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  1. gz;izf; fhLfs; - Xh; mwpKfk;
  2. khdhthhp epy';fspt; ku';fis v';nf tsh;g;gJ
  3. kz;qf;nfw;w ku';fs;
  4. kiH mst[f;nfw;g ku';fs;
  5. ntshz; epyj;jpy; eLk; ku';fspd; tiffs;
  6. epyj;ij kz;gLj;Jjy;
  7. kuk; eLk; fhyk;
  8. guhkhpg;g[ kw;Wk; gpd;bra; neh;j;jpfs;
  9. gz;izf; fhLfspd; tiffs;
  10. gz;izf; fhLfspy; kuk; eLjy; kw;Wk; CLgaph; bra;a[k; Kiwfs;
  11. jukhd ehw;Wf;fs; cw;gj;jp
  12. ehw;w';fhypy; gpd; bra; neh;j;jpfs;
  13. tpij \yk; my;yhj ku ehw;Wf;fs; cw;gj;jp

 

tPonah glk;

i.

kug;gaph;fspy; xU';fpize;j cu nkyhz;ik

 

gz;izf;fhLfs; vd;gJ vd;d>

            ntshz; epy';fspy; ku';fSld; ntshz; gaph;fis xnu neuj;jpnyh my;yJ xd;wd;gpd; xd;whfnth gaphpl;L tptrhapf;F ntz;oa kug; bghUs;fs;/ fhy; eilfSf;F ntz;oa jPtdk; nghd;wtw;iw mspj;J tptrhapapd; tUkhdj;ijg; bgUf;fp bfhs;s cjt[k; gz:izank gz;izf; fhLfshFk;. ,jDld; fhy;eilfisa[k; guhkhpf;fyhk;.

 

gz;izf; fhl;od; nehf;fk;

            xU Fwpg;gpl;l ntshz; epyj;jpy; bkhj;j tUkhdj;ij cah;j;JtJ kl;Lky;yhky;/ me;epyj;jpd; tsj;ij nkk;gLj;JtJk; gz;izf; fhl;od; nehf;fkhFk;.

 

khdhthhp epy';fspy; ku';fspd; g';F

1.     kz; mhpg;ig jLf;fpd;wJ.

2.     kf;fpa ,iyfs;  \ykhft[k;/ ku';fspd; nthpy; ,Uf;Fk; nth;Kor;Rfs; \ykhft[k; kz;tsj;ijf; Tl;Lfpd;wJ.

3.     fhw;wpd; ntfj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.

4.     fsh;-cth; nghd;w gpur;ridf;Fhpa kz;tiffisj; jpUj;jp mikf;fpd;wJ.

5.     gaph; ,y;yhj fhy';fspy; ku';fs; ,Ug;gjhy; ePnuhl;lk; Fiwf;fg;gl;L kz;tsk; fhf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

6.     jl;gbtg;g epiyia rPh;bra;J gaph;fspd; cw;gj;jpia mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ.

7.     khdhthhp epy';fspy; tpwfpw;F Vw;w ku';fis tsh;g;gjd;\yk; rhzk; kw;Wk; ntshz; fHpt[g; bghUl;fs; vhpbghUshf gad;gLj;JtJ jLf;fg;gl;L cukhf gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

8.     jPtdg; gaph;fs; rhFgo bra;a jdpepyk; xJf;f ntz;oa mtrpak; jtph;f;fg;gl;L mjpy; czt[ jhdpa';fisg; gaphpl;L cw;gj;jpiaf; Tl;l tHptFf;fpd;wJ.

9.     gUtr; rPh;nfLfspdhy; Vw;gLk; e#;lj;ij <L bra;fpd;wJ.

10.   gzk; njitg;gLk; bghGJ ,k;ku';fis btl;o tpw;f Kotjhy; ,J xU t';fpiag; nghy; cjt[fpd;wJ.

11.    ,aw;ifr; NHiy ghJfhf;ft[k;/ kiHtsk; bgUf;ft[k; cjt[fpd;wJ.

12.   ku';fs; gwitfspd; ,Ug;gplkhjhy; gz;izg; gaph;fspy; g{r;rpfspd; bjhy;iy kiwKfkhf Fiwf;fg;gLtjw;F tHptFf;fpd;wJ.

khdhthhp epy';fspy; ku';fis v';nf tsh;g;gJ>

1.     ntshz;ikf;F cjthj ruisf; fhLfs;/ fsh;-cth;
epy';fs;/ kzw;gh';fhd gFjpfs; kw;Wk; ePh; nj';Fk; ,l';fs; Mfpait kuk; eLtjw;F Vw;w ,l';fs;.

2.     gz;iz Xu';fspy; vhpbghUs; ku';fs;/ jPtd ku';fs; kw;Wk; epHy; juhj mapiy nghd;w ku';fisa[k; tsh;f;fyhk;. FWfpa ,iyg; ghfk; bfhz;Ls;s rt[f;F ku';fSf;F 1 kP ,ilbtspa[k;/ ijyk;/ njf;F Mfpatw;wpw;F 2 kPl;lh; ,ilbtspa[k; mfd;w ,iyg; ghfk; bfhz;Ls;s ntk;g[ kw;Wk; mapiy ku';fSf;F 8 kPl;lh; ,ilbtspa[k; tplntz;Lk;.

3.     ntypia mikf;f fs;sp nghd;w gadw;w brofSf;F gjpyhf gad;jUk; ku';fis cgnahfpf;fyhk;.

4.     gug;gst[ mjpfKs;s g[d;bra; gFjpfspy; ku';fis fyitg; gapuhfnth tsh;f;fyhk;.

5.     ,it jtpu ntshz: epy';fspnyna ku';fis fyitg; gapuhfnth/ RHw;rpg; gapuhfnth tsh;f;fyhk;.

 

 

 

vt;tif ku';fis tsh;g;gJ>

            vt;tif ku';fis tsh;g;gJ vd;gJ tptrhapapd; njitiaa[k;/ mtuJ epyj;jpd; juj;ija[k; kw;Wk; kiH msita[k; bghWj;jJ.

 

njitf;nfw;g ku';fs;

rpWkuk;              :    bgUkuk;/ fUnty;/ g[uR/ Ezh

bghpa kuk;          :    ntk;g[/ thif njf;Fkuk;

J}z;fSf;fhf  :    rt[f;F/ ijyk;/ fy;\';fpy;

 

jPtdj;jpw;F

,iyj;jPtdk;   :    Makuk;/ rt[z;ly;/ ke;jhiu

fha;j;jPtdk;     :    fUnty;/ bts;nty;/ J}';F\":rp kuk;/
                                 thif/ Filnty;

gRe;jhs;             :    bfhd;iw/ thjehuhazd;/ rpj;jfj;jp/

cuj;jpw;F                fpsphprpoah

jPf;Fr;rp             :    bgUkuk;/ Ks;,yt[/ bel;oyp';fk;/ fy;ahz
                                 KU';if

bghk;ikfs; bra;a               :           g[uR/ br":re;jdk;

gH';fSf;fhf    :    g[sp/ ehty;/ bey;yp/ tpshk;gHk;

fhfpjk; bra;a    :    rt[f;F/ ijyk;/ \';fpy;

vz;iz kw;Wk;     : ntk;g[/ g[';fk;/ ,Yg;ig/ g[d;id/

g[z;zhf;F             irk+gh (brhh;f;f kuk;)

 

kz;qf;nfw;w ku';fs;

1     fhpry; kz;     :   fUnty; rt[z;ly;/ ntk;g[/ g[sp/ g[';fk;

       (Black Soil)          ,ye;ij/ rPjh/ ,Yg;ig/ Makyk;/ ntypf;fUnty;/ Ezh

 

2.    brk;kz;          :   thif/ ntk;g[/ Mr;rh/ g[uR/ Filnty;/

       (Red Soil)             mapiy/ jzf;F/ khd;fhJnty;/ bts;nty;/ g[sp/ ijyk;/ rt[f;F/ ,ytk;/ guk;ig/ mug;g[/ g{r;r bfhl;il kuk;/ irk+gh

 

3.    tz;ly; kz;   :   njf;F/ \';fpy;/ g[sp/ ntk;g[/ fUnty;/

       (Alluvial Soil)      thif/ rt[z;ly;/ ijyk;/ ,Yg;ig/ g[';fk;/ irk+gh

4.    brk;g[iw kz; :    ijyk;/ Ke;jphp/ khkuk;

       (Lateritic Soil)

 

5.    fsh;epyk;         :   rPikf;fUnty;/ Filnty;/ ntk;g[/ g[sp/

       (Alkaline Soil)     ntk;g[

 

6.    cth; epyk;        :   rt[f;F/ rPikf;fUnty;/ g[';fk;/ ,ytk;/ g[sp

       (Saline Soil)         ntk;g[

 

7.    mkpyepyk;       :   ijy kuk;/ fj;jpnty;/ irk+gh

       (Acid Soil)

 

8.    ePh;nj';Fk; ,lk; :            fUnty;/ bgU\';fpy;/ ePh;kUJ/ ehty;/

       (Waterlogged Soil)                     ,Yg;ig/ g[';fk;

9.    Rz;zhk;g[      :   bts;nty;/ g[sp/ ntk;g[/ g[';fk;

       got';fs; cs;s

       ruis epyk;

       (Calcarious Soil)

10.  MHkhd          :   rt[f;F/ Filnty;/ ijyk;/ rPikf;fUnty;

       kzw;gh';F epyk;                       thif/ g[d;id

       (Sandy Soil)

11.   MHk; Fiw      :   Filnty;/ rPikf;fUnty;/ ntk;g[/

       thd epyk;           bts;nty;/ mug;g[/ td;dp/ guk;ig

       (Shallow Soil)

12.  kz; mhpg;g[      :   rt[z;ly;/ fpsphprpoah/ g[';fk;/

       gFjpfs;               thif/ g[sp/ rPikf;fUnty;/ bgUkuk;

       (Eroded Soils)

kiH mst[f;nfw;g ku';fs;

400-600 kpkP              601-800 kpkP         801-1200 kpkP

ntk;g[                                ntk;g[

bts;nty;                         thif                         ,ytk;

Filnty;                         bgUkuk;                     njf;F

rt[z;ly;                          fUnty;                      rt[f;F

bfhLf;fhg;g[sp                ,Yg;ig                     g[sp

guk;ig                              g[';fk;                          fj;jpnty;

bfhf;fp Ks;nty;             g[sp                             g{r;rf; bfhl;il

ntypf;fUnty;                g[uR                             bgU\';fpy;

                                           Mr;rh                         irk+gh

                                           Makuk;                      ,Yg;ig

                                           ehty;                         

                                           mug;g[                         

                                           bgUey;yp

                                           tpshk;gHk;

                                           g{tuR

                                           irk+gh

                                           fy; \';fpy;

 

 

ku';fis ve;j mst[f;F tsh;g;gJ>

            bkhj;j epyg;gug;gpy; \d;wpy; xU gFjpia ku tsh;g;g[f;fhf xJf;FtJ ,yhgfukhf mika[bkd fUjg;gLfpwJ. njitf;F trjpf;Fk; Kg;gJ tpGf;fhL tiu ku';fis tsh;j;jy; mtrpak;.

 

ntshz: epyj;jpy; eLk; ku';fspd; tiffs;

            gz;izf;fhLfspy; eLk; ku';fspd; ,iyg; ghfj;jpd; mikg;igf; bfhz;L ehk; ku';fis \d;W tiffshfg; gphpf;fyhk;.

 

Tk;g[ totpy; tsUk; ku';fs;

,it FWfpa fhy ku';fs;. 7-10 Mz;Lfspy; mWtil bra;ayhk;. mjpf epHy; bfhLg;gjpy;iy. FWfpa ,ilbtspapy; el;L (4kP x  1kP) ntshz; fhLfs; mikf;fyhk;. gH ku';fSld; CLgaph; bra;ayhk;.
(c-k;) rt[f;F/ ijyk;

 

FWfpa nky; ghfk; bfhz;l ku';fs;

,it eLj;ju taJ ku';fs;. 15-20 Mz;Lfspy; mWtil bra;ayhk;. fzprkhd epHy; bfhLf;Fk;. mjpfkhd ,ilbtspapy; el;L (5kP x 5kP) CLgaph; bra;ayhk;. (c-k;) mapiy/ njf;F/ rt[z;ly;

 

mfd;w nky;ghfk; bfhz;l ku';fs;

,it ePz;l taJ ku';fs;. 30-60 Mz:Lfspy; mWtil bra;ayhk;. mjpf mst[ epHy; bfhLf;Fk;. mjdhy; mjpf ,ilbtspapy; el;L (8kP x 8kP) ntshz; fhLfs; my;yJ nka;r;ry; fhLfs;  mikf;fyhk;. (c-k;) ntk;g[/ thif/ g[';fk;/ fUnty;

 

 

epyk; gz;gLj;Jjy;/ ehw;W eLjy; kw;Wk; gpd;bra; neh;j;jp

 

epyj;ij gz;gLj;Jjy;

            Kjypy; ehk; njh;e;bjLj;j gFjpapy; tsUk; kw;w brobfhofis ntUld; gpL';fp mg;g[wg;gLj;j ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; mtw;wpd; \yk; tpuakhFk; ePh; kw;Wk; Cl;lr;rj;Jf;fis ehk; nrkpf;f Koa[k;. nkYk; ,j;jifa g[jh;fspd; ePuhtpg; nghf;F ku';fisf; fhl;oYk; gd;kl';F mjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk;. Mifahy; ,tw;iw mHpg;gjhy; ehk; eLk; ku';fSf;F mjpf ePiu mspf;f Koa[k;.

 

            rkbtspahf ,Ug;gpd; epyj;ij rhpt[f;F FWf;nf cGJtpLtJ my;yJ fiunghLtJ mtrpak;. kiHePiu nrkpf;f cjt[k;.

            ,t;thW Rj;jk; bra;j epyj;jpy; kuk; el FHpfis kw;w ,l';fspy; vLg;gijtpl bghpjhf (45 br.kP x  45 brkP x  45 brkP) vLf;f ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; mjpf mstpy; FHpapy; ePh; nj';fp mJ ehk; eLk; kuj;jpd; tshr;rpf;F cWJizahf ,Uf;Fk;.

 

gpur;ridf;Fhpa epy';fis kuk; eLtjw;fhf jahh; bra;jy;

gpur;ridf;Fhpa epy';fs;

m.        fsh;/ cth; kw;Wk; mkpy epy';fs;

M.       ePh; nj';Fk; gFjpfs;

,.        kzw;gh';fhd gFjpfs; kw;Wk;

<.         MHk; Fiwe;j ghiw gFjpfs;

 

m. fsh;/ cth; kw;Wk; mkpy epy';fs;

            ,j;jia gFjpfSf;F Vw;w kuf;fd;Wfis njh;t[ bra;J tPhpa kw;Wk; neh;j;jp bra;ag;gl;l fd;Wfis (1 tUl taJ) eLjy; ntz;Lk;. MHkhd FHpfs; vLj;J mjpy; $pg;rk; ( 2 fpnyh)/ kf;fpa bjhGcuk; (5 fpnyh)/ brk;kz; epug;gp fd;Wfis elntz;Lk;. kiHf;fhy';fspy; gaWtif gaph;fis CLgapuhf gaph; bra;jy; rhyr;rpwe;jJ.

 

M. ePh;nj';Fk; gFjpfs;

            ,g;gFjpfSf;F Vw;w kuf;fd;Wfis njh;t[ bra;J tPhpa caukhd (3 mo) fd;Wfis cw;gj;jp bra;J ePh; Fiwa[k; fhy';fspy; FHpfs; vLj;J ehw;Wf;fis elntz;Lk;. ,g;gFjpfspy; ePh; tw;wpat[ld; cGJ/ Fiwe;j taJila gaph;fis gaph; bra;ayhk;.

 

,. kzw;gh';fhd gFjpfs;

            ,g;gFjpfSf;F Vw;w ku';fis njh;t[ bra;J fodg;gLj;Jjy; ntz;Lk;. kiHf;fhy';fspy; FHpfs; vLj;J kf;fpa bjhGcuk; ,l;L fd;Wfis elntz;Lk;. gapWtif gaph;fis CLgapuhf gaph; bra;tJ rhyr;rpwe;jJ.

 

<. MHk; Fiwe;j ghiw gFjpfs;

            ,g;gFjpfSf;F Vw;w kuf;fd;Wfis njh;t[ bra;J fodg;gLj;Jjy; ntz;Lk;. nfhil kiHapy; MHkhd FHpfs; vLj;J mjpy; kf;fpa bjhGcuk; kw;Wk; brk;kz; bfhz;L epug;gp fd;Wfs; elntz;Lk;. ,j;jifa gFjpfspy; gaph;fis CLgaph; bra;ayhk;.

 

kuk; eLk; fhyk;

            twl;rpg; gFjpfspy; kuk; eLtij gUt kiH bjhl';fpat[lnd Muk;gpj;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. Kjy; kiH bga;j \d;W my;yJ ehd;F ehl;fSf;Fs; kuf;fd;Wfis el;L Kof;f ntz;Lk;. mt;thW bra;ahtpl;lhy; epyj;jpy; cs;s ePh; Mtpahfp nghtjhy; ehk; eLk; ehw;Wf;fSf;F nghJkhd <uk; fpilf;fhky; fha;e;JtpLk;. nkYk; Kjy; kiHapnyna ehw;Wf;fis eLtjhy;/ gpwF fpilf;Fk; kiHapy; ehw;Wf;fs; ed;F tsUk; tha;g;g[ cs;sJ.

            ,aw;ifahf gl;Lg;nghFk; ehw;Wf;fis ehk; mt;tg;nghJ khw;wptpl ntz;Lk;. ,y;iynay; fhyjhkjk; bra;J eLk; ehw;Wf;fs; Kd;ng caph; gpoj;J tsUk; ehw;Wf;fhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;L tsh;r;rp Fd;wptpLk;.

ehw;Wfs; eLk;nghJ ehk; nkw;bfhs;s ntz;oa Kd;bdr;rhpf;iffs;

1.    ehk; el vLf;Fk; ehw;Wfspd; cauk; Rkhh; xU mof;F FiwahkYk;/ moj;jz;L gUkdhft[k; ePz;l nth; mikg;g[ bfhz;Ls;sjhft[k; ,Uf;f ntz;Lk;.

2.    fd;Wfs; tsh;f;fg;gl;l ghypj;jPd; igfis fsw;wptpl;L fd;Wfis elntz;Lk;.

3.    kuf;fd;Wfs; eLk; FHpapy; kf;fpa bjhGcuk; ,l;L eLjy; rhyr;rpwe;jJ.

4.    ehw;Wfs; el;l gpd; ehw;iw Rw;wpa[s;s kz;iz ed;F kpjpf;f ntz;Lk;. ,y;iynay; ehw;Wf;fs; fha tha;g;g[z;L.

5.    FHpfspd; MHk; ehw;wpd; nth; ePsj;ijtpl mjpfkhf ,Uj;jy; ntz;Lk;. ,y;iynay; nth;ghfk; kl';fp mjdhy; ehw;Wfspd; caph;gpog;g[ ghjpf;fg;gLk;.

6.    fiuahd; mhpg;igf; fl;Lg;gLj;j ehw;Wfs; eLk; Kd; FHpfspy; rpwpjst[ fiuahd; bfhy;yp kUe;J J}s; ,l;L elntz;Lk;.

7.    ehw;Wfs; eLk; nghJ ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gl;l ,ilbtspia fhl;oYk; Fiwe;j ,ilbtspapy; (mjpf vz;zpf;ifapy;) el;L gpwF ehw;Wf;fs; tsh;e;jgpd; tsh;r;rpf; Fd;wpa ehw;Wfis ePf;fp tpLjy; ey;yJ. ,jdhy; mjpf brythdhYk; jukhd ku';fis bgwKoa[k;.

ku';fSf;F ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gLk; ,ilbtsp

ijyk;          -   2 kP x 2 kP         g[d;id           -    5 kP x 5 kP

rt[f;F         -   1 kP x 1 kP          g[sp                  -    8 kP x 8 kP

rt[z;ly;     -   2 kP x 2 kP         bgU\';fpy;   -    6 kP x 6 kP

ntyku';fs;   - 3 kP x 3 kP      fy;\';fpy;      -    5 kP x 5 kP

mapiy       -   5 kP x 5 kP         njf;F              -    2 kP x 2 kP

ntk;g[          -   5 kP x 5 kP

thif          -   5 kP x 5 kP

g[';fk;           -   5 kP x 5 kP

,Yg;ig      -   5 kP x 5 kP

 

guhkhpg;g[ kw;Wk; gpd;bra; neh;j;jpfs;

            ehw;Wfs; el;lgpd; rkbtspfspy; ehw;iw Rw;wp tl;ltotpy; FHpg;ghj;jpfs; mikj;jy; ntz;Lk;. ,g;ghj;jpfspd; tpl;lk; xU kPl;lUk; mjd; MHk; 15 br. kPl;lUk; ,Uj;jy; ntz;Lk;. kpjkhd rhpt[ gFjpfspy; rhptpd; FWf;nf ehw;Wfspd; fPnH gpiwr;re;jpud; totpy; fiufs; mikf;f ntz;Lk;. ,f;fiufspd; cauk; 15-20 br.kP ,Uj;jy; ntz;Lk;.

 

            el;l kuf;fd;WfSf;F Kjy; nfhilapy; ePh; Cw;Wjy; mtrpak;.

 

            tUlj;jpw;F ,UKiw ghj;jpfisr; Rw;wp cs;s fisfis ePf;fptpl ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; ,g;ghj;jpfspd; ePh;nrkpg;g[ mjpfhpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

            ehk; eLk; ku';fs; ML khLfshy; nrjkilahkYk; tHpg;nghf;fh;fshy; ghjpf;fg;glhkYk; ,Uf;f elt[ tay;fSf;F fhtyhspfis epakpj;J ehw;Wfis ghJfhg;gJ mtrpak;.

 

            nkYk; elt[ taiyr; Rw;wp uapy; fw;whiH eLtJ ey;yJ. ,jdhy; ML khLfs; cs;ns tuhky; jLf;fg;gLtJld; kz;zhpg;g[ kw;Wk; bts;sr; nrjKk; jLf;fg;gLfpwj

 

            el;l ku';fSf;F kiHePh; nrkpf;f jl;Ltotpy; ghj;jpfs; mikj;njh my;yJ ntW totpy; ghj;jpfs; mikj;njh ePh; nrkpf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            ML khLfs; fof;fhky; ,Uf;f jf;f ghJfhg;g[ bfhLf;f ntz;Lk;. ku';fs; el;l epyj;ijr; Rw;wpYk; uapy; fw;whiH eLtJ ey;yJ.

 

ntshz: epyj;jpy; kuk; eLk;Kiwfs;

 

gz;izf;fhLfspd; tiffs;

 

1.          ntshz; fhLfs;

2.         nka;r;ry; fhLfs;

3.         gHku';fSld; tdku';fs;

 

1. ntshz; fhLfs;

ntshz; gaph;fSld; ku';fs; eLjy;

 

2. nka;r;ry; fhLfs;

ku';fSld; jPtdg;gaph; rhFgo

 

3. gHku';fSld; tdku';fs;

   fha;g;gjw;F mjpf fhyk; vLf;Fk; gHku';fshfpa
kh/ rg;nghl;lh/ vYkpr;ir nghd;w gHku';fSld; tdku';fshfpa njf;F/ rt[f;F nghd;w ku';fis eLjy;.

 

gz;izf;fhLfspy; kuk; eLjy; kw;Wk; CLgaph; bra;a[k; Kiwfs;

ku';fSld; tptrhag; gaph;fis CLgapuhf rhFgo bra;a[k; bghGJ mDrhpf;f ntz;oa rpy Fwpg;g[fs;

1.    ku';fis thpirf;F thpir mjpf ,ilbtspapy; eLtjhy; ntshz; gaph;fSf;Fj; njitahd gpd;bra; neh;j;jpapid rpwe;j Kiwapy; bra;ayhk;. cjhuzkhf/ rt[f;F/ ijyk;
4kP x 1kP. ,ilbtspapYk; kw;Wk; nty kuk;. ,ytk;/ thif ntk;g[ nghd;wtw;iw 8kP x 8kP ,ilbtspapYk; elyhk;.

2.    ku';fis mt;tg;nghJ fthj;J bra;J tpLtjd; \yk;/ Nhpa xsp CLgapUf;F fpilf;f trjpahf ,Uf;Fk;.

3.    ku';fspd; thpirapid fpHf;F nkw;fhf mikj;jy; ntz;Lk;.

4.    kuf;fd;Wfis FHpfspy; MHkhf (30 brkP) eLjy; ntz;Lk;.

5.    ntshz; gaph;fis ku thpirapypUe;J 1 kPl;lh; tpl;L gaph; bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

ku';fSld; vd;d ntshz;ik gaph;fis CLgaph; bra;ayhk;>

            CLgaph;fs; ,lj;jpw;Fj; jf;fthW khWgLk;. khdhthhp epy';fspy; mapiy/ thif/ ntk;g[/ fUnty;/ bts;nty;/ Filnty; nghd;w ku';fSld; nrhsk;/ fk;g[/ jpid/ rhik/ tuF/ jl;ilg;gaW/ vs;/ ghrpg;gaW/ bfhs;S/ cSe;J nghd;wtw;iw gaph; bra;ayhk;. ,lj;jpw;F Vw;wthW khdhthhp epy';fspy; epYitapy; cs;s gaph; rhFgoa[ld; ku';fis el;L tsh;f;fyhk;.

 

ntshz; gapiua[k;/ kug;gapiua[k; fyitahfg; gapLk;nghJ ntshz; gaphpd; kfNy; ghjpf;fg;gLkh>

            Kjyhz;oy; ghjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. ,uz;lhk; Mz;oy; 20 Kjy; 30 tpGf;fhL kfNy; FiwfpwJ. \d;whk; Mz;L ghjpg;g[ 60-f;Fk; nkyhf ,Ug;gjhy; Kjy; ,uz;L Mz;Lfs; kl;Lnk ntshz; gapiu CLgapuhf gaphplyhk;. ,jd;gpwF kiHf;fhy';fspy; jPtdg;gaph;fshfpa nrhsk;/ jl;ilg;gaW nghd;wtw;iw gaph; bra;ayhk;.

 

            mjpf ,ilbtsp tpl;L ku';fis el;lhy; \d;W Kjy; Ie;J Mz;Lfs; tiu kfNy; Fiwahky; CLgaph; bra;ayhk;. gz;izf; fhl;oy; elg;gLk; ku';fspd; fpisfis mt;tg;nghJ mg;g[wg;gLj;JtjhYk;/ fyg;g[ ku';fis eLtjhYk; mjpf epHy; goahky; ePz;l ehl;fs; CLgaph;  bra;ayhk;. nkYk; mt;tg;nghJ ku';fis ePf;fp kWgoa[k; eLtjhy; bjhlhr;rpahf ehk; ntshz; gaph;fis rhFgo bra;ayhk;.

 

jukhd kuehw;Wf;fs; cw;gj;jpw;F tHpKiwfs;

khdhthhp epy';fSf;nfw;w kuf;fd;Wfs; jahhpf;f
gpd;gw;w ntz;oa tHpKiwfs;

1.    jukhd jha;kuj;jpypUe;J tpijfis nrfhpf;f ntz;Lk;.

2.    rpwe;j bghWf;F tpijfis tpijg;gpw;Fg; gad;gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

3.    mjpf fspkz; cs;s kz; kw;Wk; fsh;-cth; kz;iz ehw;Wfs; cw;gj;jpf;Fg; gad;gLj;jf;TlhJ.

4.    kf;fpa bjhGt[cuk; kw;Wk; caph; cu';fis gad;gLj;jp ehw;Wf;fis tsh;f;f ntz;Lk;.

5.    btl;l btspapy; ehw;Wfs; tsh;f;fg;gl ntz;Lk;.

6.    ehw;Wfs; tsh;e;j gpwF Fiwe;j mst[ ePh; Cw;wp ehw;Wf;fis ehw;w';fhypy; fodg;gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

7.    xU tUlk; tiu fd;Wfis guhkhpj;J eLjy; rhyr; rpwe;jJ. Fiwe;jgl;rk; MWkhj taJila fd;Wfis elyhk;.

 

kuehw;w';fhypd; tiffs;

            ku ehw;Wfspd; njitiag; bghWj;J ku ehw;w';fhy;fis ,Utifahfg; gphpf;fyhk;. mit

            m.        jw;fhypf ehw;w';fhy;

            M.       epue;ju ehw;w';fhy;

 

 

 

jw;fhypf ehw;w';fhy;

            ,j;jifa ehw;w';fhy; FWfpa fhyj;jpw;F Fiwe;j ehw;Wf;fs; njitf;Fk;/ ghLthrpfs; epug;g[tjw;Fk; epWtg;gLfpwJ. ,';F epue;ju fl;ol';fs; kw;Wk; kw;w trjpfs; ,Uf;fhJ. cjhuzkhf r\f eyf;fhLfs; jpl;lj;jpy; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;s ehw;w';fhy;fisr; brhy;yyhk;.

 

epue;ju ehw;w';fhy;

            mjpf fhyj;jpw;Fk; kw;Wk; epue;jukhf ehw;Wfs; bgWtjw;Fk; mikf;fg;gLk; ehw;w';fhy; epue;ju ehw;w';fhy; vdg;gLk;. ,';F epue;ju fl;ol';fs;/ jz;zPh; nghd;w kw;w trjpfs; ,Uf;Fk;. cjhuzkhf tdj;Jiwapduhy; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s rpy ehw;w';fhy;fs; MFk;.

 

ku tpijfs;

            ku tpijfs; tpijg;g[f;F vLj;Jf; bfhs;nthkhdhy; mitfis ,U tiffshf gphpf;fyhk;.

            m.        gpur;rid ,y;yhj tpijfs;

            M.       gpur;ridf;Fhpa tpijfs;

 

gpur;rid ,y;yhj tpijfs;

            ,j;jifa tpijfis/ ve;jtpjkhd tpij neh;j;jpa[k; bra;ahky; tpijg;gpw;F gad;gLj;jyhk;.

            c.k; : ijyk;/ rt[f;F

 

gpur;ridf;Fhpa tpijfs;

            ,k;khjphp tpijfis tpijf;Fk; Kd; tpij neh;j;jp kw;Wk; tpijf;Fk; fhyk; nghd;witfs; gpd;gw;wg;gl ntz;Lk;. ,k;khjphp tpijfis ehd;F tpjkhfg; gphpf;fyhk;.

 

1. fodkhd njhy; ciw cs;s tpijfs;

            c-k;. ntyku tpijfs;/ rt[z;ly; nghd;w kutpijfs;. ,j;jifa tpijfis bfhjpePh; Kykhfnth my;yJ mlh;fe;jf mkpyk; \ykhfnth tpij neh;j;jp bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

2. fy;nghd;w ciw kw;Wk; ehW nghd;w ciw cs;s tpijfs;

            c-k;. njf;F/ fUkUJ/ ePh;kUJ nghd;w ku';fspd; tpijfs;. ,j;jifa tpijfis Cwitj;J cyh;j;Jjy; \ykhf tpij neh;j;jp bra;ayhk;.

3. vz;bza; cs;s tpijfs;

            c-k;. ntk;g[/ g[';fk;/ ,Yg;ig nghd;w ku';fspd; tpijfs;. ,j;jifa tpijfis nrfhpj;J clnd tpijg;gpw;F gad;gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

4. ,urhad khw;w';fs; Vw;gLk; tpijfs;

            c-k;. mapiy ku tpijfs;/ ,itfis fha;fs; Kjph;e;jt[ld; gwpj;J tpijg;gpw;F gad;gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

ehw;w';fhypy; ehw;WtpLk; Kiw

 

            ehw;Wf;fs; cw;gj;jp bra;a[k; Kiwiabahl;o ku ehw;w';fhiy ,Utifahfg; gphpf;fyhk;.

            1.          neuo tpijg;g[ ehw;w';fhy;

            2.         khw;WKiw ehw;w';fhy;

 

neuo tpijg;g[ ehw;w';fhy;

            bghpa tpijfs; kw;Wk; mjpf Kisg;g[j; jpwd; cs;s tpijfis neuoahf ehw;w';fhypy; (ghypj;jPd; igfs;) tpijj;J/ gpd; m';fpUe;J elt[ taYf;F vLj;Jr; brhy;yyhk;.

            c-k;. rt[z;ly;/ fUnty; nghd;w tpijfs;

 

ku tpijfis tpijf;Fk; nghJ ftdpf;f ntz;oait

1.    mjpfhiyapnyh my;yJ khiy neuj;jpnyh tpijfs; tpijf;f ntz;Lk;.

2.    tpijg;gpw;F jahh; bra;ag;gl;l ehw;w';fhy; tpijg;gpw;F Kd; ePh; Cw;wp ed;whf <ukhf;f ntz;Lk;.

3.    eLk; mstpw;F Vw;g jha; ehw;w';fhypy; ,Ue;J ehw;Wf;fis nth;fs; nrjkilahky; gphpj;bjLf;f ntz;Lk;.

4.    gphpj;bjLj;j ehw;Wf;fspd; nth; fha;e;Jtplhky; ,Uf;f mitfis ePhpy; eida[k;go itf;f ntz;Lk;.

5.    ehw;Wf;fis igfspy; eLk;nghJ nth; kl';fhky; elg;gl ntz;Lk;.

6.    ,t;thW eLk; ehw;Wf;fSf;F jw;fhypf epHy; (15-20 ehl;fSf;F kl;Lk;) mikj;J fhiy/ khiy neu';fspy; ePh; Cw;w ntz;Lk;.

 

ehw;w';fhYf;Fg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; kz; fyit

            brk;kz;/ kzy;/ kf;fpa bjhGt[uk; 3:1:1 vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fl;ofs; ,d;wp fye;J ehw;Wf;fs; cw;gj;jpf;F gad;gLj;jg; gLfpwJ. jha; ehw;w';fhy; Vw;gLj;Jk;nghJ nkny bfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s kz; fyitia  ry;yil \yk; rypj;Jg; gpwF gad;gLj;j ntz;Lk;. brk;kz;zpw;F gjpyhf fk;ngh!;l; bra;j bjd;id fHpt[ehh; cgnahfpf;fyhk;.

 

ghypj;jPd; igfspy; kz; epug;g[jy;

            bgUk;ghYk; ku ehw;Wf;fs; MW khj';fspypUe;J xd;gJ khj';fs; tiu ehw;w';fhypy; itf;fg;gl;L gpd;g[ taYf;F vLj;Jr; bry;yg;gLfpwJ. ,j;jifa ehw;Wf;fs; cw;gj;jpf;F 20 br.kP x 10 br.kP/ mst[s;s 200 fh$; jokhdKs;s ghypj;jPd; igfis gad;gLj;Jy; rhyr;rpwe;jJ. ,j;jifa igfspy; kz; fyitia (kz;/ kzy; kw;Wk; kf;fpa bjhGt[uk; 3:1:1 epug;gp tpijg;gpw;Fg; gad;gLj;j ntz;Lk;. tpijf;Fk; Kd; ghypj;jPd; igfspy; cs;s kz; ed;whf eida[k;go ePh; Cw;w ntz;Lk;.

 

ehw;w';fhypy; gpd;bra;neh;j;jpfs;

1. ePh; gha;r;Rjy;

            ehw;w';fhypy; ehw;WfSf;F Kjy; ,uz;L khj';fspy; fhiyapYk;/ khiyapYk; ePh; Cw;w ntz;Lk;. gpwF NH;epiyf;F jf;fthW ehbshd;Wf;F xUKiw/ xUehs; tpl;L xUehs;/ thuj;jpw;F xUKiw vd;W ePh; Cw;wp ehw;w';fhypnyna ehw;Wfis fodg;gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

 

2. cuk; ,Ljy;

            ,aw;if cukhfpa kf;fpa bjhGt[uk;/ rhzpg;ghy;/ ntg;gk; g[z;zhf;F Cwitj;j ePh;/ capUu';fshfpa iunrhgpak;/ gh!;nghghf;Ohpah kw;Wk; tp.V.vk;. nghd;w cu';fis  gad;gLj;Jtjd; \yk; thspg;ghd kw;Wk; twl;rpia jh';fp tsuf;Toa ehw;Wf;fisg; bgwyhk;.

 

3. fis vLj;jy;

            ehw;Wfspd; brHpg;ghd tsh;r;rpf;F fis vLj;jy; xU Kf;fpa g';F tfpf;fpwJ. tpij tpijj;j 15-20 ehl;fspy; xU Kiwa[k; gpwF njitg;god; xUKiwa[k; fis vLj;jy; ntz;Lk;. ehw;Wf;fis ,lkhw;wk; bra;a[k; nghJ fis vLj;jy; rhyr;rpwe;jJ.

 

4. ehw;w';fhypy; ehw;Wf;fis ,lk; khw;wy;

            ehw;Wf;fspd; Mzpnth; epyj;jpy; Cd;whky; ,Uf;f tpijfs; Kisj;j 2 khjj;jpw;F gpwF ehw;Wf;fis ,lkhw;wk; bra;antz;Lk;. ,jw;Fg; gpwF 15-20 ehl;fSf;F xUKiw ,lkhw;wk; bra;antz;Lk;.

 

5. neha; kw;Wk; g{r;rp jLg;g[

            ehw;w';fhypy; Vw;gLk; nth; mGfy; kw;Wk; g{";rhiz neha;fSf;F hpnlhkpy;/ bgtp!:Od;/ ilj;njd; vk;. 45 nghd;w g{";rhz kUe;Jfisa[k;/ rhW cwp";Rk; g{r;rpfs;/ Td;tz:Lfs;/ btl;Lg;g[Gf;fs; kw;Wk; nth;g;g[Gf;fSf;F ypz;nld; 10% J}s;/ ijnahlhd;/ nuhfhh; nghd;w g{r;rpf; bfhy;ypfisa[k; gad;gLj;jp g{r;rpfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;.

ehw;Wfisg; gpL';Fk; kw;Wk; eLk; gUtk;

            ehw;Wfis jFe;j tajpy; jha; ehw;w';fhypy; ,Ue;J gphpj;J khw;W ehw;w';fhypy; eLjy; ntz;Lk;. ,y;iynay; mit nth; tsh;r;rp mjpfkhfp gphpg;gjw;F fodkhf ,Ug;gnjhL el;lgpd; caph;gpog;g[k; ,Ug;gjpy;iy. xU rpy ku ehw;Wf;fSf;fhd gphpf;Fk; gUtk; :

 

       ijyk;/ rt[f;F/ mapiy 35-40 ehl;fs;  ig

       fUnty;/ bts;nty; 15-20 ehl;fs;        ehw;Wf;fSf;F

       flnyhu rt[f;F ehw;Wf;fs;                  -            90 ehl;fs;

 

            mJnghy; ku ehw;Wf;fs; eLk;nghJ mit jFe;j taJilajhf ,Uf;f ntz;Lk;. ,y;iynay; mit elt[ taypy; gl;LtpLk;.

 

       ijyk;/ rt[f;F/ rt[z;ly;

       ntk;g[/ g[';fk;/ thif                                  6 khjk;

       nty ku';fs; nghd;wit                        

 

       \';fpy;                                                        9-12 khjk;

       njf;F                                                          12 khjk;

       g[sp                                                              18 khjk;

 

tpij \yk; my;yhj ku ehw;Wfs; cw;gj;jp

 

            bgUk;ghYk; ku tpijfs; may; kfue;j nrh;f;ifapdhy; cw;gj;jpahtjhy;/ ,itfspy; ,Ue;J fpilf;Fk; ehw;Wfs; vy;yhk; jha; kuj;jpd; Fz';fis xj;J ,Ug;gjpy;iy.
ehw;Wfspd; Fz';fs;  ntWgl;oUf;Fk;. ,ij nghf;fp tPhpa/ ,df;fyg;gw;w ku ehw;Wf;fis tPhpa jha; kuj;jpd; rpy ghf';fs; \yk; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLk; kuf;fd;Wfs; MFk;. ,jd; \ykhf tpij cw;gj;jpahfhj ku';fs; kw;Wk; tpijfspy; mjpf Kisg;g[j; jpwd; ,y;yhj ku';fis cw;gj;jp bra;ayhk;. ku ehw;Wf;fis  tpij\yk; my;yhky; Fr;rp eLjy; xl;Lf; fl;Ljy;/ bkhl;L fl;Ljy; \ykhft[k; kw;Wk; jpR Kiw tshg;g[ \ykhft[k; tsh;f;fyhk;.

 

m.      Fr;rpfs; \yk; cw;gj;jp bra;jy;

            ,k;Kiwapy; ey;y jukhd jha;kuj;jpypUe;J xU brd;okPl;lh; gUkDk;/ 15-30 br.kP ePsKk; cs;s Fr;rpfis  btl;l ntz;Lk;. ,jid tsh;r;rp Cf;fpfshfpa I.V.V (IAA)/ IgpV (IBA)/ vd;VV (NAA) Mfpatw;wpy; Vw;w Cf;fpfis njh;t[ bra;J jFe;j tPhpaj;jpy; (500-1000 gpgpvk;) eLk;ghfj;ij Cw itj;J ghypj;jPd; igfspy; (10 br.kP x 20 br.kP) kzy; epug;gp mtw;wpy; elntz;Lk;. ,t;thW el;l igfis rPnjh#;zepiy epiy epWj;Jk; Tlhuj;jpy; (kp!;l; rhk;ghpy;) 80-90% <ug;gjk; cs;sthW itj;jpUf;f ntz;Lk;. 30-45 ehl;fspy; cs;sthW itj;jpUf;f ntz;Lk;. 30-45 ehl;fspy; nth;gpof;Fk;. \d;W khj';fs; fHpj;J  ,e;j ehw;Wf;fis jw;fhypf epHypy; itj;J nkYk; ,uz;L khjk; fHpj;J  elt[ bra;ayhk;.

            c.k;. rt[f;F/ ijyk;/ ntk;g[/ FkpH;/ ,ytk; nghd;w ku';fis ,k;Kiwapy; tsh;f;fyhk;.

Fwpg;g[ : ,j;jifa Fr;rp fd;Wfs; ePh; ghrdg;gFjpapYk; kw;Wk; ey;y kiH bga;a[k; ,l';fspYk; ed;F tsUk;. Mdhy; twl;rpg; gFjpfSf;F ,J Vw;wjy;y.

 

M.     xl;L fl;Ljy; kw;Wk; bkhl;L fl;Ljy;

            ,k;Kiwapy; tpijfspypUe;J tsh;f;fg;gl;l kuf;fd;W- fspy; (6 khjk;) tPhpa jha; kuj;jpypUe;J vLf;fg;gl;l Fr;rpfs; my;yJ bkhl;Lfs; bfhz;L glj;jpy; fhz;gpj;jthW xl;L fl;Ljy; my;yJ bkhl;L fl;Ljy; bra;ayhk;.

            c.k;. njf;F/ ijyk;

 

,. jpRKiw tsh;g;g[

            ,k;Kiwapy; njh;e;bjLf;fg;gl;l tPhpa jha;kuj;jpd; Ez;zpa ghfk; tsh;r;rp Cf;fpfs; \yk; Rfhjhukhd miwfspy; tsh;f;fg;gl;L ehw;Wf;fs; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gLfpwJ. ,t;thW bra;tjhy; jha; kuj;jpw;F mjpfk; nrjk; Vw;gLtJ ,y;iy. Kjypy; mjpfk; brythdhYk; epiwa tPhpa kuf;fd;Wfis ,k;Kiwapy; tsh;f;fyhk;.

 

            tpij \yk; my;yhj kuf;fd;Wfis elt[ taypy; ey;y Kiwapy; guhkhpg;gnjhL g{r;rp kw;Wk; g{";rhz neha;fspypUe;J fhj;jy; kpf mtrpakhFk;.

 

            Mfnt/ khwptUk; ,e;j NH;epiyapy; ehk; ,aw;if rPw;wj;jpypUe;J tpLgl;L/ kz;tsj;ijf; fhj;J/ gaph; tpisr;riy bgUf;fp/ xU epue;ju tUtha; khdhthhp epy';fspypUe;J fpilf;f/ kiH mst[/ kz;zpd; juk; mwpe;J/ njitf;F Vw;g ku';fis njh;e;bjLj;J/ tp":"hd Kiwapy; gz;izf; fhLfs; mikg;gnj xU rpwe;j tHpahFk;.

 

                                                                                                Kisg;gjw;F   Kisg;g[r;     xU fpnyh

                                   tpij                                                        vLj;Jf;        rjtPjk;   tpijapypUe;J

                             vz;zpf;if                                                  bfhs;Sk;                          fpilf;Fk;

                                                                                                     ehl;fs;                             ehw;Wfs;

ntk;g[                       5000-6000    njit ,y;iy / tpijfis           7-16             70-80         3000-3500

                                                   nrfhpj;j clnd tpijj;jy;

thif                     10000-12000   bfhjp ePh; my;yJ mkpyk;              7-15             75-80         5000-6000

bgUkuk; my;yJ     10000-12000   Fsph;ePhpy; 3 ehl;fs;                     10-20             60-70         3000-4000

jPf;Fr;rp kuk;                              Cwitj;J tpijj;jy;

fUnty;                   7000-5000    bfhjpePh; my;yJ mkpyk;              7-20             80-90         2500-3000

bts;nty;              30000-35000  bfhjpePh; my;yJ mkpyk;              7-20             80-90        15000-16000

Filnty;              30000-35000  bfhjpePh; my;yJ mkpyk;              7-20             80-90        15000-16000

guk;ig                    5000-6000    bfhjpePh; my;yJ mkpyk;              7-20             80-90         2500-3000

,Yg;ig                    300-500      njit ,y;iy / tpijfis           10-20             60-70           100-150

                                                   nrfhpj;j clnd tpijj;jy;

g[';fk;                        500-700                 "                                      7-20             60-70           150-250

g[sp                          1100-1750     Fsph;ePhpy; 12 kzpneuk;                7-20             70-75           500-600

                                                   Cwitj;J tpijj;jy;

 

 

,ytk;                   20000-22000  njit ,y;iy / tpijfis           5-10              50-60         6000-7000

                                                   cldoahf tpijf;f ntz;Lk;

rt[f;F                 700000-750000                         njit ,y;iy       7-15                80     200000-250000

rt[z;ly;                15000-20000   bfhjpePh; my;yJ mkpyk;               7-10                80           8000-10000

ehty;                      2750-3000    njit ,y;iy                               7-15             30-40          800-1000

bfhLf;fhg;g[sp       6000-65000   bfhjpePh; my;yJ mkpyk;               7-15                70           2000-2500

bgUbey;yp              2000-3000    njit ,y;iy / tpijfis           10-20             50-60          1200-1500

                                                   clnd tpijf;f ntz;Lk;

tpshk;gHk;             10000-12000   Fsph;ePhpy; 12 kzp neuk;               10-15               40            1500-2000

                                                   Cwitj;jy;

bghuR                  110000-120000 njit ,y;iy                              10-15             40-50        10000-20000

Mr;rhd;                  4500-5000    Fsph;e;j ePhpy; 24 kzpneuk;          7-15              50-60         1500-2000

                                                   Cwitj;jy;

Mah                      22000-25000  njit ,y;iy                               7-15             30-40         3000-4000

mug;g[                     14000-14500   bfhjpePh; my;yJ mkpyk;               7-15             70-80         8000-9000

g{r;rf;fha;                1800-2200    bfhjpePh; my;yJ mkpyk;              10-20             40-45           500-600

g{td;bfhl;il

ijykuk;                  2000000-     njit ,y;iy                               3-10              40-50     400000-500000

(a{fypg;l;!;)     25000000

 

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