapy; 45 ofphp nfhzj;jpy; 6 br.kP MHj;jpw;F rha;thf Jis ,l;L mjpy; 3 kpyp fhh;bgd;lrpk; fiuriy (2 rjk;) Crp \yk; brYj;jyhk; (my;yJ) 50-60 kpy;yp fpuhk; fhh;bgd;lrpk; epug;gpa Fg;gpfis brYj;jp/ Jisapid fspkz; bfhz;L g{rptpl ntz;Lk;.

thly; neha; mjpfk; cs;s gFjpfspy; ,e;neha;f;F vjph;g;g[j;jpwd; bfhz;l g{td;/ buhgh!;lh thiHfisg; gaphplyhk;.

tpijf; fpH';Ffis bre;epwf; FHpfs; eP';Fk; tiu rPtp elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

ghjpf;fg;gl;l gFjpapypUe;J ePh; ey;y ku';fSf;F nghfhky; ghh;j;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;oaJ mtrpak;.

el;l \d;whk; khjj;jpy; fd;W xd;Wf;F 25 Kjy; 50 fpuhk; oiunfhlh;kh tphpo caph;g;g{";rhdf; bfhy;ypia bjhG cuj;Jld; fye;J ,Ltjhy; nehapd; jhf;Fjy; Fiwa[k;.

 

M. ghf;Ohpah thly; (m) nkhf;nfh thly; neha;

            ,e;nehahdJ bgUk;ghYk; g{r;rpfs; kw;Wk; E}w;g[Gf;fshy; Vw;gLk; fha';fs; tHpahfj; njhd;wp gut[fpwJ. buhg!;lh kw;Wk; nee;jpud; uf';fspy; mjpf ghjpg;g[ bjd;gLk;.

 

mwpFwpfs;

gdhkh thly; neha; nghd;wpy;yhky; FUj;J gFjpia xl;o ,Uf;Fk; ,iyfs; KjypYk;/ gpd;g[ btspg;g[wKs;s ,iyfSk; ghjpf;fg;gl;L ,iyf;fhk;g[ld; xoe;J bjh';Fk;. mjhtJ neha; jhf;fpa thiHapd; ,iyfs; cs; tl;lj;jpypUe;J btsptl;lk; nehf;fp fha;e;JtpLk;.

fd;Wfs; jz;Lg;gFjp nyrhd btog;g[ld; xUg[wk; rha;e;jthW ,Uf;Fk;.

fpH';Fg;gFjp btz;ik fye;J rhk;gy; epwj;jpy; fhzg;gLtJld; mGfpa gprpd; toa[k;.

bghpa ku';fspy; ,iyfspy; mwpFwpfs; bjd;glhJ. fha;fs; KjpUk; Kd;ng gGj;J fha;e;J mGfptpLk;. xG';fw;w totj;ij mila[k;. fha;fspy; btog;g[ Vw;gLk;. rijg;gFjp fUk;gGg;g[ epwkhf ,Uf;Fk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

neha; jhf;fpa ,l';fspypUe;J fd;Wfisj; njh;t[ bra;af;TlhJ.

bgUk;ghYk; tz;Lfspd; \yk; ,e;neha; gut[tjpdhy; filrp rPg;g[ tphpe;J Rkhh; xU thu fhyj;jpw;Fs; Mz; g{it mfw;wptpLtJ ey;yJ.

thiHapd; fha';fs; Vw;gLtij jtph;f;f ntz;Lk;

jhpR tpLjy;/ ey;y tofhy; trjp kw;Wk; gaph; RHw;rpa[k; ,e;nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;.

!;blhpg;nlhikrpd; ry;ngl; xU fpuhk; vd;w mstpy; 10 ypl;lh; ePhpy; fye;J ,jDld; Oghy; vDk; xl;Lk; jputk; (xU kpyp-ypl;lh; ePh;) nrh;j;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

mjpf ghjpg;g[ Vw;gLk; bghGJ gdhkh thly; neha;fF Crp \yk; kUe;J brYj;JtJ nghy; ,e;j neha;f;Fk; kUe;J brYj;jyhk;.

 

,. rpf;fhnlhf;fh ,iyg;g[s;sp neha;

            gy ,l';fspy; thiHr;rhFgoapy; bgUj;j nrjj;ij Vw;gLj;jf;ToajhFk;. ,e;nehapd; jhf;Fjy; kfNy; ,Hg;ig neuoahf fz;Lgpof;f ,ayhjjhy; tptrhapfs; ,e;nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j Kaw;rpfs; nkw;bfhs;Stjpy;iy.

 

mwpFwpfs;

,iyapd; nkw;g[wj;jpy; rpW rpW g[s;spfs; njhd;wp mit ePs totj;jpy; gGg;g[ epwg; g[s;spfshf khWk;. ,it xd;W nrh;e;J ,iy KGtJk; gutp gpd;dh; fha;e;J rUfhfpd;wd.

,e;nehapdhy; xspr;nrh;f;if bgUkst[ ghjpf;fg;gl;L thiHapd; tsh;r;rp jilgLk;.

Fiy rpWf;Fk; fha;fs; tise;J fhzg;gLk;.

beUf;fkhf elt[ bra;j njhl;l';fspy;/ tofhy; trjp Fiwthd gFjpfs; kw;Wk; fis mjpfkhd gFjpfspy; ,e;nehapd; jhf;Fjy; mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

ghjpf;fg;gl;l ,iyfis Kjypy; mfw;wp mHpf;f ntz;Lk;.

vf;lUf;F ,uz;L fpnyh fhg;gh; Mf;!p FnshiuL (my;yJ) 500 fpuhk; fhh;bgz;lrpk; (my;yJ) ,uz;L fpnyh khd;nfhbrg; g{rzf;bfhy;ypapid \d;whk; ghjj;jpypUe;J khjk; xU Kiw bjspf;ft[k;. kiHf;fhyj;jpw;F Kd;g[ g{";rhsf; bfhy;yp bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. gjpide;J ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw nehapd; jPtpuj;ijg; bghWj;J kUe;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

<. gH mGfy; g[s;spfs;

            gr;irthiH kw;Wk; u!;jhsp uf';fs; mjpfk; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. g{rzkhdJ gp";R fha; gUtj;jpnyna njhYf;Fs; g[Fe;JtpLfpwJ. fha;fs; ed;F Kjph;e;jJk; g{rzk; tsh;e;J gH';fspy; g[s;spfs; njhd;Wk;.

 

mwpFwpfs;

g{ kw;Wk; gH';fspd; kPJ fUk;g[s;spfs; bjd;gLk;. gpd;dh; ,it bghpajhfp xd;wpize;J fhzg;gLk;.

gHr;rPg;g[ rpWj;J/ thoapUf;Fk; gpd;dh; bkhj;j Fiya[k; rpWj;Jf; fhzg;gLk;.

Kw;wpa epiyapy; gHj;jpd; rijg;gFjpapYk; fUk;g[s;spfs; bjd;gl;L mGfptpLk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

fha;fs; btspte;jJk;/ fha;fspd; Edpg;ghfj;jpy; cs;s g{f;fis eRf;fptpl;L xU rjtPjk; nghh;nlh fyitia bjspf;ft[k;.

xU ypl;lh; ePhpy; 2.5 fpuhk; fhg;gh; Mf;!p FnshiuL (my;yJ) xU fpuhk; fhh;bgz;lrpk; g{rzf;bfhy;ypia gH';fspd; kPJ 15 ehs; ,ilbtspapy; ehd;F Kiw bjspf;ft[k;.

nrkpg;gpy; ,e;nehiaj; jtph;f;f xU ypl;lh; ePhpy; xU fpuhk; fhh;bgz;lrpk; kw;Wk; 100 gpgpvk; mhpnahg";rpd;rhy; fiurypy; eidj;J itf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

c. Kof;bfhj;J neha;

            rhFgo bra;ag;gLk; midj;J thiH uf';fisa[k; midj;J tajpYk; jhf;fp bgUj;j nrjj;ija[k; e#;lj;ija[k; Vw;gLj;jf;ToaJ MFk;. Fwpg;ghf kiythiHapy; ,jd; jhf;Fjy; mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. kl;o/ gr;ir thiHiaa[k; ,e;neha; mjpf mstpy; jhf;Ffpd;wJ.

 

            thiH Kof;bfhj;J neha; xU er;Raphp tif nehahFk;. ,J bgUk;ghYk; Fl;il uf';fis mjpfkhf jhf;Fk;. ,e;neha; gut Kf;fpa fhuzpahf mRtzp jpfH;fpwJ. ,it FUj;Jg;gFjpapYk; ,iy ciw gFjpapYk; Tl;lk;/ Tl;lkhff; fhzg;gLk;. nkYk; ,e;neha; xU ,lj;jpypUe;J kw;bwhU ,lj;jpw;F fd;W \ykhfj;jhd; gut[fpd;wJ.

 

mwpFwpfs;

ku';fspd; tsh;r;rp Fd;wp Fl;ilahfj; bjd;gLk;. nkYk; ,iyfs; rpWj;Jk;/ FUj;J gFjpapy; bfhj;jhf mLf;fp itf;fg;gl;lJ nghy; fhzg;gLk;.

,iyapd; euk;g[ gFjpapy; fUk;gr;ir epwf;nfhLfs; ,ilapilna fhzg;gLk;.

,iyapd; Xu';fs; tise;J nky;g[wkhf rw;nw koe;Jk; fhzg;gLk;.

neha; jhf;fg;gl;l ku';fspypUe;J thiHf;Fiy njhd;WtJ/ rpy neu';fspy; thiHj; jz;il gpse;J bfhz;L Fiyj; js;StJ cz;L. mitfs; rpWj;Jf; fhzg;gLk;.

nehapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ku';fspd; fpH';Fg; gFjpa[k; rpWj;Jf; fhzg;gLk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

ghjpf;fg;gl;l fpH';nfhL gf;ff; fd;Wfisa[k; bgah;j;J vLj;J vhpj;J mHpf;f ntz;Lk;

,e;neha; jhf;fg;glhj tay;fspypUe;J ey;y Mnuhf;fpakhd fd;Wfis eltpw;F njh;t[ bra;tJ mtrpak;.

,e;neha; gut Kf;fpa fhuzpaha; tps';Fk; mRtzpiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j vf;fUf;F ilbkj;njhnal; 500 kpyp (m) kPijy; blkplhd; 500 kpyp (m) gh!;nghkplhd; 250 kpyp (m) khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; 250 kpyp kUe;jpid FUj;Jg;gFjp ,iyfs; kw;Wk; gl;ilfspd; ,ilbtsp ed;whf eida[khW bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

C. thpj;njky; neha;

            ,e;neha; xU tif er;Raphpapdhy; Vw;gLfpd;wdJ. ,e;nehapid mRtzpfs; gug;g[fpd;wd. ,e;neha; g{td; kw;Wk; brt;thiHia mjpfk; ghjpf;fpd;wJ.

 

mwpFwpfs;

,iyapd; gug;g[ rhptu mikahky; ,Uf;Fk;.

,iyfspy; fUk;gr;irf; nfhLfs; ePsthf;fpy; jpl;Lf;fshfj; bjd;gLk;.

,iy Xu';fs; koe;Jk;/ ,iyapd; Edp gy;ntwhfg; gpst[g;gl;Lk; fhzg;gLk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

,e;neha; gug;g[k; mRtpzpiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j vf;lUf;F ilbkj;njhbal; 500 kpyp (m) gh!;nghkplhd; 250 kpyp (m) kPijy;blkhd; 500 kpyp (m) khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; 250 kpyp vd;w mstpy; xl;Lk; jputk; nrh;j;J bjspf;ft[k;.

,e;neha; jhf;fhj tay;fspypUe;J eltpw;F fd;Wfis njh;t[ bra;at[k;.

khw;Wg; gapuhf jf;fhsp kw;Wk; g{rzp tiffis thiHapy; CLgapuhfg; gapulf;TlhJ.

 

v. kly; njky; neha;

            midj;J thiH uf';fspYk;/ gy;ntW thiH rhFgo bra;a[k; gFjpfspYk; ,e;nehapd; jhf;Fjy; bjd;gLfpwJ.

 

mwpFwpfs;

jz;Lg;gFjpapy; ,sk; rptg;g[ld; Toa jpl;Lf;fs; ePsthf;fpy; bjd;gLk;. ,nj tifahd ,sk; rptg;g[ jpl;Lf;fSk; ,iyapd; mog;g[wf; fhk;g[fspYk; bjhlh;r;rpahfj; bjd;gLk;. (rpy rka';fspy; k";rs; fye;j btsph; gr;irahd jpl;Lf;fs; bjd;gLk;) ,nj tifahd jpl;Lf;fs; thiHf; Fiyapd; jz;Lg;gFjpapYk;/ thiHg; g{tpd; kly;fspYk; fhzg;gLk;. nkYk; g{ kly;fs; rpWj;J RU';fpapUf;Fk;.

thiHf;Fiyapd; tsh;r;rp Fd;wpa[k; vil Fiwe;Jk; jukpHe;Jk; fhzg;gLk;.

 

fl;Lg;ghL

jhf;fg;gl;l thiHapid mfw;wp mHpf;ft[k;

neha;j jhf;fhj tay;fspypUe;J fd;Wfisj; njh;t[ bra;J elt[ bra;at[k;.

 

mWtil kw;Wk; kfNy;   

            thiHapy; mWtil taJ/ ,ufk; kw;Wk; elt[ fd;wpd; taJ Mfpatw;iw bghWj;J khWgLk;. bghJthf Fl;il ,uf';fs; 11-12 khj';fspYk; caukhd ,uf';fs; 13-14 khj';fspYk; mWtilf;F tUk;. Fiyfs; jhh; btsp te;j 90 Kjy; 120 ehl;fspy; btl;l jahuhFk;. fha;fspy; cs;s nfhz totk; khWgl;L tl;lkhf khWtijf; bfhz;L fha;fspd; Kjph;r;rpia fzf;fplyhk;. ,ufk; kw;Wk; rPnjh#;z epiyiag; bghWj;J kfNy; Rkhh; 40 Kjy; 60 ld;fs; tiu xU vf;lhpypUe;J bgwyhk;.

 

            bghJthf thiHiag; gGf;f itf;f jhh;fis \l;lk; nghl;L g[if nghLtJ eilKiwapy; ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. ,k;Kiwapy; gGf;f itg;gjhy; g[ifapd; thil gH';fspy; fhzg;gLk;. etPd Kiwapy; gH';fis gGf;f itf;f fhw;W g[fhky; cs;s miwapy; jhh;fis mLf;fp vj;jpuy; (5000 gp.gp.vk;) vd;w tsh;r;rp Cf;fpia rpwpa gP';fhd; Ftisapy; itj;J nrhoak; iQl;uhf;irL tpy;iyia nrh;f;Fk; nghJ vj;jpypd; vdg;gLk; tha[ cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLfpwJ.  ,t;thW bra;tjhy; jhh;fspy; cs;s gH';fs; rPuhf k";rs; epwkiltJld; ve;jtpl thila[k; ,Ug;gjpy;iy.

 

thiHapd; kUj;Jt Fz';fs;

        thiH kuj;jpypUe;J fpilf;Fk; njd; kpft[k; rf;jp tha;e;jJ. gytif kUe;Jfs; bra;a cjt[k;. Fwpg;ghf kHiyf; FHe;ijfSf;F fhiy ntisapy; rpwpjst[ bfhLj;J te;jhy; neha; vjph;g;g[ rf;jp fpilf;Fk;.

        thiHg;g{ thjk; rk;ge;jkhf Vw;glf;Toa gytif neha;f;Fk; kUe;jhFk;.

        jz;L ePhpHpt[ rk;ge;jkhf gytif neha;fSf;F kpf rpwe;j kUe;J. rpWePh;g; igapy; Vw;glf;Toa fy;iy vt;tpj ghjpg;g[k; ,y;yhky; fiuf;ff;Toa rf;jp thiHj; jz;Lf;F cz;L.

        thiHj;jz;L rhw;Wld; fPHhbey;yp rhW nrh;j;J gUfp te;jhy; k";rs; fhkhiy FzkhFk;.

        jPf;fhak; Vw;gl;lhy; Kjy; cjtpahf thiHg;gl;ilr; rhw;iw cgnahfpf;fyhk;.

        thiHr;rhW ghk;g[f;fo tp# Kwpt[f;F cgnahfg;gLfpwJ.

 

Home page

Top of this page