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jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo

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  1. jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo - Xh; mwpKfk;

  2. Kf;fpa fhuzpfs;

  3. Kf;fpa Fwpf;nfhs;

  4. ehw;w';fhy; guhkhpg;g[

  5. elt[ tay; jahh; bra;jy;

  6. ,L bghUl;fspd; rpf;fdk;

  7. gad;fs;

  8. Muha;r;rp Kot[fs;

 

tPonah glk;

i.

jukhd bey; tpijj; njh;t[

ii.

tPhpa xl;L bey; rhFgo

 

            jkpH;ehl;oy; 21 ,yl;rk; vf;nlh; gug;gstpy;/ Mz;blhd;Wf;F Rkhh; 72 ,yl;rk; ld; bey; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. ruhrhp vf;nlh; cw;gj;jp 3.4 ld; vd;w mstpy;/ jkpH;ehL/ ,e;jpahtpy; ,uz;lhtJ ,lj;jpy; cs;sJ. Fiwthd bey; kfNYf;F/ fhuz';fs; gythf ,Ue;jhYk; tsh;e;J tUk; kf;fl;bjhiff;nfw;g czt[ njitia g{h;j;jp bra;a/ bey; kfNiy gy kl';F mjpfhpf;f ntz;oa fl;lha NH;epiyapy; cs;nshk;. nkYk; fhtphp Mw;Wg;ghrd gFjpfspy; nkl;?h; fhy;thapy; ePh;tuj;J ,y;yhj NH;epiyapy;/ khw;Wg;gaph; rhFgo xU ey;y jPh;thf mika[k;. nkYk;/ bey; rhFgo gug;ig Fiwj;J/ Fiwe;j gug;gstpy; mjpf kfNy; vLg;gjd; \yk;/ bey; cw;gj;jpapy; xU !;jpujd;ik Vw;gLj;JtJld;/ v";rpa ghrdg; ghrdg; gug;gpy; gzg;gaph;fis rhFgo bra;tjd; \yk; tptrhapfspd; bghUshjhu epiyiaa[k; nkk;gLj;jyhk;. ,j;jifa NH;epiyapy;/ Fiwe;j ePiu gad;gLj;jp/ Rw;Wf; NHiy ed;F guhkhpj;J Fiwe;j ,LbghUs; brytpy; bey; cw;gj;jpia mjpfg;gLj;Jk; xU bjhHpy; Eqf;fnk jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo KiwahFk;.

 

            jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo KiwahdJ 1980 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; fpH';F klfh!;fh; ehl;oy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;L mjd; \yk; me;ehl;oy; mjpf bey; kfNiy tptrhapfs; mile;Js;sdh;. ,g;g[jpa bjhHpy; El;gkhdJ rPdh/ ,e;njhndrpah/ gpypg;igd;!;/ ,y';if/ neg;ghsk; kw;Wk; g';fshnj#; nghd;w ehLfspy; ghpnrhjpf;fg;gl;L ey;y Kot[fs; fpilj;Js;sd. Rw;Wr; NHiy ghjpf;fh tz;zk;/ ,aw;ifnahL ,iae;j jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd tptrhapfs; ,wit bey; rhFgoapy; vf;nlUf;F 6 - 10  ld; tiu kfNy; vLj;Js;sdh;. rpy tptrhapfs; vf;nlUf;F 2 ld; kfNy; bfhLf;ff;Toa tsk; Fiwe;j kz;zpy; Tl ruhrhpahf vf;nlUf;F 8 ld; kfNy; vLf;fpwhh;fs;. ,e;jpahtpy; Fwpg;ghf jkpH;ehl;oy; fhtphp Mw;Wg;ghrdg; gFjpapy; mike;Js;s Muha;r;rp epiya';fs; kl;Lkpd;wp tptrhapfspd; tay;fspYk; ,k;Kiwia nkw;bfhz;ljhy;/ mjpf kfNy; fpilj;Js;sJ.

 

            rhjhuzkhf bey; rhFgoapy; 20 - 30 ehs; tsh;r;rpaile;j ehw;Wf;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. nkYk;/ mjpf ehw;Wf;fis itj;J elt[ bra;jy;/ beUf;fp elt[ bra;jy;/ epyj;jpy; ePiuj; bjhlh;e;J njf;fp itj;J rhFgo bra;jy; nghd;w Kiwfs; filgpof;fg;gLfpd;wd.

 

            jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapd; Kf;fpa mk;r';fshd/ 14 ehs; taJila thspg;ghd 2-3 ,iyfisf; bfhz;l ehw;Wf;fis Fj;Jf;F xU ehw;W tPjk; mjpf ,ilbtsp tpl;L (22.5 x 22.5 br.kP) rJu elt[ Kiwapy; elg;gl;L/ nuhl;lhp my;yJ nfhndh tPlh; \yk; el;l 14k; ehspypue;J fisfis mKf;fp nrw;iw fyf;fp/ ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;o ghrd ePhpd; msit Fiwj;J kw;Wk; gr;ir tz;z ml;il \yk; jiHr;rj;J eph;thfk; bra;ag;gLfpwJ.

           

            jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapid ifahStjd; \yk; ,LbghUl;fSf;fhf brytplf;Toa bjhifapy; mjpfk; nrkpf;f Koa[k;. ghrd ePhpy; Rkhh; 300 kp.kP Kjy; 400 kp. kP mst[ ePiu nrkpf;f Koa[k;. Fiwe;j mst[ tpij tpij bfhz;L jpUe;jpa gha; ehw;w';fhy; \yk; thspg;ghd ehw;Wf;fis jahhpg;gjhy; tpijf;fhd bryt[ Fiwa[k;.

 

            gr;ir tz;z ml;il cjtpa[ld; njitahd rkaj;jpy; jiHr;rj;J cukpLtjhy;/ cuj;jpw;fhd bryt[k; Fiwfpd;wJ.

 

            ,j;jifa xU';fpize;j bray;ghl;odhy;/ fjph; cs;s J}h;fs; kw;Wk; fjphpy; bey;kzpfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpg;gjhy; TLjy; bey; kfNy; bgwKoa[k;.

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo

            cyfj;jpd; Kjd;ikahd czt[ jhdpak; bey; vdyhk;. Vbdd;why; cyfpd; kf;fl;bjhifapy; ghjpf;Fk; nkw;gl;lth;fs; mhprpiana gpujhd czthff; bfhs;fpd;wdh;. cyfpd; 89 ehLfspy; Mz;Lf;F Rkhh; 515 kpy;ypad; ld; bey; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLfpwJ. cyfpnyna ,e;jpahtpy; jhd; mjpf gug;gstpy; Rkhh; 42.3 kpy;ypad; vf;nlh; epyg;gug;gpy; bey; rhFgo bra;ag;gl;L/ Rkhh; 122.2 kpy;ypa;d ld; mst[f;F/ rPdht[f;F mLj;jgoahf cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;jpahtpd; ruhrhp bey; cw;gj;jp vf;nlUf;F Rkhh; 2.89 ld;dhFk;. Mdhy; M!;jpnuypah (8.2 ld;)/ vfpg;J (7.3 ld;)/ mbkhpf;fh (6.3 ld;)/ bfhhpah (6.2 ld;)/ $g;ghd; (5.9 ld;)/ rPdh (5.7 ld;) nghd;w cyf ehLfspd; vf;nlh; cw;gj;jpia xg;gpLifapy;/ ,e;jpa ehl;od; bey; cw;gj;jp kpft[k; FiwthFk;.

 

            jkpH;ehl;oy; 21 ,yl;rk; vf;nlh; gug;gstpy;/ Mz;blhd;Wf;F Rkhh; 72 ,yl;rk; ld; bey; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLfpd;wdJ. ruhrhp vf;nlh; cw;gj;jp 3.4 ld; mstpy;/ ,e;jpahtpy; jkpH;ehL ,uz;lhtJ ,lj;jpy; cs;sJ. Fiwthd bey; kfNYf;F/ fhuz';fs; gythf ,Ue;jhYk;/ tsh;e;J tUk; kf;fl; bjhiff;nfw;g czt[ njitia g{h;j;jp bra;a bey; kfNiy gy kl';f mjpfhpf;f ntz;oa fl;lha NH;epiyapy; cs;nshk;. nkYk;/ fhtphp Mw;Wg;ghrd gFjpfspy; nkl;?h; fhy;thapy; ePh;tuj;J ,y;yhj NH;epiyapy;/ khw;Wg;gaph; rhFgo xU ey;y jPh;thf mika[k;. nkYk;/ bey; rhFgo gug;ig Fiwj;J/ Fiwe;j gug;gstpy; mjpf kfNy; vLg;gjd; \yk; bey; cw;gj;jpapy; xU !;jpujd;ik Vw;gLj;JtJld;/ v";rpa ghrdg; gug;gpy; gzg;gaph;fis rhFgo bra;tjd; \yk; tptrhapfspd; bghUshjhu epiyiaa[k; nkk;gLj;jyhk;. ,j;jifa NH;epiyapy;/ Fiwe;j ePiu gad;gLj;jp Rw;Wr; NHiy ed;F guhkhpj;J Fiw;ej ,LbghUs; brytpy; bey; cw;gj;jpia mjpfg;gLj;Jk; bjhHpy; Eqf;fnk "jpUe;jpa bry; rhFgo" KiwahFk;. Rw;Wr;NHiy ghjpf;fh tz;zk;/ ,aw;ifnahL ,iae;j jpUe;j bey; rhFgo Kiw Kjd; Kjypy; klfh!;fh; ehl;oy; fz;lwpag;gl;L bray;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd tptrhapfs; ,e;j Kiwapy;/ ,wit bey; rhFgoapy; tptrhapfs; ,e;j Kiwapy;/ ,wit bey; rhFgoapy; vf;nlUf;F 6 - 10 ld; tiu kfNy; vLj;Js;sdh;. rpy tptrhapfs; vf;nlUf;F 2 ld; kfNy; bfhLf;ff;Toa tsk; Fiwe;j kz;zpy; tl ruhrhpahf vf;nlUf;F 8 ld; kfNy; vLf;fpwhh;fs;. gy ,l';fspy; kfNy; 15 ld; tiu fpilj;Js;sJ. rpy tptrhapfs; mjpfgl;rkhf vf;nlUf;F 20 ld; tiu kfNy; bgw;Ws;sdh;. mjhtJ ,k;Kiwapy; vy;yh ,uf';fspYnk ,uz;L kl';F kfNy; fpilj;Js;sJ. 1994 - 99 tiu elj;jpa Muha;r;rpapy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo bra;j tptrhapfSf;F vf;nlUf;F 6.7 Kjy; 11.2 ld; tiu kfNy; fpilj;jjhff; fz;lwpag;gl;ls;sJ. nkYk; ,e;j Muha;;r;rpapy;/ cah; tpisr;ry; ,uf';fisa[k;/ ,urhad cu';fisa[k; gad;gLj;jpa tptrhapfs; vf;nlUf;F 7.8 Kjy; 12.3 ld; tiu bey; kfNy; bgw;Ws;shh;fs;. Mdhy; eilKiwapy; cs;s rhFgoapy; Rkhh; 6.95 ld; kfNy; kl;Lk; bgw;Ws;shh;fs;.

 

            jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo KiwahdJ 1980 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; fpHf;F klfh!;fh; ehl;oy; ghjh; bQd;wp o yhydp vd;gth; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;L mjd; \yk; me;ehl;oy; mjpf bey; kfNiy tptrhapfs; mile;Js;sdh;. ,g;g[jpa bjhHpy; El;gkhdJ irdh/ ,e;njhndrpah/ gpypg;igd;!;/ ,y';if neg;ghsk; kw;Wk; g';fshnj#; nghd;w ehLfspy; ghpnrhjpf;fg;gl;L ey;y Kot[fs; fpilj;Js;sd. ,e;jpahtpy; Fwpg;ghf jkpH;ehl;oy; fhtphp Mw;Wg;ghrdg; gFjpapy; mike;Js;s Muha;r;rp epiya';fs; kl;Lkpd;wp tptrhapfspy; tay;fspYk; ,k;Kiwia gpd;gw;wp mjpf bey; kfNy; fpilg;gjw;fhd tha;g;g[fs; mjpfkhf ,Ug;gJ bjhpa te;Js;sd.

 

rPdhtpy;

            klfh!;fhpy; fz;lwpe;j ,j;jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo gw;wp rPdhtpy; cs;s ehd;$p'; ntshz;ikg; gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpy; jhd; Kjd; Kjypy; Muha;r;rp nkw;bfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,g;gy;fiHf;fHfj;jpy; cHtpay; Jiwapy; 1999 k; Mz;L ($Pd; - mf;nlhgh;) 25 x 25 x 20 x  20 kw;Wk; 30 x  30 br. kP elt[ ,ilbtspapy; nkw;bfhs;sg;gl;l Ma;tpy;/ Kiwna vf;nlUf;F 9.5/ 9.2 kw;Wk; 10.5 ld; bey; kfNy; vf;nlUf;F 6 ld;fs; MFk;. ,jpy; Kf;fpakhf ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ vd;dbtd;why;/ rhjhuz bey; rhFgof;F gad;gLj;jpa ghrd ePhpy; ghjp mst[ kl;Lnk. ,e;j jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

,e;njhndrPahtpy;

            ,e;njhndrPah ehl;oYs;s czt[ gaph;fSf;fhd kj;jpa Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; 1999-2000 y; elj;jg;gl;l Ma;tpy;/ jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; vf;nlUf;F 9.5 ld; kfNy; fpilj;Js;sJ. ,k;Kiwia gad;gLj;jpa tptrhapfs; vf;nlUf;F Rkhh; 5.9 Kjy; 6.9 ld; tiu bey; kfNy; vLj;Js;sdh;.

 

 

            jtpu/ neghsk;/ fk;nghoah/ ,y';if/ fpa{gh/ g';fshnjrk;/ bfhyk;gpah/ bjd; mbkhpf;fh/ fdlh kw;Wk; ,e;jpah nghd;w ehLfspy; ,j;jpl;lk; brayhf;fk; bgw;W tUfpd;wJ. jkpHfj;jpy;/ Fwpg;ghf fhtphp Mw;Wg; ghrdg; gFjpapy; bey; rhFgo xU Kf;fpa ntshz: bjhHpyhf bjhd;Wbjhl;L ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. vdpDk; fle;j rpy Mz;Lfshf nghJkhd kiHapd;ik kw;Wk; fhtphp ejpePh; gw;whf;Fiw fhuzkhf Vw;gl;l twl;rpahy; bey; rhFgo gug;g[ kpFjpahf Fiwe;jJld; kfNYk; btFkhf Fiwe;Jtpl;lJ. fhtphp ejpePh;g; gw;whf;Fiwia bjhlh;e;J epyj;jo ePh; kpFjpahf cgnahfg;gLj;jg;gl;ljhy; bew;gapUf;Fj; njitahd ePh; Mjhu';fs; Fiwe;J bfhz;nl tUfpd;wd. ghrd ePUf;F mLj;jgoahf tptrhaj; bjhHpyhsh;fspd; gw;whf;Fiw kw;Wk; Typ cah;t[/ ,LbghUl;fspd; tpiy Vw;wk; Mfpaitfs; bey; rhFgo bra;a[k; tptrhapfis nkYk; ghjpg;gilar; bra;fpd;wd. bgUfp tUk; kf;fl;bjhiff;F Vw;g bey; gaphpy; khWgl;l bey; rhFgo bjhHpy; El;g';fis ifahz;L/ Fiwe;j ,LbghUs; brytpy; mjpf bey; cw;gj;jp bra;tjd; \yk; bey; rhFgoia xU ,yhgfukhd bjhHpyhf khw;w Koa[k;. mj;jifabjhU bjhHpy; El;gk; jhd; "jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo" vd;w xU';fpize;j bew;gaph; eph;thfk;.

 

            jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapy; Fwpg;gpl;l cHtpay; nkhyz;ik Kiwfis ifahStjd; \yk; bey; gapUf;F Fwpg;ghf nth; kz;lyj;jpy; gaph; tsh;r;rpf;fhd ey;y R{H;epiyia Vw;gLj;jp bfhLf;f KofpwJ.

 

            ,k;Kiwapy; bew;gapiu xU ve;jpukhf fzpf;fg;gl;lhky; xU capUs;s $Ptdhf fUjg;gl;L gaphpYs;s KGj;jpwida[k; btspf; bfhzh;tjw;F mtw;wpd; tsh;r;rpf;fhf njitahd midj;J R{H;epiyfisa[k; cUthf;fpf; bfhLf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

            rhjhuzkhf bey; rhFgoapy; 20-30 ehs; tsh;r;rpaile;j ehw;Wf;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. nkYk;/ mjpf ehw;Wf;fis itj;J elt[ bra;jy;/ beUf;fp elt[ bra;jy;/ epyj;jpy; ePiuj; bjhlh;e;J njf;fp itj;J rhFgo bra;jy; nghd;w KiwfshFk;. ,k;Kiwfspdhy; fPH;f;fz;l mDTy';fs; fpilf;fpd;wd vd;w fUj;Jf;fs; tptrhapfsplk; cs;sd.

 

        gaph; ,Hg;g[ jtph;f;fg;gLfpwJ.

        tsh;e;j ehw;Wf;fis eLtjd; \yk; tpiutpy; caph; gpiHf;Fk; vd;w fUj;J.

        Fj;Jf;F mjpf ehw;Wf;fis eLtjhy; rpy ehw;Wf;fs; koe;J nghdhYk; kw;w ehw;Wf;fs: jiHf;Fk; vd:w ek;gpf;if.

        mjpf ehw;Wf;fis FUfpa ,ilbtspapy; eLtjhy; mjp kfR{y; bgwyhk; vd;w vz;zk;.

        ePh; fpilf;Fk;nghJ ePiuf; njf;fp itj;Jf; bfhs;syhk;/ fis tsh;r;rpf;fhd R{H;epiy Fiwt[ kw;Wk; bjhlh;e;J mjpf ePiuj; njf;fp itg;gjw;F jpwiknah my;yJ jpwikahd Ml;fs; njit ,y;iy vd;w fUj;J.

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapd; Kf;fpa fhuzpfs;

,sk; ehw;Wf;fs; elt[

          ,U ,iy cs;s 8-15 ehl;fs; taJila ,sk; ehw;Wf;fis nth;kl';fhky; neuhf elt[ bra;tJ rhyr;rpwe;jJ. mjhtJ I totpy; nth; cs;sthW eLtJ kpft[k; rpwe;jJ. L my;yJ J totpy; nth;fs; ,Uf;FkhW el neh;e;jhYk; Xust[ guthapy;iy. Mdhy;/ U totpy; eLtJ kpft[k; jfhj brayhFk;. mjhtJ nth; kl';fp elt[ bra;jhy; mij rhp bra;tjw;F ehw;Wf;fs; mjpf ehl;fSf;F mjpf rf;jpia brytpl ntz;oapUf;Fk;. bew;gaphpd; tpisapay; go/ mjd: tsh;r;rpapy; Kisj;j Kjy; khjj;jpy; mjpf J}h; tpLtjw;F ntz;oa rf;jpiag; bgWfpwJ. ,uz;lhtJ khjj;jpy; mjpf vz;zpf;ifapy; J}h; tpLfpwJ. vdnt/ ,sk; ehw;Wf;fis eLtjhy; mjpf J}h;fis bgw KofpwJ. ,e;j ehw;Wf;fis nth;fs; mWe;JtplhkYk;/ bey; ciwa[ld: (ckp) gphpj;J vLj;J elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. ehw;Wf;fs; fha;e;J tplf;TlhJ. bey; ciw ,sk; ehw;Wf;fSf;F rf;jp mspf;ff;Toa xU rhjdkhfg; gad:gLfpwJ. ehw;Wf;fis ehw;w';fhypypUe;J vLj;j 15 ypUe;J 30 epkpl';fSf;Fs; fha;e;Jtplh tz:zk; elt[ bra;jhf ntz:Lk;.

 

            ,sk; ehw;Wf;fis elt[ bra;a[k; nghJ ftdkhf eLtjhy;/ ehw;Wf;fs; elt[ bra;tjdhy; Vw;gLk; mjph;r;rp ,d;wp tpiutpy; gr;ir gpog;gJld;tsh;r;rp gUtj;jpy; mjpfkhd J}h;fSk; mjpf fjph;fSk;/ fjph;fspy; mjpf kzpfSk; cw;gj;jpahtjw;fhd rhj;jpaf; TWfs; Vw;gLfpd;wd.

 

xw;iw ehw;W elt[ :

            xw;iw ehw;Wf;fis elt[ bra;tjd; \yk; ,lk;/ Nhpa xsp kw;Wk; gaph; cztpw;fhd nghl;o ,d;wp gaph; kw;Wk; nth; tsh;r;rp mjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk;. Kf;fpakhf xw;iw ehw;W eltpy; nth; tsh;r;rp kpft[k; khWgl;L mghpjkhft[s;sJ. ,jdhy; gapuhdJ rj;Jf;fisa[k;/ ePiua[k; mjpfstpy; gad;gLj;jp cah; tpisr;riyj; jUfpwJ.

 

mjpf ,ilbtspapy; elt[ bra;jy; :

            rJu Kiwapy; mjpf ,ilbtspapy; xw;iw ehw;Wf;fis eLtjhy; ehw;Wf;fs; nghl;oapd;wp gaph; tsh;r;rpf;F njitahd ,lk;/ rj;Jf;fs;/ ePh; midj;ija[k; gaph;fspd; ehd;F gf;f';fspYk; vLj;Jf; bfhz;L nghl;oapd;wp tsh;fpd;wd. ,jdhy; vy;yh gf;f';fspYk; nth; tsh;r;rp mjpfhpg;gJld; mjpfkhd Nhpa btspr;rk;/ ey;y fhw;nwhl;lk; kw;Wk; rj;Jf;fSk; njitahd mst[ fpilf;fpd;wJ. ,jdhy; J}h;fspd; vz;zpf;ifa[k; mjpfkhFk;. jtpu fis vLg;gjw;Fk; nghjpa ,ilbtsp fpilf;fpd;wJ. nkYk; xw;iw ehw;Wf;fis mjpf ,ilbtspapy; eLtjhy; tpijj; njita[k; tpijf;fhdbryt[fSk; Fiwfpd;wd.

 

ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;Ljy; :

            rhjhuzkhf bew;gapuhdJ ePh; nj';Fk; jd;ikia jh';fp tsuf;Toa gaph;. ,Ue;jnghjpYk; ePh; nj';Ftjhy; kz;zpy; nth; kz;lyj;jpy; gpuhztha[ ,y;yhj NH;epiyapy; nth; tsh;r;rp kpft[k; ghjpf;fg;gLtJld; gaphpd; tsh;r;rpa[k; bray;ghLfSk; Fiwfpd;wd. jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy;/ fha;r;rYk; gha;r;rYkhf ePh; nj';fhky; ,Ug;gjdhy; nth; tsh;r;rpf;F mjpfgoahd fhw;nwhl;lk; Vw;gLk; NH:epiy Vw;gLfpwJ. ,g;gUtj;jpy; kaphpiHast[ btog;g[ Vw;gLk; mstpw;F fha;r;rYk;/ gha;r;rYkhf ePh;g;ghrdk; bra;tJ rpwe;jhFk;. jtpu jz;zPh; nj';fp epd;why; nth;fs; tsh;tjw;nfh/ mit ePiu vLg;gjw;nfh Xt;thj epiy Vw;gLtJld;/ gpuhztha[ ,y;yhj NHypy; nth;fspd; tsh;r;rpa[k; jilgLfpd;wJ.

 

            ePh; nj';fhky; fis vLf;Fk; nghJ epyj;ij fpswp tpLtjhy;/ nth; kz;lyj;jpy; fhw;nwhl;lj;Jld;/ nth; tsh;r;rpa[k; mjpfhpg;gjhy;/ gapUf;F njitahd rj;Jf;fis mjpf mstpy; vLg;gjw;F tha;g;g[ fpl;Lfpd;wJ. ,j;jifa fha;r;rYk;/ gha;r;rYkhf/ ePh;ghrdk; gaphpd; tsh;r;rpg; gUtj;jpy; mspj;jhy; kl;Lk; nghJkhdjhFk;. gpd;dh; g{ tpLk; rkak; 2.5 br. kP mst[f;F ePh; ghrdk; bra;J/ kz; tifiag; bghWj;J mWtilf;F  10-15 ehl;fSf;F Kd;dh; ePiu toj;J tpl ntz;Lk;.

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapd; Kf;fpa Fwpf;nfhs; :

            Vw;fdnt eilKiwapy; ,Ue;JtUk; bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; rpy khw;w';fisg; gpd;gw;wp mitfis xU';fpizj;J Fiwe;j ,LbghUd; brytpy; mjpf kfNy; bgWtnj ;jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapd; Kf;fpa Fwpf;nfhs; MFk;. jkpH;ehl;oy; jw;rkak; tpthraj;jpw;F fpilf;fToa ghrd ePhpd; mst[ bjhlh;e;J Fiwe;J tUfpwJ. kw;w gaph;fis tpl bew;gapUf;F 3-4 kl';F mjpf ghrd ePh; njit. bkhj;j ghrd ePhpy; 80 tpGf;fhL bey; rhFgof;F cgnahfg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;Ltjd; \yk;/ nky; gug;gpy; ,nyrhd btog;g[fs; Vw;gl;L nth; gFjpapy; mjpf fhw;nwhl;lk; Vw;gLfpwJ. ,jd; \yk; nrkpf;Fk; ePiu gpwgaph;fSf;F gad;gLj;jp ePhpd; gad;ghl;il mjpfhpj;J bfhs;syhk;.

 

jw;rkak; cs;s bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; bra;a ntz;oa khw;w';fs; ::

            Fiwe;j mst[ tpij bey;

            Fiwe;j ehw;w';fhy; gug;g[

            ghrd ePhpy; rpf;fdk;

            bew;gaphpd; nth;g;gFjpapy; fhw;nwhl;lj;ij mjpfg;gLj;jy; .

            fisf;bfhy;yp cgnahfj;ij jtph;j;J bey;Yld; tsUk; fisfis ,dk; gUtj;jpnyna taypnyna klf;fp tpLjy;.

 

            jiHr;rj;ij rhpahd neuj;jpy; ,l;L rpf;fdk;

            jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; xU vf;nlh; elt[ taYf;F njitahd ehw;Wf;fs; cw;gj;jp bra;a 100 r.kP (2.5 brd;l;) gug;gst[s;s ehw;w';fhy; nghJk;.

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapd; Kf;fpa mk;r';fs; :

14 ehs; taJila thspg;ghd 2-3 ,iyfisf; bfhz;l ehw;Wf;fis eLjy;

Fj;Jf;F xU ehw;W

mjpf ,ilbtsp tpl;L rJu elt[ (22.5 x 22.5 br. kP)

nuhl;lhp my;yJ nfhndh tPlh; \yk; fisfis mGf;fp nrw;iw fyf;fp tpLjy;

ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;o ghrd ePhpd; msit Fiwj;jy;

gr;ir tz;z ml;il \yk; jiHr;rj;J eph;thfk;

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo kw;Wk; jw;nghija bey; rhFgo xg;gPL - xU fz;nzhl;lk;

 

 

 

t. vz;.

mk;r';fs;

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo

jw;nghija rhFgo

1.

ehw;w';fhy;gug;g[ (vf;nlUf;F)

100 r.kP my;yJ 2.5 brd;l; epyk;

800 r.kP my;yJ brd;l; epyk;

2.

tpij mst[ (vf;nlUf;F)

5-8 fpnyh

80-100 fpnyh

3.

ehw;WtaJ

14 ehl;fs;

21-30 ehl;fs;

4.

elt[ ,ilbtsp (vy;yh gUtj;jpw;Fk;)

22.5 x 2.5 br. kP

15 x 10 (FWit/fhh;) 20 10 br.kP (rk;gh/jhso)

5.

ehw;Wf;fspd; vz;zpf;if

Fj;Jf;F xU ehw;W

Fj;Jf;F 3-4 ehw;Wfs;

6.

elt[Kiw

mjpf ,ilbtspapy; rJu elt[

beUf;fpeLjy;

7.

ePh; ghrdk; ehw;w';fhy;:

Kjy; 5 ehs; tiu g{thsp \yk; ePh; bjspj;jy; filrp 9 ehs; ePh; fl;Ljy;

ehw;w';fhypy; bjhlh;e;J 1 br. kP cauj;jpw;F ePh; guhkhpj;jy;

 

elt[ tay;:

elt[ ehspypUe;J g";R fl;Lk; gUtk; tiu 1.0 - 2.5 br. kP cauj;jpw;F ePh; fl;Ljy;/ Kjypy; fl;oa ePh; toe;J kz;zpd; nky; gug;gpy; rpWfPuy;/ btog;g[fs; njhd;wpa gpd;g[ kWgoa[k; 2.5 br. kP cauj;jpw;F ePh; fl;Ljy;

elt[ehspypUe;J g";R fl;Lk; tiu 2.5 br. kP cauj;jpw;F ePh; fl;Ljy;/ g";R fl;Lk; gUtj;jpw;F gpd; 5 br. kP cauj;jpw;F bjhlh;e;J ePh; ,Uf;FkhW ePh; gha;r;Rjy;

 

 

g";R fl;Lk; gUtk; Kjy; mWtilf;F 10-15 ehl;fs; Kd;g[ tiu 2.5 br. kP mst[f;F ePiu epWj;jp ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;Ljy;

 

8.

jiHr;rj;J eph;thfk;

mocukhf jiHr;rj;J ,Ltjpy;iy. ehw;W el;l 15 ehspypUe;J xU thu ,ilbtspapy; gr;ir tz;z ml;il \yk; bew;gaphpd; jiHr;rj;jpd; njit mwpe;J nkYukhf kl;Lk; ,LtJ

rpghhpR bra;j jiHr;rj;jpd; 50 rjj;ij mo cukhft[k; kPjp 50 rjj;ij ,UKiw nkYukhf ,Ljy;

9.

fis eph;thfk;

elt[f;F gpd; 15tJ ehspy; Kjd;Kiwahft[k;/ mij bjhlh;e;J xU thu ,ilbtspapy; 3-4  Kiw nfhndhtPlh; \yk; ,il cHt[ bra;Jfisfis mGf;fp nrw;iw fyf;fp tpLjy;

el;l 3-5 ehl;fSf;Fs; fisf;bfhy;yp cgnahfpj;jy;/ kWgoa[k; 30-40k; ehs; xU Kiwiff;fis vLj;jy; my;yJ elt[f;F gpd; 15-20 kw;Wk; 30-40 ehl;fspy; ,UKiwiff;fis vLj;jy;

 

            "jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo" vd;w xU';fpize;j bew;gaph; eph;thfj;jpy; mog;gil njitahd tPhpa ,sk; ehw;Wf;fis 14 ehl;fspy; cw;gj;jp bra;tjw;F ntz;oa cHtpay; El;g';fisg; gw;wp bjhpe;J bfhs;s ntz;oaJ kpf mtrpak; MFk;.

 

ehw;w';fhy; guhkhpg;g[:

            tHf;fkhd Kiwapy; 14 ehl;fSf;Fs; elt[ bra;tjw;F Vw;w thspg;ghd ehw;Wf;fisg; bgWtJ vd;gJ rpf;fyhd xd;whFk;. mg;go cw;gj;jp bra;jhYk; mJ mjpf ,LbghUs; KjyPl;oy; mjpf ehw;w';fhy; gug;gpy; mjpf mst[ tpij/ cuk;/ jz;zPh; cgnahfpj;J mjpf Typ Ml;fspd; \yk; jhd; bgwKoa[k;. ,jidj; jtph;f;f "jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;l gha; ehw;w';fhy;" Kiwia gpd;gw;Wtjd; \yk; Fiwe;j ,LbghUl;fspy; thspg;ghd ehw;Wf;fisg; bgwyhk;. ,dp ehw;w';fhy; guhkhpg;g[ bra;tjw;fhd bjhHpy; El;g';fis fhzyhk;.

 

gha; ehw;w';fhy; mikg;gjw;F Vw;w ,lk;

            ehw;w';fhy; ,lk; ey;y tofhy; trjpa[s;sjhft[k;. ePh; Mjhuj;jpw;F mUfhikapy; cs;sjhft[k; ,Uf;f ntz:Lk;. 100 r.kP gug;gst[s;s ve;j ,lj;jpYk; ehw;w';fhy; mikf;fyhk;. elt[ taypd; mUfpnyh my;yJ elt[ taypd; Xuj;jpnyh ehw;w';fhy; mikj;jy; crpjk;.

 

nkl;Lg;ghj;jpfs; mikj;jy;:

            xU kPl;lh; mfyk; cs;s ePz:l ghj;jpfs; (trjpf;nfw;w ePsk;) bkhj;jkhf 100 kPl;lh; ePsk; ,Uf;f ntz:Lk;. ,e;j 100 r.kP gug;gst[ cs;s ehw;w';fhypy; xU vf;nlh; eltpw;F nghJkhd ehw;Wf;fis tplyhk;. ehw;w';fhy; ,lk; jiukl;lj;jpypUe;J 5 br.kP cau nkl;Lg; ghj;jpahf ,Uf;f ntz:Lk;. mg;nghJ jhd; Kjy; 5 ehs; tiu jz:zPh; nj';fhky; ghh;j;J bfhs;s Koa[k;. tpijj;j 6 k; ehs; Kjy; 14 k; ehs; tiu ehw;Wf;fs; eida[k; tifapy; rpf;fdkhf eP njf;fp itf;f Koa[k;.  

 

ehw;w';fhy; gug;g[

xU vf;nlh; elt[ bra;a 100 r. kP

nkl;Lg; ghj;jp

5 br. kP cauk;

1.0 kP mfyk; kw;Wk;

100 kP. ePsk;

tphpg;g[fisg; gug;g[jy;

            nkl;Lg; ghj;jpfspd; nky; 300 fh$; fdKs;s bts;is my;yJ fWg;g[ epw ghypj;jPd; tphpg;g[fis ePsthl;oy; gug;gntz;Lk;. xU vf;nlh; elt[f;Fj; njitg;gLk; 100 r. kP gha; ehw;w';fhYf;F tphpf;f njitg;gLk; ghypj;jPd; tphpg;g[fSf;F +. 250 tiu brythFk;. ghypj;jPd; tphpg;g[fSf;Fg; gjpy; giHa cur; rhf;Ffis gad;gLj;jyhk;.

 

tpijg;gjw;fhd tpijg;g[r; rl;lk;

            nkl;Lg;ghj;jpapd; nky; tphpf;fg;gl;l ghyPj;jPd; tphpg;gpd; nky; Kjypy; tpij tpijg;gpw;fhf totikf;fg;gl;l tpijg;g[r;rl;lj;ij rhpahf itf;f ntz;Lk;. ,e;j rl;lkhdJ 1 x 1 my;yJ 1 x 0.5 kPl;lh; ,Uj;jy; ntz;Lk;. ,J ePsthl;oYk; mfythl;oYk; rpwpa fl;l';fshf jLf;fg;gl;L xt;bthU rpwpa fl;lKk; 0.125 r. kP gug;g[ bfhz;ljhf ,Uf;f ntz;Lk;. ,e;j tpijg;g[r; rl;lj;jpd; cauk; 4 br. kP cilajhf ,Uj;jy; mtrpak;.

 

tpijg;gpr;rl;lj;jpd; m';fff; fHpt[fis gug;g[jy;

            tpijg;g[r; rl;lj;jpw;Fs; fPH;fhqk; bghUl;fspy; VjhtJ xd;iw epug;gntz;Lk;. fUk;g[ Miyf; fHpt[ kw;Wk; tay; kz; rkmstpy; fye;J my;yJ kz; tskhf ,Ue;jhy; bghoahf;fg;gl;l o V gp cuj;ij xU fpnyh fyitf;F 0.5 fpuhk; vd;w mstpy; ,l;L ed;F fyf;f ntz;Lk;. 100 r. kP gug;gst[s;s gha; ehw;w';fhYf;F 2.5 fpnyh o V gp njitg;gLk;.

 

tpij bey; njh;t[ bra;jy;

            rhd;wpjH; bgw;w tpijfisna cgnahfpf;f ntz;Lk;. xU rjk; cg;g[f; fiurypy; (1 fpnyh rikay; cg;ig 10 ypl;lh; ePhpy; fye;J bfhs;s ntz;Lk;) tpijfis ,l;L/ kpjf;Fk; tpijfis ePf;fp tpl;L mkpH;e;jpUf;Fk; ey;y tpijfis kl;Lk; vLj;J fGtp tpijf;fg; gad;gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

 

gUtj;jpw;nfw;w bey; ,uf';fSk; tpij mst[k;

 

 

 

gUtk;

taJ (ehl;fs;)

,uf';fs;

 

tpijast[ (fpnyh / vf;nlUf;F)

FWit

105-115

MLJiw 36, 43, 45 MLJiw tPhpa xl;L ,ufk;

5-8 fpnyh (1000 tpij kzpfspd; vilia bghWj;J)

jhso

125-135

MLJiw 38, 39, 46 nfh 43

 

rk;gh

150-160

MLJiw 44, rp Mh; 1009

 

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; njitg;gLk; tpij mst[ (xg;gPL)

 

elt[ Kiw

Fj;Jf;fspd; vz;zpf;if

njitg;gLk; tpij mst[

1 r. kP

1 Vf;fh;

1 vf;nlh;

FWit 22.5 x 22.5 br. kP

20

80.000

2/00/000

5-8 fpnyh (1000 tpijkzpfspd; vilia bghWj;J)

jhso. rk;gh 22.5 x 22.5 br. kP

20

80.000

2/00/000

tpij neh;j;;jp

            xU vf;nlUf;F njitahd tpija[ld; tpijg;gjw;F Kd;g[ xU fpnyhtpw;F 10 fpuhk; tPjk; Nnlhnkhd!; g[nshnuhrd;!; vd;w caph; g{rdf; bfhy;yp bfhz;L tpij neh;j;jp bra;antz;Lk;. ,e;j tpijapid 24 kzp neuk; jz;zPhpy; Cw itj;J gpd;g[ ,Ul;L miwapy; 24 kzp neuk; itj;J ,Ue;J Kis fl;lntz;Lk;.

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; xU vf;nlUf;F

5-8 fpnyh bey; tpijna nghJk;

 

            tpijg;gjw;F Kd;g[ Kisf;fl;oa tpijapd; nky; xU ghf;bfl; (200 fpuhk;) mnrh!;ighpy;yk; kw;Wk; xU ghf;bfl; (200 fpuhk;) gh!;ngh ghf;Ohpak; caph; cuj;ij ,l;L tpija[ld; fye;J tpij neh;j;jp bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

tpijg;g[ bra;jy;

            0.5 r.kP gug;gst[s;s ehw;wh';fSf;F 25 fpuhk; cyh;e;j tpij nghJkhdJ. mJnt Cw itj;J Kisfl;oa tpijahf ,Ue;jhy; 45 fpuhk; njitg;gLk;. 0.5 r.kP tpijg;g[r; rl;lj;jpw;Fs; oVgp cuk; fye;j fyitia gug;gp mjd; nky; ed;F Kistpl;l ,uz;lh';bfhk;g[ bey; tpijfis rPuhfj; J}t ntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ ed;F kf;fpa J}shf;fpa vUf;fyitia tpijg; gLf;ifa[k; ed;F eida[k; tifapy; ePh; fl;l ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW bra;a[k; nghJ ePh; nj';fhky; ghh;j;Jf; bfhs;stnjhL jz;zPh; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;glhky; tHp bra;jhy; ey;y thspg;ghd ehw;Wf;fis cw;gj;jp bra;a Koak;.

 

a{hpah fiury; bjspj;jy;

            tpijj;j 9 Mk; ehs; khiy neuj;jpy; 0.5 tpGf;fhL a{hpah fiuriy (5 fpuhk; a{hpahit xU ypl;lh; ePhpy; fyf;f ntz;Lk;. g{thsp \yk; ehw;w';fhy; ed;F eida[k; tiu bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. 100 rJu kPl;lh; gug;gst[s;s gha; ehw;w';fhYf;F 0.5 tpGf;fhL a{hpah fiury; 125 ypl;lh; njitg;gLk;.

 

ehw;Wg;gLf;ifis elt[f;fhf jahh; bra;jy;

            14 ehs; taJila ed;F tsh;e;j (12 Kjy; 18 br. kP) thspg;ghd 2-3 ,iyfs; kw;Wk; bey; ciwa[ld; (ckp) Toa ehw;wf;fs; eltpw;F jahuhf ,Uf;Fk;. xt;bthU rpwpa gLf;ifapy; cs;s ehw;Wfis bkJthf mirj;J ehw;wpd; nky;g[wj;ij gpoj;J/ bgz; bjhHpyhsh;fisf; bfhz;nl elt[ taYf;F vLj;Jr; bry;yyhk;. elt[ taypy;/ gha; ehw;Wg; gLf;ifapypUe;J xw;iw ehw;Wfis nth; mWglhky; gphpj;bjLj;J eltpw;F gad; gLj;jyhk;.

 

elt[ tay; jahh; bra;jy;

            elt[ bra;tjw;F xU thuj;jpw;F Kd;ghf elt[ taypy; vf;nlUf;F 12.5 ld: vd:w mstpy; ed:F kf;fpa bjhG cuk; my;yJ fk;ngh!;l; rPuhfg; gug;gp cHt[ bra;a ntz:Lk;. gRe;jhs; cug;gaph; tpijg;g[ bra;J ,Ue;jhy; 10 Kjy; 15 ehl;fs; Kd;djhf klf;fp cH ntz;Lk;. mjd; gpd; taiy ,uz;L my;yJ \d;W Kiw cHt[ bra;J njitahd mstpw;F nrW fpilf;FkhW bra;J bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. 14 ehs; taJila xw;iw ehw;Wf;fis elt[ bra;a ntz;oapUg;gjhy;/ epyj;ij ed;F rkd; bra;tJ kpf mtrpak;. rhpahd ePh; kw;Wk; cu nkyhz:ikf;Fk; fis fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fk; ,J kpf mtrpakhFk;.

 

mo cuk; ,Ljy;

            ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gl;l kzpr;rj;J KG mstpida[k; 50 tpGf;fhL rhk;gy; rj;ija[k; filrp cHtpd; nghJ mo cukhf ,l;L/ taiy rkd; bra;J bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; jiHr;rj;jpid mo caukhf ,lj;njitapy;iy. ghpe;Jiug;go vf;nlUf;F 25 fpnyh rp'; ry;ngl; Ez;quj;ij nkyhf rPuhf J}tp gpd; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

ehw;W elt[ bra;jy;

            ed;F rkd; bra;ag;gl;l taypy; tug;g[ xuj;jpy; cl;g[wkhf 15 br. kP MHk; kw;Wk; 15 br. kP mfyj;jpw;F tofhy; tha;f;fhy; mikf;ft[k;. gha; ehw;w';fhy; gLf;iffis elt[ taYf;F vLj;Jr;brd;W ,sk; ehw;Wf;fis nth; mWglhky; xt;bthU ehw;whf gphpj;J itj;Jf; bfhs;st[k;. eLk; rkak; ehw;wpd; nth;fs; nky; nehf;fp ,y;yhky; nkyhf elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. eLk; nghJ thpirf;F thpir kw;Wk; brof;f bro 22.5 br. kP ,ilbtsp ,Uf;FkhW rJu Kiwapy; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW eLk;nghJ xU rJu kPl;lUf;F 20 Fj;Jf;fs; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

rJu Kiw elt[

            22.5 br.kP mst[f;F Fwpf;fg;gl;l rl;l';fis taypy; ,U g[wKk; itf;f ntz;Lk;. elt[f;F ePSk; jd;ik ,y;yhj fapw;iwg; gad;gLj;j ntz;Lk;. fapw;wpy; 22.5 br. kP mst[f;F milahsk; bra;antz;Lk;. elt[f;fapw;iw taypd; ,U gf;fKk; itf;fg;gl;Ls;s rl;l';fspYs;s Kjy; nfhl;oy; gpof;f ntz;Lk;. ,g;bghGJ Fj;Jf;F xU ehw;W tPjk; elt[ fapw;wpy; milahsk; Fwpf;fg;gl;Ls;s ,lj;jpw;F neuhf elt[ taypy; ehw;iw el;L Kjy; thpirapid elt[ bra;J Kof;fyhk;. gpd; elt[ fapw;iw khw;wp khw;wp J}f;fpg;nghl;L xt;bthU rkaKk; elt[ bra;jhy; Fj;Jf;fspd; ,U gf;fthl;oYk; xnu mst[ (22.5 br. kP) rkkhd ,ilbtsp fpilf;Fk;. fisf;fUtp cgnahfpg;gJ mtrpak; vd;gjhy; rJu elt[ Kf;fpakhdjhFk;. ehw;Wf;fis MHkhf elt[ bra;ahky; nkyhf elt[ bra;jhy; ehw;wf;fhy; tpiutpy; nth; gpoj;J J}h; gpof;f VJthf ,Uf;Fk;.

 

ePh; nkyhz:ik

            jw;nghija bey; cw;gj;jp Kiwapy; tptrhapfs; taypy; bjhlh;e;J 5 br. kP cauk; ePh; fl;o tptrhak; bra;J tUfpwhh;fs;. Mdhy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; g";R fl;Lk; gUtk; tiu 2.5 br. kP cauk; ePh; fl;o gpd; kz:zpd: nky; gug;gpy; ,nyrhd btog;g[fs; njhd;wpa gpd; kWgoa[k; 2.5 br. kP mstpw;F ePh; fl;l ntz;Lk;. mjd; gpd; mWtilf;F Kd;t[ (10-15 ehl;fs;) tiu 2.5 br. kP mstpw;F ePh; fl;o ePh; kiwe;j gpd; kz;izf; fhatplhky; kWgoa[k; mnj mst[ ePh; fl;lntz;Lk;.

 

fis eph;thfk;

            jw;nghija Kiwapy; tptrhapf;s ,U tHpfspy; fisfis fl;Lg;gLj;Jfpwhh;fs;. tptrhapfs; el;l 3-5 ehl;fspy; fisf; bfhy;yp ,l;L kPz;Lk; el;l 30-40 tJ ehs; xU Kiw iff;fis vLj;Jk; fisfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jJfpwhh;fs;. bgUk;ghyhd tptrhapfs; el;l 15-20 kw;Wk; 30-40 ehl;fspy; ,uz;L iff;fis vLj;J fisfis fl;Lg;gLj;Jfpwhh;fs;.

 

            nkYk; jw;nghija Kiwapy; epyj;jpypUe;J fisfs; midj;Jk; btspnaw;wg;gLtjhy;/ mitfs; epyj;jpypUe;J vLj;j cu';fs;;/ Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fs; midj;Jk; btspnaw;wg;gLfpd;wd. bew;gaphpd; nth; gf;fj;jpYs;s kz;/ fis vLj;j gpd;g[k; ,Wf;fkhfnt ,Uf;Fk;.

 

            jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapy;/ fisfs; mitfspy; ,sk; gUtj;jpnyna kz;zpnyna mGf;fptplg;gLtjhy;/ fisfshy; vLf;fg;gLk; rj;Jf;fspd; mst[ Fiwe;J/ bew;gapUf;F rj;Jf;fs; mjpf mstpy; fpilf;f tha;g;g[ cs;sJ. nkYk; rj;Jf;fs; midj;Jk; me;j kz:zpnyna nrh;f;fg;gLfpd;wd.

 

            nuhl;lhp my;yJ nfhndh tPlh; bfhz;L ehw;W el;l 15 Mk; ehspy; Kjd; Kiwahf gaphpd; Cnl FWf;Fk; beLf;Fkhf ,il cHt[ bra;J fisfis nrw;wpy; mGf;fptpl ntz;Lk;. fisfs; Muk;g fhyj;jpnyna mHpf;fg;gLtJld; nth; gFjpapYs;s kz; fpswg;gLtjhy; ey;y fhw;nwhl;lk; Vw;gl;L nth;fspd; tsh;r;rp mjpfhpj;J/ tpiutpy; J}h; fl;Ltjw;fhd NHy; bew;gapUf;F fpilf;fpwJ. ,jidj; bjhlh;e;J xU thu ,ilbtspapy; nkYk; 2-3 Kiw ,f;fUtp \yk; ,il cHt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. kz:zpYs;s Ez;qaph;fs; Cf;ftpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. nkYuk; ,l;lgpd; fisf;fUtpia cgnahfpf;f tha;g;t[s;sjhy; cu';fs; kz;zpy; fye;J cgnahfpf;f tha;g;g[s;sjhy; cu';fs; kz;zpy; fye;J cgnahfj;jpwd; mjpfhpf;fpwJ. ,il cHtpd; nghJ fUtpahy; mGf;fg;glhj fisfis ifahy; vLj;J mfw;w ntz;Lk;. nfhndhtPlh; fUtp \yk; xU vf;nlh; taypy; ,Ug[wK;k; ,af;f xU Kiwf;F 8 Typ Ml;fs; njitg;gLk;. rPuhd mst[ ePh; ,;Uf;Fk;nghJ fisf;fUtpia cgnahfpf;f ,yFthf ,Uf;Fk;.

 

,ilbtsp epug;g[jy;

            xU Fj;Jf;F xU ehw;W elt[ bra;tjhy;/ elt[ bra;j 9-10 Mk; ehspy; ,ilbtsp epug;g[jYf;fhf xJf;fp itf;fg;gl;oUf;Fk;/ mnj taJila ehw;Wf;fisf; bfhz;L ehw;W ,y;yhj ,l';fspy; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. kpff; Fiwthd gaph; vz;zpf;if (rJu kPl;lUf;F 20 Fj;Jf;fs;) guhkhpf;fg;gLtjhy; ,ilbtsp epug;g[jy; kpf mtrpakhFk;.

 

Cl;lr;rj;J eph;thfk;

            gaph; tsh;r;rpf;Fk; ey;y tpisr;rYf;Fk; Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fs; kpft[k; mtrpak;. gapUf;Fj; njitahd Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fs; kz:zpy; nghJkhd mst[ ,y;iy vd;W mwpe;jhy;/ cu';fs; \ykhf mspj;jhf ntz;Lk;. kz;zpd; tsj;ijg; bghWj;J/ gapUf;F mspf;fg;gl ntz;oa cu';fspd; mst[ khWgLk;. Koe;j mst[ ,aw;if cu';fis (gRe;jhs; cuk;/ bjhG cuk;) cgnahfpj;J/ mjDld; ,urhad cu';fis ,LtJjhd; xU';fpize;j cu nkyhz;ik MFk;.

 

            bey; gapUf;F ,urhad cu';fshd iel;u$d; (jiHr;rj;J)/ gh!;gu!; (kzpr;rj;J)/ bghl;lhrpak; (rhk;gy; rj;J) kw;Wk; $p';f; (Jj;jehfk;) Mfpait Kf;fpa Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fs; MFk;.

 

            jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapy; cu nkyhz:ik/ jw;nghija KiwapypUe;J rw;W khw;wpaikf;fgl;Ls;sJ. gaph; elt[f;F Kd; mo cukhf jiHr;rj;J ,lg;gLtjpy;iy. rpghhpR bra;ag;gLk; KG mstpyhd kzpr;rj;Jld; 50 rjk; rhk;gy; rj;ijf; fye;J mo cukhf ,lntz;Lk;. nkYk; bghJg; ghpe;Jiug;go jiHr;rj;ijnah my;yJ kz; ghpnrjhid mog;gilapy; rpghhpR bra;ag;gLk; jiHr;rj;ijnah ,lhky;/ gapUf;Fj; njit Vw;gLk; fhy fl;l';fspy; kl;Lnk nkYukhf jiHr;rj;J ,lntz;Lk;. gapUf;F jiHr;rj;J njitg;gLk; fhy fl;l';fis gr;ir tz;z ml;ilf; bfhz;L mwpe;J jiHr;rj;ij nkYukhf ,lntz;Lk;. ,iyapd; gr;ir epwk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l mst[f;F nky; ,Ue;jhy;/ gaphpy; njitahd jiHr;rj;J ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W bghUshFk;. mr;rkak; nkYukhf jiHr;rj;J ,lj; njitapy;iy. mijj; jtph;j;J gr;ir epwk; Fwpg;gpl;l mst[f;F fPnH ,Ue;jhy;/ nkYukhf jiHr;rj;J ,l ntz;Lk;.

 

gr;ir tz;z ml;il cgnahfpj;J jiHr;rj;J cukpLjy;

            bew;gaphpy; jiHr;rj;J eph;thfk; xU gpujhdkhd bjhHpy; El;gk;. rkr;rPuw;w kw;Wk; njitaw;w fl;l';fspy; jiHr;rj;J ,Ljy; bew;gaphpd; jiHr;rj;J cgnahfj;jpwd; FiwtJld; jiHr;rj;J ,Hg;g[ Vw;gLtjw;F tha;g;g[ cz;L. vdnt bew; gapUf;F jiHr;rj;J njitg;gLk; jUz';fis mwpe;J jiHr;rj;J ,lg;gl;lhy; jiHr;rj;jpy; tpuak; Vw;gLtij  btFthf Fiwf;fyhk;. ,jw;F g[jpa bjhHpy; El;g';fs; njit. bew;gaphpy; jiHr;rj;J cu eph;thfj;jpy; jPh;t[ fhz/ bryt[ Fiwe;j cgfuzkhd gr;ir tz;z ml;il cgnahfpj;J jiHr;rj;J cukpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            el;l 15 Mk; ehs; Kjy; nkYukhf jiHr;rj;ij fis vLf;Fk; ,ae;jpuk; bfhz;L ,il cHt[ bra;jgpd; ,l ntz;Lk;. gpd;dh; xt;bthU thuKk; gr;if tz;z ml;il cgnahfpj;J jiHr;rj;J cukpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            el;l 15 Mk; ehs; Kjy; nkYukhf jiHr;rj;ij fis vLf;Fk; ,ae;jpuk; bfhz;L ,il cHt[ bra;jgpd; ,l ntz;Lk;. gpd;dh; xt;bthU thuKk; gr;ir tz:z ml;il \yk;/ ml;il FwpaPl;L vz; 4 f;Ff; Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk; nghJ jiHr;rj;J ,lntz;Lk;. jiHr;rj;ij xt;bthU Kiwa[k; vf;nlUf;F FWitg;gl;lj;jpy; 35 fpnyh mstpYk;/ rk;gh gUtj;jpy; 30 fpnyh mstpYk; ,lntz;Lk;. gr;ir tz:z ml;il \yk; jiHr;rj;J eph;thfk; bra;tjhy; njitaw;w / mjpfg;goahd jiHr;rj;J ,Ltijj; jtph;f;fyhk;. ,jdhy; rhFgo bryt[ FiwtnjhL/ kz; tsKk;/ Rw;Wr; NHYk; khR glhky; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,uz:lhtJ nkYukhf jiHr;rj;J ,Lk;nghJ kPjpa[s;s ghjp mst[ rhk;gy; rj;jpida[k; nrh;j;J ,l ntz;Lk;.

 

gr;ir tz:z ml;il vd;why; vd;d>

            gr;ir tz;z ml;il vd;gJ xU vspjhd/ Rygkhd Kiwapy; bew;gapUf;F njitahd jiHr;rj;jpidf; fz;lwpa gad;gLj;jf;Toa bryt[ Fiwe;j cgfuzkhFk;. ,e;j ml;ilapy; gr;ir epwk;/ 1 ypUe;J 6 tiuapy; ntWgLj;jg;gLfpwJ. mJ bew;gaphpd; ,iyfspYs;s jiHr;rj;J epiya[ld; bjhlh;g[ bfhz;l ,iyr;brwpt[ MFk;.

 

gr;ir tz;z ml;ilia gad;gLj;Jk; Kiw

            el;l 15 Mk; ehs; Kjy; g{f;Fk; gUtk; tiu gr;ir tz;z ml;iliag; gad;gLJ;j ntz;oa fhykhFk;. rPuhd gaph; vz;zpf;ifa[s;s taypy; jhf;fhj/ gj;J bey; gapiu m';bfhd;Wk; ,';bfhd;Wkhf njh;t[ bra;J/ xt;bthU gaphpYk; kpf caukhd ed;F tphpe;j ,iy xd;iw njh;e;bjLf;f ntz;Lk;. (bghJthf nkypUe;J \d;whtJ ,iy bghUj;jkhdjhf ,Uf;Fk;.) bts;isg; bghd;dpf;F gr;ir tz;z ml;ilapYs;s 3 Mk; vz;qlDk; xg;gpl ntz;LK;. njh;e;bjLj;j ,iyapd; eLg;gFjpiag; gr;ir tz;z ml;ilapy; cs;s 4 Mk; vz; epwj;Jld; Xg;g[ik bra;a ntz;Lk;. ,iyapd; epwk; ,uz;L epwj;jpw;Fk; ,ilapy; ,Ue;jhy; ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l ruhrhp kjpg;ig vLj;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. cjhuzkhf ,iyapd; gr;ir epwk; gr;ir tz;z ml;ilapYs;s 3 f;Fk; 4 f;Fk; ,ilapy; ,Ue;jhy; 3/5 vd;W vLj;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. 4 f;Fk; 5 f;Fk; ,ilapy; ,Ue;jhy; 4/5 vd;W vLj;Jf; nfhs;s ntz;Lk;. ,iyiaf; fps;shky;/ ,iyia gr;ir tz;z ml;ilapy; 4 Mk; vz: epwg;gl;ilapd; eLg;gFjpapy; itj;J xg;g[ik bra;a ntz;Lk;. ,J kpf Kf;fpak;. nkYk; gr;ir tz;z ml;il gad;gLj;Jk; rkak; Nhpa xsp/ ,iyapd; nky; glhky; cly; epHiyf; bfhz;L kiwj;Jf; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. fhiy my;yJ khiy ntisfspy; VjhtJ xd;iw njh;e;bjLj;J/ xU Fwpg;gpl;l neuj;jpy; ,iyapd; gr;ir epwk; xg;g[ik bra;a ntz;Lk;. xU Fwpg;gpl;l egnu gr;ir tz;z ml;ilia cgnahfpj;J mst[ vLj;jy; kpft[k; ey;yJ.

 

            ,e;j Kiwia xU thu ,ilbtspapy; g{f;Fk; gUtk; tiu bjhlh;e;J filgpof;f ntz;Lk;. my;yJ gaphpd; Fwpg;gpl;l tsh;r;rp gUt';fspy; mjhtJ Muk;g J}h; fl;Lk; gUtk;/ Jhpj J}h; fl;Lk; gUtk;/ fjph; cUthFk; gUtk; kw;Wk; g{f;Fk; gUt';fspy; gr;ir tz;z ml;il cgnahfpj;J mst[fs; vLf;f ntz;Lk;. mjw;F jFe;jhw;nghy; jiHr;rj;J mspf;f ntz;Lk;. bkhj;jk; 10 ,iyfspy;/ 5 kw;Wk; 6 ,iyfspd; gr;ir epwk; gr;ir tz;z ml;ilapd; 4 Mk; vz;qf;F Fiwthf ,Ue;jhy; jiHr;rj;J ,lntz;Lk;. 10 ,iyfspy;/ 4 ,iyfspd; gr;ir epwk; 4 Mk; vz;qf;F Fiwthf ,Ue;jhy; jiHr;rj;J njitapy;iy vd;W bjhpe;J bfhs;syhk;.

 

gaph; Kjph;r;rp

            nuhl;lhp my;yJ nfhndh tPlh; fis vLf;Fk; fUtpahy; gaph; ,ilbtspapy; ,il cHt[ bra;tjhy; kz:zpy; ey;y fhw;nwhl;lk; Vw;gLfpwJ. bew;gaphpd; nth; vspjpy; gutp J}h; fl;Lk; jd;ik ed;F J}z:otplg;gLfpwJ. ,jdhy; el;l xU ehw;wpypUe;J Kjd;ik J}h; Kd;djhf btsptUk;. bjhlh;e;J J}h; fl;Lk; jpwd; ePoj;J mjpf vz:zpf;ifapy; J}h;fs; cz:lhFk;. ,jdhy; Muk;gj;jpy; gapuhdJ gr;ir gpof;f 7-10 ehl;fs; jhkjkhtJ nghy; njhd;wpdhYk; gaphpd; Kjph;r;rp gUtk; xnu neuj;jpy; To tUfpwJ.

 

bew;fjph; vz;zpf;if kw;Wk; kfNy;

            jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; J}h; fl;Lk; fhy mst[ mjpf ehl;fshf ,Ug;gjhy;/ xU Fj;jpy; mjpf gl;rkhf 35-40 fjph; cs;s J}h;fSk;/ ruhrhpahf 28 fjph;fs; kw;Wk; fjphpy; mjpf kzpfs; fpilg;gJ cahpa kfNYf;F tHp tFg;gjhf mike;J cs;sJ.

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; ,LbghUl;fspd; rpf;fdk;

            jpUe;jpa gha; ehw;w';fhy; Kiwia gpd;gw;wp ehw;W tpLtjd; \yk; ey;y jplfhj;jpukhd ehw;Wf;fis bgWtJld;/ tpij/ ePh; kw;Wk; Typ Ml;fs; nghd;wtw;wpy; Fwpg;gpl;l mst[ nrkpg;gp Vw;gLfpwJ.

 

tpij njitapy; nrkpg;g[

            jw;nghJs;s Kiwapy;/ tHf;fkhf tptrhapfs; xU vf;nlh; elt[f;F 80-100 fpnyh tpijia cgnahfpf;fpwhh;fs;/ jpUe;jpa gha; ehw;w';fhy; \yk; 5-8 fpnyh mst[ tpijia gad;gLj;jp ed;F tsh;e;j thspg;ghd ,sk; ehw;Wf;fis bgw Koa[k;. ,j;jifa ,sk; ehw;Wf;fis rJu elt[ Kiwapy; mjpf ,ilbtspapy; (22.5 x 22.5 br. kP) xU Fj;Jf;F xU ehw;W tPjk; xU vf;nlh; epyj;jpy; elt[ bra;ayhk;.

 

Fiwe;j Typ Ml;fs; njit

            jpUe;jpa gha; ehw;w';fhiy Fiwe;j bgz; bjhHpyhsh;fs; \yk; jahhpf;fyhk; 100 r. kP gug;gst[s;s jpUe;jpa gha; ehw;w';fhy; jahh; bra;a 10-12 bgz; bjhHpyhsh;fs; nghJk;. nkYk;/ tpij tpijj;j ehspypUe;J ehw;W gpL';Ftjw;F Kd;g[ tiu jz;zPh; bjspg;gjw;Fk;/ a{hpah fiuriy bjspg;gjw;Fk; 5-6 bgz; bjhHpyhsh;fs; nghJk;.

 

            jw;nghija Kiwapy; xU vf;nlh; elt[ bra;a njitg;gLk; ehw;Wf;fis gpL';fp elt[ taypw;F vLj;Jr; bry;y njitg;gLfpd;w 16-22 Mz; bjhHpyhsh;fs; bra;J Kof;fpd;w ntiyia/ jpUe;jpa gha; ehw;w';fhy; Kiwapy; ehw;W tpl;L/ gpL';fp vLj;Jr; bry;tjw;F 5-6 bgz; bjhHpyhsh;fis bfhz;L Koj;J tplyhk;. nkYk; jw;nghija Kiwapy; fhzg;gLk; ehw;Wf;fis gpL';Ftjpy; Vw;gLk; f#;lk; kw;Wk; nth; mWe;J nghFjy; nghd;w gpur;ridfs; jpUe;jpa gha; ehw;w';fhypy; KGikahf jtphpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

 

ghrd ePh; nrkpg;g[

            tHf;fkhf tptrhapfs; filg;gpoj;J tUk; ehw;w';fhy; jahhpg;g[ Kiwapy;/ vf;nlUf;F njitahd ehw;Wfis cw;gj;jp bra;tjw;Fk;/ elt[ tay; jahh; bra;tjw;Fk; kw;Wk; ehw;W el;l ehspypUe;J mWtil tiuf;Fk;/ bkhj;jkhf 1/240 kp. kP ePh; njitg;gLk;. ghrd ePh; njitahdJ gaph; bra;ag;gLk; gUtj;ij bghWj;Jk;/ bga;fpd;w kiHiag; bghWj;Jk; khWgLk;. Mdhy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy;/ gha; ehw;w';fhy; jahhpg;gjw;Fk;/ gpd;g[ elt[ tay; jahh; bra;J rJu elt[ Kiwapy; ehw;Wf;fis el;L ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;Lk; Kiwiag; gpd;gw;Wtjhy;/ bkhj;jjpy; 3-4 ePh;g;ghrdk; Fiwe;J bkhj;j ePh; njitapy; 300-400 kp. kP jz;zP;h; kpr;rkhfpwJ. kpd;rhu bryt[k; FiwfpwJ.

 

fis vLg;gpy; Fiwe;j Typj;bjhHpyhsh;fs;

            tptrhapfs; jw;nghJ filgpoj;J tUk; bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; el;l 15-20 kw;wk; 30-40 Mk; ehs; Mfpa ,uz;L rka';fspy; fis vLf;f xU vf;nlUf;F bkhj;jkhf 50 bgz; bjhHpyhsh;fs; njitg;gLk;. Mdhy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy;/ 4 Kiw nfhndh tPlh; \yk; ,il cHt[ bra;a bf;nlUf;F xU Kiwf;F 8 Mz;fs; tPjk;/ bkhj;jk; 32 Mz; bjhHpyhsh;fs; ,Ue;jhny nghJk;. xt;bthU ,il cHtpd; nghJ fUtpapy; khl;lhky; bew;gaphpd; gf;fj;jpy; tsh;e;J tpLgl;l fisfis iff;fis \yk; mfw;wp tpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            ,jw;F vf;nlUf;F bkhj;jkhf 8 bgz; bjhHpyhsh;fs; nghJkhdJ. Mf bkhj;jk; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwia gpd;gw;Wtjd; \yk; vf;nlUf;F 10 bgz; bjhHpyhsh;fis Fiwf;fyhk;.

 

jiHr;rj;J cuj;jpy; rpf;fdk;

            bghJthf kz; ghpnrhjid mog;gilapy; ghpe;Jiuf;fg; gLk; jiHr;rj;J my;yJ gUtj;jpw;nfw;w bghJthd ghpe;Jiug;go jiHr;rj;J ,lg;gLfpwJ. ,jpy; ghjp msit (50 rjj;ij) elt[f;F Kd; mo cukhf ,l;L gaph; bra;tJ jhd; tHf;fk;. v";rpa 50 rjk; jiHr;rj;ij 2 my;yJ 3 Kiwfspy; bew;gaphpd; Fwpg;gpl;l tsh;r;rp gUt';fspy; nkYukhf ,LtJjhd; tHf;fk;. Mdhy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapy; rpghhpR bra;ag;gLk; jiHr;rj;ij ,ufj;jpd; tajpw;nfw;g 3 my;yJ 4 rkg';fshf gphpj;J bfhz;L Kjy; g';if/ ehw;W el;l 15 Mk; ehs; ,il cHtpw;F gpd;g[ nkYukhf ,l ntz;Lk;. gpd;dh; gr;ir tz;z ml;ilf; bfhz;L gapUf;F njitg;gLk; fhy';fspy; kl;Lk; kPjpa[s;s jiHr;rj;ij nkYukhf ,Ltjhy; jiHr;rj;J tpuakhtJ jtph;f;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

            jpUe;;jpa bey; rhFgo jpl;lj;jpd; \yk; elt[ taypy; cahpa kfNy; fpilg;gJld; rhFgo bryt[k; fzprkhff; FiwfpwJ. ,e;j Kiwapy; Fiwe;j tpij mst[/ Fiwthd jz;zPh;/ Fiwe;j Typ ;Ml;fs; cgnahfk; Mfpatw;wpd; \yk; vf;nlUf;F +. 1/850/- tiu ,LbghUs; bryt[ FiwfpwJ. TLjy; kfNy; \yk; vf;nlUf;F +. 11/000 /- tiu epfu ,yhgk; fpilf;fpwJ. vdnt tHf;fj;jpy; cs;s bey; rhFgo Kiwiaf; fhl;oYk; vf;nlUf;F +. 12/850 /- tiu TLjy; tUkhdk; fpilg;gjhf tptrhapfspd; tay;fspy; nkw;bfhs;sg;gl;l neuo tay;btsp Muha;r;rp Kot[fs; bjhptpf;fpd;wd.

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapd; gad;fs;

            2-3 ,iyfisa[k;/ 12-18 br. kP cauKk; cila thspg;ghd ,sk; ehw;Wf;fis mjpf ,ilbtspapy; rJu Kiw elt[ bra;jy;/ ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;Ljy;/ fisfis nrw;wpnyna mKf;fp kz:ozf; fpswp tpLjy;/ njitg;gLk; gUtj;jpy; jiHr;rj;J cukpLjy; Mfpa jpUe;jpa nkyhz;ik Kiwfisf; filgpoj;J tptrhak; bra;tjhy; Tl;Lg;gad;fs; fpilf;fpd;wd.

 

,sk; ehw;Wf;fspdhy; Vw;gLk; gad;fs;

            jpUe;jpa gha; ehw;w';fhy; Kiwia ifahz;L ehw;Wf;fs; cw;gj;jp bra;a[k;nghJ ey;y jplfhj;jpukhd thspg;ghd ,sk; ehw;Wf;fs; eltpw;F fpilf;fpd;wd. ehw;iwg; gpL';Fk; nghJ/ nth; mWglhky; tpij ciwa[ld; Toa ehw;Wf;fisg; bgw KofpwJ. ,e;j ehw;Wf;fis taypy; nkyhf elt[ bra;jt[ld;/ ehw;Wf;fs; ed;whf nt+d;wp tsh;fpd;wd.

 

kz:zpy; Vw;gLk; tpist[fs;

            mjpf ,ilbtsp tpl;L (22.5 x 22.5 br. kP) xw;iw ehw;W eLtjhy;/ gaphpd; ,sk; gUtj;;jpy; ey;y fhw;nwhl;lk; fpilf;fpwJ. nkYk;/ ehw;Wf;fs; vt;tpj nghl;ofSkpd;wp ed;F/ Jhpjkhf tsh;e;J mjpf J}h; tpLfpd;wd.

 

            kz;zpy; bjhlh;e;J ePh; nj';fhky; nky;gug;ig cyutpLtjhy/ gaphpd; mUfhikapy; ,Uk;g[ kw;Wk; kh';fdPR rj;Jf;;fs; mjpfkhf nruhky;/ Jj;jehfr; rj;J njitahd mst[ bew;gapUf;F fpilf;fpwJ. fisf;fUtp bfhz;L fisfis epyj;jpnyna klf;fp tpLtjhy;/ gaphpd; nth;gFjpapy; gapUf;F njitahd fhpakpy tha[ mjpfhpf;fpwJ. nkYk; kz;zpy; mjpf kfNYf;F mog;gilahf njitg;gLk; fhpkr;rj;J mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ. kz;izf; fpswp tpLtjhy; fhw;nwhl;l trjpa[k; Vw;gLfpwJ.

 

            vdnt gh!;ngh ghf;Ohpah/ mnrh!;ighpy;yk; nghd;w Ez;qaph;fspd; bray;ghL mjpfhpj;J/ epyj;jpy; Ez:qaph;fspd; vz:zpf;if kw;Wk; bray;jpwd; mjpfkhfpd;wJ. vdnt/ gapUf;F fpilf;Fk; gy;ntW rj;Jf;fspd: mst[ mjpfhpf;fpd:wJ.

 

gaphpy; Vw;gLk; tpist[fs:

            14 ehs: taJila ,sk; ehw;Wf;fis elt[ bra;tjhy; mjpf nth; tsh;r;rp fhzg;gLfpwJ. gapUf;F J}h; gpof;Fk; fhyk; mjpfkhf ,Ug;gjhy; mjpf J}h;fs; cz:lhfpd;wd. mjpf nth;fspdhYk;/ mjpf Ez:qaph; bray;ghl;odhYk;/ gaph;fs: Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fis vLj;Jf; bfhz:L ed:whf tsh;fpd:wd. 

 

            nkYk; thspg;ghd mjpf kzpfs: bfhz:l ePz:l fjph;fs: fpilf;fpd:wd. fjph; Kw;Wk; gUtk; tiu mjpf gr;ir bfhz:l mjpf ,iyg;gug;g[ila ,iyfs: ,Ug;gjhy; gjh; ,y;yhj ed:F Kw;wpa kzpfs: mjpfk; fpilf;fpd:wd.

 

Muha;r;rp Kot[fs:

m. Kjy; epiy Muha;r;rp

jkpH;ehL bey; Muha;r;rp epiyak;/ MLJiw

 

elt[ Kiw

Fj;Jf;fs: (r.kP)

bkhj;j J}h;fs:/ Fj;J (r.kP)

fjph; cs;s J}h;fs;

kzpfspd: vz:zpf;if/fjph; (vf;)

bey; kfNy; (fpnyh)

tut[ bryt[ tpfpjk;

ghrd ePh; vz;zPf;if

tptrhapfs; Kiw - 15 x 10 br. kP

66

13.8

419

95

4259

1.34

17

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo- 20 x 20 br. kP

25

31.6

550

126

5711

2.57

12

jpUe;jpa rhFgo - 25 x 25 br. kP

16

36.8

432

129

5517

2.48

12

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFto - 30 x 30 br. kP

11

46.2

393

136

5034

2.27

12

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo - 20 x 20 br. kP + jiHr;rj;J eph;thfk; (g.t.m)

25

29.8

525

128

5808

2.61

12

g.t.m - gr;irtz;z ml;il

           

kz: kw;Wk; ePh; nkyhz;ik Muha;r;rp epiyak;/ j";rht{h;

 

elt[ Kiw

Fj;Jf;fs: (r.kP)

bkhj;j J}h;fs:/ Fj;J (r.kP)

fjph; cs;s J}h;fs;

kzpfspd: vz:zpf;if/fjph; (vf;)

bey; kfNy; (fpnyh)

tut[ bryt[ tpfpjk;

ghrd ePh; vz;zPf;if

tptrhapfs; Kiw - 20 x 10 br. kP

50

13.1

335

121

3982

1.91

21

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo- 20 x 20 br. kP

25

21.5

459

1129

4645

2.23

15

jpUe;jpa rhFgo - 25 x 25 br. kP

16

18.3

452

132

4082

1.96

15

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFto - 30 x 30 br. kP

11

23.6

392

141

3806

1.83

15

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo - 20 x 20 br. kP + jiHr;rj;J eph;thfk; (g.t.m)

25

17.2

421

128

3758

1.83

15

 g. t. m - gr;if tz;zml;il

 

M. jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiw kw;Wk; tptrhapf;s Kiw - Muha;r;rp Xg;gPL

 

 

 

 

 

fhuzpfs;

tptrhapfs; Kiw

,sk; ehw;W xw;iw ehw;W - mjpf ,ilbtsp - nfhndh tPlh; - ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;Ljy;

mjpf taJ ehw;W - xw;iw ehw;W - mjpf ,ilbtsp nfhndh tPlh; - ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;Ljy;

,sk; ehw;W - xw;iw ehw;W - mjpf ,ilbtsp - iff;fis - ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;Ljy;

mjpf taJ ehw;W - xw;iw ehw;W - mjpf ,ilbtsp iff;fis - ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;Ljy;

xU Fj;jpYs;s J}h;fspd; vz:zpf;if

8.7

19.5

17.0

15.9

15.3

J}h;fs; vz:zpf;if / r.kP

410

471

440

436

414

fjph; cs;s J}h;fs; / r.kP

312

424

344

336

336

kzpfspd; vz:zpf;if / fjph;

149

184

162

147

156

kfNy; (fpnyh/vf;nlh;)

4849

6583

5557

5363

5234

TLjy; kfNy; (fpnyh/ vf;nlh;)

-

1734

708

514

385

TLjy; kfNy; (tpGf;fhL)

-

35.8

14.6

10.6

7.9

 

            tptrhapfs; filtpof;Fk; Kiwa[ld;xg;gpLk; nghJ/ jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiw (,sk; ehw;Wfis xU Fj;Jf;F xU ehw;W tPjk; rJu elt[ Kiwapy; mjpf ,ilbtspapy; (22.5 x 22.5 br. kP) el;L/ nfhndh tPlh; ,il cHt[ bra;J/ ePh; kiwa ePh; fl;Ljy;) bew;gaph; tpistpf;f xU rpwe;j KiwahFk;. ,e;j Kiwapy; jhd;/ njpf kfNyhf vf;lUf;F 6583 fpnyh bgwg;gl;lJ. ,J tptrhapfs; filgpof;Fk; Kiwia tpl tpl 1734 fpnyh TLjy; kfNyhFk;. ,e;j jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy;/ VjhtJ xU rhFgo Eqf;fj;ij fil gpof;fhky; ,Ue;J kw;w rhFgo Eqf;f';fis kl;Lk; filgpoj;jhy; Tl 385 fpnyhtpypUe;J 708 fpnyh tiu TLjy; kfNy; bgwKoa[k; vdj; bjhpfpwJ. ,jpypUe;J vy;yh rhFgo Eqf;f';fisa[k; filgpof;Fk; bghGJjhd;/ vy;yh Eqf;f';fisa[k; filgpof;Fk; bghGJjhd;/ vy;yh Eqf;f';fspd; Tl;Lgaehy;/ mjpf fjph; cs;s J}h;fisa[k; mjpf kzpfs; bfhz;l J}h;fisa[k; mWtil bra;J kpf mjpf kfNy; bgwKoa[k;.

 

,. tptrhapfspd; tay; kw;Wk; Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiw gw;wp Muha;r;rp

 

ghpnrhjid bra;j ,l';fs;

,ufk;

fjph;fs; cs;s J}h; / r. kP

kfNy; fpnyh / vf;nlh;

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapy; bgw;w TLjy; kfNy;

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiw

jw;nghija Kiw

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiw

jw;nghija Kiw

fpnyh / vf;nlh;

rjk;

tptrhapfs; tay;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MWghjp

VoO45

845

429

7650

5250

2400

45.7

fjpuhk';fyk;

VoO43

426

391

5680

4050

1630

40.2

vlnkiya{h; -1

VoO43

322

-

5730

3816

1914

50.2

vlnkiya{h; -2

VoO43

459

-

7443

4976

2467

49.6

Muha;r;rp epiyak;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

j.be.M epiyak;

VoO43

545

455

7314

5554

1760

31.7

MLJiw

VoO44

488

346

8424

6008

2416

40.2

 

            jw;nghija bey; rhFgo Kiwa[ld; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwia fhtphp giHa Mw;Wg; ghrdg; gFjpapy; cs;s MWghjp kw;Wk; fjpuhk';fyk; Mfpa fpuhk';fspYk;/ fhtphp g[jpa Mw;Wg; ghrd gFjpapy; mike;Js;s vlnkiya{h; fpuhkj;jpYk; (,U tay;fspy;) tptrhapfspd; taypy; bray;Kiw ghpnrhjid ghj;jpfs; FWit 2002 gUtj;jpy; mikf;fg;gl;L/ ghpnrhjpf;fg;gl;ld. ,g;ghpnrhjidapd; Kotpy;/ jw;nghija bey; rhFgo Kiwapy;/ giHa fhtphp Mw;Wg;ghrd gFjp tptrhapfs; vf;nlUf;F 4.1 ypUe;J 5.3 ld; bey; kfNy; jhd; bgw;wdh;. Mdhy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; 5/ 7 ypUe;J 7.7 ld; bey; kfNy; fz;lhh;fs;. ,e;j kfNy; jw;nghija bey; rhFgo Kiwia tpl 1.7 ld; Kjy; 2.4 ld; TLjy; kfNy; MFk;.

 

            fhtphp g[j[pa Mw;Wg; ghrdg; gFjpapYs;s fpuhk';fspy; elj;jpa Muha;r;rpfspYk; tptrhapfs; TLjy; kfNyhf 1/ 9 ld; Kjy; 2.5 ld; bey; mWtil bra;jhh;fs;.

 

            MLJiw/ jkpH;ehL bey; Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpy;/ FWit 2002 gUtj;jpy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; MLJiw 43 kw;Wk; MLJiw 44 ,uf';fspy; Muha;r;rp nkw;bfhz;ljpy; vf;nlUf;F Kiwna 7/ 3 kw;Wk; 8/ 4 ld; kfNy; bgwg;gl;lJ. ,e;j kfNy; jw;nghija bey; rhFgo Kiwia tpl Kiwna 1/ 8 kw;Wk; 2/ 4 ld; TLjy; kfNy; vd;Wk; fz;lwpag;gl;lJ.

 

            jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwia filgpoj;j fhtphp Mw;Wg; ghrdg; gFjp tptrhapfSf;Fk; kw;Wk; MLJiw bey; Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpYk; Kiwna 40 Kjy; 50 kw;wk; 31 Kjy; 40 tpGf;fhL TLjy; kfNy; fpilj;Js;sJ.

 

fhtphp Mw;Wg; ghrdg; gFjpapy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo

            khz;g[kpF jkpHf Kjy;th; mth;fs; jkpHfj;jpd; ePh; gw;whf;Fiwia fUj;jpy; bfhz;L Fiwe;j brytpy; epiwe;j kfNy; fpilf;Fk;. "jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo" Kiwapid jhkpuguzp kw;Wk; fhtphp Mw;Wg;ghrdg; gFjp tptrhapfspilna gpugygLj;Jtjw;fhd jpl;lj;ij jkpH;ehL ntshz;ik gy;fiyf; fHfj;Jf;F +. 25 ,yl;rk; ePjp cjtpa[ld; tH';fpa[s;shh;fs;. tptrhapfSf;F njitahd ,LbghUl;fis ,ytrkhf bfhLj;J/ jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapy; mjpf kfNy; bgw;W thH;tpy; tsk; bgwnt ,e;jf; jpl;lj;ij jkpH;ehL ntshz;ik gy;fiyf; fHfj;Jf;F jkpHf muR tH';fp cs;sJ. ,e;jj; jpl;lj;jpy; fhtphp ghrdg; gFjpapy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwapid bray;gLj;j MLJiw/ jkpH;ehL bey; Muha;r;rp epiyaj;jpw;F +. 10 ,yl;rk; tH';fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

 

            ,e;jj; jpl;lj;jpd; fPH;/ j";rhtPh;/ jpUth+h; kw;wk; ehfg;gl;odk; khtl;lj;ijr; rhh;e;j 100 cHth; bgUkf;fSf;Fk; kw;Wk; 35 ntshz; mYtyh;fSf;Fk; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Kiwiag; gw;wp gapw;rp bfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j xU ehs; gapw;rpapy; gha; ehw;w';fhy; Kiwapy; ehw;W jahhpg;gJ/ Fj;Jf;F xU ehw;W tPjk; rJu Kiwapy; elt[ bra;tJ/ nfhndhtPlh; \yk; ,il cHt[ bra;tJ/ bew; gapUf;F gr;ir tz;z ml;il \yk; jiHr;rj;J eph;thfk; bra;tJ kw;Wk; gy;ntW eilKiw mqFKiwfisg; gw;wpa bray; tpsf;f';fs; bra;J fhz;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo Muha;r;rp jpliy ntshz; mYtyh;fs; ghh;itapLjy;

            gapw;rpapy; fye;J bfhz;l tptrha bgUkf;fSf;F 0.5 Vf;fhpy mDruiz Muha;r;rp jply; mikg;gjw;fhd ,LbghUl;fshd bey; tpij (6 fpnyh)/ Nnlhnkhd!; (60 fpuhk;)/ caph; cu';fshd mnrh!;ighpy;yk; kw;Wk; gh!;nghghf;Ohpak;/ tpijg;g[r; rl;lk;/ nfhndhtPlh; kw;Wk; gr;ir tz;z ml;il/ ,urhad cu';;fshd jiHr;rj;J (a{hpah - 66 fpnyh)/ kzpr;rj;J (Ng;gh; - 75 fpnyh)/ rhk;gy;rj;J (bghl;lh#; - 20 fpnyh) kw;Wk; Jj;jehf ry;ngl; (5 fpnyh) ,e;j jpl;lj;jpd; fPH; ,ytrkhf tH';fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

            gapw;rpg; bgw;w tptrhapfs; j';fs; epy';fspy; mDruiz Muha;r;rp jply; mikg;gjw;F ntz;oa gha; ehw;w';fhiy mikj;J/ 0.25 Vf;fh; epyj;jpy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgo KiwapYk;/ kPjKs;s 0.25 Vf;fh; epyj;jpy; tptrhapfspd; Kiwg;goapYk; bey; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoapy; ntshz;ikj; Jiwapd; bray;ghLfs;

            fhtphp Mw;Wg; ghrdg; gFjpfspYs;s j";rht{h;/ jpUth+h; kw;wk; ehfg;gl;odk; khtl;l';fspy; jpUe;jpa bey; rhFgoia gpugyg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf/ ntshz;ik ,iz ,af;Feh;fs; mauhJ ghLgl;L tUfpwhh;fs;. gy;ntW gFjpfspy; tptrhapfspd; epy';fspnyna gha; ehw;w';fhy; mikg;gJ gw;wpa bray; tpsf;fj;ij ntshz;ikj;Jiw cjtp ,af;Feh;fs; kw;Wk; tphpthf;f mYtyh;fs; bra;J fhl;o tUfpwhh;fs;. mt;tg;nghJ gha; ehw;w';fhy; mikj;j gFjpfisg; ghh;itapl;L tskhd ehw;Wf;fis bgWtjw;fhd tHpKiwfisa[k; tptrhapfSf;F tpsf;fp tUfpwhh;fs;.

 

            gha; ehw;w';fhy; \yk; cw;gj;jp bra;j tskhd ,sk; ehw;Wf;fis taypy; Fj;Jf;F xU ehw;W tPjk; mjpf ,ilbtspapy; (22.5 x 22.5 br. kP) rJu elt[ Kiwapy; elt[ bra;tjw;fhd tpsf;f';fisa[k; ntshz;Jiw mYtyh;fs; TwptUfpd;whh;fs;.

 

 

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