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1.       epyf;fliy

2.      vs;

3.      Nhpafhe;jp

4.      Mkzf;F

5.      bjd;id

6.      vz;bza; gid

 

tPonah glk;

i.

bjd;idia jhf;Fk; <hpnahigl; rpye;jpf; fl;Lg;ghL

ii.

ghkhapy; kur;rhFgoapy; cu eph;thfk;

iii.

Nhpafhe;jp rhFgo

 

epyf;fliy

gUtk; kw;Wk; ,uf';fs;

 

khtl;lk; / gUtk;  

,uf';fs;

khdhthhp

 

rpj;jpiu gl;lk; (Vg;uy; - nk)

 

bghs;shr;rp/ njdp/ bjd;fhrp

o vk; tp 2/ o vk; tp 7/ n$ vy; 24/ nfh 2/ tp Mh; I 2/ tp Mh; I 3/ vvy; Mh; 2/ tp Mh; I 4

Kd; Mog;gl;lk; ($Pd; - $%iy)

 

fh";rpg[uk;/ jpUts;~h;/ ntY}h;/ jpUtz;zhkiy/ flY}h;/ tpGg;g[uk;

ovk;tp 2/ ovk;tp 7/ ok;t[ 10/ tpMh;I 3/ tpMh;I 3/ tpMh;I 4

nryk;/ ehkf;fy;/ jh;kg[hp/ jpUr;rp/ bguk;gY}h;/ f+h;/ ehfg;gl;odk; <nuhL/ nfhak;g[j;J}h;

nfh 1/ n$ vy; 24/ tp Mh; I 2/ tp Mh; I 3/ tp Mh; I 4/ tp v!;;Mh; 1

 

nfh 2/ n$vy; 24/ tpMh;I 2/ tpMh;I 3/ tp Mh; I 4/ gpv!;;Mh; 1

gpd; Mog;gl;lk; ($%iy-Mf!;;l;)

 

kJiu/ jpz;Lf;fy;/ njdp/ rptf';if/ tpUJefh;/ jpUbey;ntyp J}j;Jf;Fo/ nryk;/ ehkf;fy;/ fd;dpahFkhp/ jpUr;rp/ bguk;gY}h;/ f+h;/ ,uhkehjg[uk; kw;Wk; g[Jf;nfhl;il

ovk;tp 2/ ovk;tp 7/ ovk;tp 10/ nfh 1/ nfh 2/ n$vy; 24/ tpMh;I 2/ tpMh;I 3/ gpv!;;Mh; 1 tpMh;I 4

Ig;grpg; gl;lk; (mf;nlhgh;)

 

fd;ahFkhp/ fh";rpg[uk;/ jpUts;~h;/ jpUr;rp/ bguk;gY}h;/ f+h;/ flY}h;/ tpGg;g[uk;.

ovk;tp 7/ ovk;tp 2/ nfh 2/ n$vy; 24/ tpMh;I 2/ tpMh;I 3/ gpv@;Mh; 1/ tpMh;I 4.

,wit

 

nfhil (Vg;uy;-$^iy) midj;J khtl;l';fSf;Fk;.

ovk;tp 2/ovk;tp 7/ nfh 1/ nfh 2/ tpMh;$ 2/ tpMh;$ 3/ tpMh;$ 4.

<nuhL/ nfhak;g[j;J}h;

gpv$;Mh; 1/ tpMh;$ 4.

khrpg;gl;lk; (gpg;uthp - khh;r;)

 

j";rht{h;/ jpUth+h;/ ehfg;gl;odk;

ovk;tp 2/ ovk;tp 7/ nfh 2/ n$vy; 24/ tpMh;$ 2/ tpMh;$ 3/ tpMh;I 1/ tpMh;$ 4.

 

epyk; jahhpj;jy;

            kzw;gh';fhd tz;ly;/ brk;kz; kw;Wk; fUtz;ly; epy';fs; Vw;wit.

            rl;of; fyg;igiag; gad;gLj;jp cGjgpd; 3 my;yJ 4 Kiw ,Uk;g[f;fyg;ig my;yJ ehl;Lf; fyg;igiaf; bfhz;L fl;ofs; ed;F cila[k;tiu cHntz:Lk;.

 

fj;jpf; fyg;igiaf; bfhz;L kz; fod mLf;if cilj;jy;

            Fiwe;j MHj;jpy; kz; fod ,Lf;F cila epyj;ij fj;jpf; fyg;igiaf; bfhz;L 0.5 kPl;lh; ,ilbtspapy; xU jpirapy; cH ntz;Lk;. gpd;dh; ,jw;F neh;Fj;jhd jpirapy; cHntz;Lk;. ,jid 3 tUlj;jpw;F xUKiw bra;antz;Lk; gpd;dh; 12.5 ld; bjhG cuk; ,y;yJ ed;F kf;fpa bjd;id ehh;f;fHpt[ ,l ntz;Lk;. 

 

kz: fod mLf;F jpUj;jj;jpw;fhd thpfs;

            2 ld; Rz:zhk;g[ld; bjhGcuk; my;yJ ed;F kf;fpa bjd;id ehh;f;fHpt[ 12.5 ld; xU vf;nlUf;F ,lntz:Lk.;.

 

cukpLjy;

            kz; ghpnrhjid mog;gilapy; jiHrj;j/ kzpr;rj;J kw;Wk; rhk;gy; rj;ij ,lntz;Lk;. kz; ghpnrhjid bra;ahtpl;lhy; khdhthhp epyj;jpw;F 10: 10 : 45 fpnyh jiH/ kzp kw;Wk; rhk;gy; rj;J juf;Toa ,urhad cu';fs; ,lntz:Lk;. ,witg; gFjpfspy; 17 : 34 : 50 fpnyh jiH/ kw;Wk; rhk;gy;rj;J juf;Toa cu';fSld; 60 fpnyh fe;fff; fHpit ,lntz;Lk;.

 

ghj;jp mikj;jjy;

            ghj;jpia ePh;;; mst[/ rhpt[ kw;Wk; kz;zpd; tifiag; bghWj;J 10 kPl;lh;2 Kjy; 20 kPl;lh;2 tiu mikf;fntz;Lk;.

            ouhf;lh; cgnahfpj;jhy; ghj;jp mikg;ghd; gad;gLj;jyhk;.

 

tpij mst[

            khdhthhpg; gapuhfpd; 140 fpnyh gad;gLj;j ntz;Lk;. bghpa tpij bfhz;l ,uf';fshd b$v!; 24/ nfh 2/ ovk;tp 10 Mfpatw;wpw;F tpij mstpy; 10 rjtpfpjk; TLjyhf ,lntz;Lk;.

 

,ilbtsp

            brofspd; thpirfSf;fpilna 30 br. kPl;lUk; brofSf;fpilna 10 br. kPl;lUk; ,Uf;fntz;Lk;. fliyapy; tis njky; neha; tUk;nghJ 15 x 15 br. kP vd;w ,ilbtspia mDrhpf;ft[k;.

 

tpij neh;j;jp

            xU fpnyh tpija[ld; 4 fpuhk; oiunfhblh;kh  tphpoia fyf;ft[k;. ,ij tpijf;Fk; Kd; (rw;W Kd;dh;) bra;a ntz;Lk;. ,J caph; cu';fSld; fyf;f VJthdJ. ,t;thW neh;j;jp bra;ag;gl;l tpijfis g{";rhzf; bfhy;ypfSld; fyff;ff; TlhJ.

 

            tpijfis jpuk; my;yJ kh';nfhbrg;g[ld; 4 fp / fpnyh tpij vd;w mstpnyh my;yJ fhh;ghf;rpd; / fhh;bgd;lhrpk;Kldd; 2 fp / fpnyh tpij vd;w mstpnyh fyf;ft[k;.

 

            tpijfis iunrhgpak; (600 fp/vf;lh;) TNAU 14 cld; f";rp nrh;j;J fyf;ft[k;. tpij neh;j;jp bra;ag;glhtpl;lhy;/ 2 fpnth iunrhgpaj;Jld; 25 fpnyh vU kw;Wk; 25 fpnyh kzYld; fye;J tpijf;ft[k;.

 

            tpij neh;j;jpahdJ/ ehw;Wfis nth; mGfy; kw;Wk; jz;L mGfy; neha;fspy; ,Ue;J ghJfhf;fpwJ.

 

tpijj;jy;

khdhthp

?        tpijfis/ nfhit tpijg;ghd; my;yJ bfhU \ykhf thpirapy; elt[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

?        XU FHpf;F xU tpij tPjk; ,lt[k;/ fhf;if kw;Wk; mzpy; fsplk; ,Ue;J tpijfis fhj;jy; ntz;Lk;.

?        $%dpy; tpijg;gjd; \yk; mjpf kfNy; bgwyhk;.

 

            ,wit : tpijfis 4 br. kP. MHj;jpy; cuj;Jld; nrh;j;J tpijf;ft[k;.

 

tpij nkyhz:ik El;gk;

?        Kisf;Fk; jpwd; bfhz:;l jukhd tpijfSld; fye;J cs;s ,we;j tpijfis gphpj;bjLf;f xh; g[jpaEl;gk; cUthf;fg; gl;Ls;sJ. ,jd; \yk; gaph; vz:zpf;if guhkhpf;f,aYk;.

?        18/64" tl;l ry;yilapd; \yk; juk; gphpf;fg;gl;;l tpijia 0.9% fhy;rpak; Fnshiul; ePhpy; 6 kzp neuk; Cw itj;J fodg;gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

?        mtw;iw <ukhd rhf;Ffspd; nky; gug;gp/ 20-24 kzp neuk; <urhf;if bfhz;L \o itf;f ntz;Lk;.

?        20-24 kzp neuj;Jf;F gpd;g[/ Kisj;j tpijfis gphpj;J/ epHypy; fhaitf;f ntz;Lk;.

?        ,e;j tPhpaKs;s tpijfis cldoahf tpijf;fyhk;

?        ,t;tpijfs cgnahfg;gLj;Jtjd; \yk; Kisg;g[ jpwd; 95% vd;w mstpYk;/ ,Wjp gaph; vz:zpf;if 90%f;F nkYk; guhkhpf;fg;gLfpwJ. gaph; tpisr;ry; 15% mjpfhpf;fpwJ. ,e;El;gk;/ cwp";Rjy;/ ,we;j tpijfis gphpj;jy; kw;Wk; tPhpa tpijfis Kisf;Fk;Kd; tpijj;jy; vd;w epiyfis bfhz:lJ.

 

Ez;q}l;lkpLjy;

            ntshz; Jiwapduhy;; ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gl;l Ez:q}l;lr;rj;J fyit/ 2.5 fpnyht[ld; cyh;e;j kziyg; gad;gLj;jp 40 fpnyhthf;fp/ tpij tpijj;jt[ld; kz: gug;gpy; J}t ntz;Lk;. Ez;q}l;lf; fyitia kz;q}ld; xd;whf nrh;f;ff; TlhJ.

 

Cl;lr;rj;J FiwghL

Jj;jehff; FiwghL

            ,iy euk;gpw;F ,izhf ,nyrhd k";rs; epwf;nfhLfs; ,iyapd; gug;gpy; njhd;Wk;. Kjph;e;j epiyapy; euk;gpy; gr;ir gw;whf;Fiw kw;Wk; Edpbkhl;L tsh;tJ jilgLk;. Jj;jehfk; Fiwthf cs;s kz;zpw;F vf;lUf;F 25 fpnyh Jj;jehf ry;ngl; ,lntz:Lk;.

 

,Uk;g[ FiwghL  

            euk;g[fSf;fpilna gr;iraf; Fiwt[/ Edp kw;Wk; nth;fspd; tsh;r;rp Fiwa[k;. ,Uk;g[ Fiwg;ghl;il ePf;f 1% ,Uk;g[ ry;ngl; fiuriy/ tpijj;j 30 kw;Wk; 50 MtJ ehl;fspy; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

nghuhd; FiwghL

            ,sk; ,iyfspd; tsh;r;rp jilg;gl;L/ Fl;ilahd g[jh; mikg;igj; jUk;. fha; tsh;r;rp ghjpf;fg;gl;L/ tpijapy;yhf; fha;fisj; jUk;. nghuhd; FiwghLs;s kz;zpw;F 10 fpnyh nghuhf;!; kw;Wk; 200 fpnyh $pg;rk; tpijj;j 45MtJ ehspy; ,lg;gl ntz;Lk;.

 

fe;jff; FiwghL

            Fd;wpa tsh;r;rp/ xnu khjphp gr;iraf; FiwghLs;s jhtu';fs; rd;dkhd jz;L kw;Wk; tiy nghd;w mikg;g[ Mfpait fe;jff; Fiwghod; mwpFwpfs; MFk;.

 

$pg;rk; ,Ljy;

            xU vf;lUf;F 400 fpnyh tPjk; 40-45 MJ ehspy; ghrdg; gapUf;Fk;/ 40-75 MtJ ehspy; khdhthhpg; gapUf;Fk; brofspd; xukhf kz:zpd; <uj;jd;;;;;;;ikiag; bghWj;J ,lntz;Lk;.

 

            kz;izf; bfhj;jp $pg;rk; ,l;l xd;Wnrh;j;J/ kz; mizf;f ntz;Lk;.

            fhy;rpak; kw;Wk; fe;jff; FiwghLs;s epy';fspy; $pg;rk; ,Ljy; ey;y gyidj; jUk;.

            $pg;rk; ,Ljy; fha; cUthFjiya[k;/ epuk;gpa fha;fs; cUthtija[k; J}z:LfpwJ.

 

ePh; nkyhz:ik

            fhyepiyiag; bghWj;J/ tsh;r;rp epiyapd;nghJ 0.4 Mtpahjy; tPjKk;/ bgUf;f epiyaapd;nghJ 0.6 Mtpahjy; tPjKd; cs;sthW ePh;g;ghrdk; eph;zapf;fg;gLfpwJ.

 

            fPH;f;fz;l gaphpd; tsh;r;rp epiyf;nfw;g ePh;g;ghrdj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;j  ntz;Lk;.

            g{g;gjw;F Kd;            -           1-25 ehl;fs;

            g{f;Fk;                         -           26 - 60 ehl;fs;

            Kjph;r;rpg; gUtk;       -           61-105 ehl;fs;

 

            Kisg;g[/ g{j;jy;/ fha; cUthjy; Mfpa gUt';fspy; ePh;g;ghrdk; ,d;wpahikahjjhfpwJ. Vbddpy; ,e;epiyapy; kz:zpd: <ug;gjk; mtrpakhdJ. epyf;fliyf;F fPH;f;fz:lthJ ePh;g;ghrdk; mspf;fntz:L:k;.

 

            tpijj;jy; my;yJ tpijg;gjw;FKd: kz: fod mLf;if cilf;f tpijj;j 4 my;yJ 5 ehl;fspy; ePh;g;gha;r;rntz:Lk;. tpijj;j 20 ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwF. g{g;gpw;Fg; gpd; 2 Kiw ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz:Lk;. Kisg;g[g; gUtj;jpd:nghJ 1 my;yJ 2 Kiw ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz:Lk; fha; cUthFk;nghJ 2 my;yJ 3 Kiw kz:tifiag; bghWj;J ePh;g;gha;r;rntz:Lk;.

 

            g{g;gpd:nghJ/ fha; cUthjypd: nghJk; 0.5 rjtpjk; bghl;lrpak; FnshiuL bjspg;gJ ePh;j;jl;Lg;ghl;ilf; Fiwf;Fk;. bjspg;g[ ePh;g;ghrdk; 30 rjtpfpjk; tiu ePiur; nrkpf;f cjt[fpwJ ,nyrhd kz:eaKila epy';fSf;F ghj;jpnahug; ghrdk; ghpe;Jiu bra;ag;gLfpwJ.

 

fis eph;thfk;

tpijf;Fk; Kd;   :   g;Sf;Fnshuypd: - 2.0 yp / vf;lh; vd:w mstpy; mspf;f    ntz:Lk;.

Kisf;Fk; Kd:   :   g;Sf;Fnshuypd: - 2.0 yp / vf;lh; 900 yp ePUld:  mspf;fntz:Lk;. gpd:g[ ePh;g;ghrdk; bra;at[k;. 35 -40 ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwF xU iff;fis vLf;ft[k;.

 

fisf;bfhy;yp cgnahfg;gLj;jg;glh tpl;lhy; 20 kw;Wk; 40 ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwF bfhj;jp iff;fis vLf;ft[k;.

 

gaph; vz:zpf;if rPh;bra;jy;

            tpijj;J 10 ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwF rhpahd <ug;gjk; ,Ug;gpd: gaph; vz:zpf;ifia rPh;bra;jy; ntz:Lk;.

 

xU';fpize;j gaph;g; ghJfhg;g[

            g{r;rp neha;fs; bjd;gl;lhy; mtw;wpd; bghUshjhur; nrj epiyia mwpe;J gaph;g;ghJfhg;g[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

RUs; g{r;rp

            ,iyfspd; nky; jha;g;g{r;rp Kl;ilfisj; jdpj;jdpahf ,Lfpd;wJ. ,tw;wpypUe;J btsptUk; rhk;gy; epw fUe;jiyg; g[Gf;fs; ,uz;L \d;W ,iyfis xd;whfg; gpizf;Fk;. ,iy jpRf;fSf;fpilna CLUtpr; brd;W cs;spUe;Jbfhz;L gr;iraj;ijr; Ruz;oj; jpd;Dk;. gr;irak; ,He;j ,iyfs; RUz;L fha;e;JtpLk;.  ,g;g{r;rpfs; mjpfkhd jhf;Fjyhy; epyf;fliyg; gaph; jPa;e;J nghdJ nghy; fhl;rpaspf;Fk;. g[GthdJ 14 ehl;fspy; ed;F tsh;e;J Tl;Lg; g[G gUtj;ij mila[k; nkYk; ehd;F ehl;fspy; me;Jg;g{r;rpahf khwptpLk;. mjd;gpd; Kl;ilfis ,lj; bjhl';Ffpd;wd. ,e;jg; g{r;rpapy; jhf;Fjy; khdhthhpg; gaphpy; bgUkstpYk; ,wit epyf;fliyapy; twz;l NH;epiyapYk; fhzg;gLk;.

 

            ,tw;iwf; fl;Lg;gLj;j jl;ilg;gaW my;yJ cSe;Jg; gapiu epyf;fliya[ld; 1 : 4 vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; CLgaph; bra;ayhk;. gaph; Kisj;j 10 ehl;fSf;Fs; itf;nfhyhy; taiy \oitj;J ,g;g{r;rpapd; jhf;Fjiyf; Fiwf;fyhk;. tpsf;Fg; bghwp itj;J RUs;g{r;rp fisf; fth;e;J mHpf;fyhk;. nkYk; ,witg; gaphpy; jz;zPh; jl;Lg; ghL ,y;yhky; guhkhpf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

bghUshjhur; nrjepiy

            xU brof;F 2 g[Gf;fs; my;yJ 10 rjk; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ,iyfs; ,Ue;jhy; fPH;f;fz;l g{r;rp kUe;fspy; VnjDk; xd;iwj;J}tp my;yJ bjspj;Jf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;. vf;lUf;F vz;nlhry;ghd; 4 rjk; J}s; 25 fpnyh/ ghrnyhd; 4 rjk; J}s; 25 fpnyh/ vz;nlhry;ghd; 35 ,rp 850 kpyp/ ilFnshnuhgh!; 75 ,rp  652 kpyp/ nkndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; 36 ,rp 700 kpyp.

 

rpfg;g[f; fk;gspg;g[G

            ,g;g[Gf;fs; khdhthhp epyf;fliyapy; fhzg;gLk;. ,it ,sk; gUtj;jpy; nuhk';fsw;W rhk;gy; epwkhff; fhzg;gLk;. ,iyfspd; mog;ghfj;jpYs;s gr;iraj;ijr; Ruz;oj; jpd;Dk;. ed;F tsh;e;j g[Gf;fs; cly; KGtJk; rptg;g[epw nuhkj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. ,it ,iya[s; eL euk;g[g; gFjpia kl;Lk; tpl;Ltpl;L gpw gFjpfis cz;L bgUj;j nrjj;ij tpistpf;Fk;. kpft[k; ghjpf;fg;gl;l gaph; ML/ khL nka;e;jJ nghy fhl;rpaspf;Fk;.

 

fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; Kiwfs;

            nfhil cHt[ bra;J kz;zpy; g[ije;Js;s Tl;Lg;g[Git btspf; bfhzh;e;J nrfhpj;J mHpf;fyhk;. kiHf;Fg;gpd; tpsf;Fg; bghwp my;yJ jPg;ge;jk; itj;J jha; me;Jg;g{r;rpfis fth;e;J mHpf;fyhk;. nrhah bkhr;ir Jtiu kw;Wk; jl;il gaph;fis CLgaph; bra;tjhy;/ mtw;wpy; ,lg;gLk; Kl;ilfis vspjpy; nrfhpj;J mHpf;fyhk;.

 

bghUshjhu nrjepiy

            100 kPl;lUf;F 8 Kl;ilf; Ftpay;fs; ,Ue;jhy; gpd;tUk; g{r;rpf; bfhy;yp kUe;Jfis vf;lUf;F 25 fpnyh vd;w tpjj;jpy; J}tyhk;. gp.vr;.rp. 10% (o)/ Fapdhy;gh!; 1.5% (o)/ ghrnyhd; 4% (o)/ vz;nlhry;ghd; 4% / fhh;gd; 10% (o) (my;yJ) vz;nlhry;ghd; 35 ,.rp 75 kpy;yp ypl;lh; vf;lh; bgdpll;nuhjpahd; 50 ,.rp. 750 kpy;yp ypl;lh; / vf;lh;/ Fapdhy;gh!; 750 kpyp/ ilFnshnyhnugh!; 76 lgps;a[ v!;. !p. 625 kpyp/ Fnshnuhighpgh!; 20 ,.rp. 1250 kpyp / vf;lh; vj;jpahd; 500 kpyp / vf;lh;/ ghrnyhd; 35 ,. rp. 750 kpyp / vf;liu 375 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. (m) vd;.gp.tp. itui! xU vf;lUf;F 750 g[Gt[f;F ,izahd msit gpd;tUkhW gad;gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

 

            vd;. gp. tp. \yj;ij jkpH;ehL ntshz;ik gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; kz;ly Muha;r;rp epiyakhd iga{h;/ nfhaKj;J}h; (m) kJiu fy;Y}hpfspy; bgwyhk;. mjd; bgUf;fj;ija[k; epyg;gad;ghl;ila[k; gpd; tUkhW fhzyhk;. mk!;fhlh my;gp!;!;l;iufh eLj;ju mst[s;s yhh;th;fis nrfhpj;J/ mtw;iw xh; ,utpw;F gl;odp nghl ntz;Lk;. vUf;F ,iyfis mf;fiurapy; Cwitj;J. epHypy; cyh;j;jp mtw;iw yhh;thf;fSf;F czthf xd;W (m) ,uz;L jpd';fSf;F mspf;f ntz;Lk;. \d;whk; ehspypUe;J itu!; mw;w ,iy fis czthff; bfhLf;fyhk;. ghjpf;fg;gl;l g[Gf;fs; mog;gFjpapy; ,sk; rptg;g[ epwj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; kw;Wk; jiy bjh';fpf; bfhz;Lk;/ btz;zpw jputbkhd;W clypy;Ue;J te;J bfhz;oUg;gij gpd; epiyapy; fhzyhk;. ,we;j g[Gf;fis nrfhpj;J J}a jz;zPhpy; rpy ehl;fs; itj;J/ gpd; g[Gf;fis miuj;J bky;ypa Jzpapy; gyKiw tofl;o toePh; nrfhpf;fg;gLfpwJ. 750 yhh;thf;fis Cwitj;J bgwg;gLk; itu!; fiury; 250 kp yp xl;Lk; jputk; (m) l;iul;lhd; 350 ypl;lh; fye;J/ 1 ypl;lUf;F bjspf;f gad;gLj;jyhk;. bjspg;gjw;F J}a ePiug; gad;gLj;jp/ khiy ntisfspy; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

gilg;g[G my;yJ btl;Lg;g[G

            ,J ,wit epyf;fliyapy; bgUkstpy; fhzg;gLk;. ,g;g{r;rpapd; Kl;ilfs; Ftpayhft[k; k";rs; epwnuhkk; \lg;gl;litahft[k; ,Uf;Fk;. gr;ir epw ,sk; g[Gf;fs; FUj;ija[k; ,iyfisa[k; cz;L nrjk; tpistpf;Fk;. jPtpukhfj; jhf;fg;gl;l gaph; ML khLfs; nka;e;jJ nghy; fhzg;gLk;. ,g;g[Gf;fs; elkhl;lk; khiy kw;Wk; ,ut[ ntisfspy; fhzg;gLk;. bghshjhu nrj epiy 100 kPl;lUf;F 8 Kl;il Ftpay;fs; vd ,Ug;gpd; gpd;tUk; fl;Lg;ghL Kiwfisg; gpd;gw;w ntz;Lk;.

 

            Mkzf;Fg; gapiu epyf;fliyg; gapiur; Rw;wpg; bghwpg; gapuhfnth my;yJ CLgapuhfnth gaphpl;L epiyf;fliyapd; jhf;F jiyf; Fiwf;fyhk;. vf;lUf;F 12 vd;w tpjj;jpy; ,df;fth;r;rpg; bghwpfis taypy; bghUj;jp Mz; me;Jg;g{r;rpfisf; fth;e;J mHpf;fyhk;. Kl;ilf; Ftpay;fisr; nrfhpj;Jk; mHpf;fyhk;. er;Rj; jPdp cUz;ilfis taiyr; Rw;wpYk; tug;g[ xu';fspYk;/ tayp;y; bjhpa[k; re; bghe;JfspYk; khiy ntisfspy; itj;J g[Gf;fisf; fth;e;J mHpf;fyhk;.

 

er;Rj; jPdp cUz;il bra;Kiw (vf;lUf;F)

            mhprpj; jtpL 2.5 fpnyh/ bty;yk; 2.5 fpnyh fhh;ghpy; 50 rjk; 1.25 fpnyh.

            ,k;\d;iwa[k; njitahd mst[ jz;zPh; nrh;j;J rpWrpW cUz;ilfshf cUl;lt[k;. kWehs; fhiy cUz;ilfisr; nrfhpj;J mg;g[wg;gLj;jt[k;. Vbddpy; ,it tsh;g;g[g; gpuhzpfshd ML/ nfhHp/ eha; nghd;wtw;wpf;Fj; jP';F  tpistpf;Fk;.

 

            g[UOdpah vd;. gp. tp. itu!; er;Raphpia vf;lUf;F 250 vy;. ,. vd;w mstpy; 1000 ypl;lh; ePhpy; khiy ntisfspy; ifj;bjspg;ghdhy; bjspg;gjd; \yk; ,sk; g[Gf;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;. fPH;f;fz;ltw;Ws; VnjDk; xd;iwj; bjspj;J g[Gf;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;. vf;lUf;F Fnshh;ighpgh!; 20 ,. rp. - 2.0 ypl;lh; ilFnshuth!; 76 v!;. rp. - 1 ypl;lh; bgs;jpnahl; 50 ,.rp. - 2.0 ypl;lh;.

 

fha; Jisg;ghd;

            mWtilf;Fg;gpd; epyf;fliyf; fha;fspd; nky; Jisfs; fhzg;gLk;. cilj;Jg; ghh;j;jhy; cs;ns kz; milf;fg;gl;oUf;Fk;. mJ fha; Jisg;ghd; jhf;fpa mwpFwpahFk;.

 

            ,jw;iwf; fl;Lg;gLj;j vf;lUf;F fhh;ghpy; 10 rjk; J}s; 50 fpnyh my;yJ vz;nlhry;ghd; 4 rjk; J}s; 50 fpnyh my;yJ khyj;jpahd; 5 rjk; J}s; 50 fpnyh filrp cHtpy; ,l;L gpd;dh; cGJ rkd; bra;J tpijf;ft[k;. filrp cHtpy; kUe;J ,lj;jtwpdhy; $pg;rj;Jld; fye;J ,lt[k;.

 

neha; eph;thfk;

JU neha;

            ,iyfspd; mog;ghf';fspy; JU nghd;w vGk;gpa g[s;spfisf; fhzyhk;. nehapd; jhf;Fjy; jd;ik 3 g[s;spfisj; jhf;Fk; nghJ kUe;J bjspf;fntz;Lk;. khd;nfhbrg; 400 fpuhk;/ fe;jfk; 1 fpnyh Fnehnuhjnyhdpy; 400 fpuhk; Mfpatw;Ws; VjhtJ xd;wpidj; bjspf;ft[k;. njitg;gl;lhy; 15 ehl;fs; fHpj;J kPz;Lk; xU Kiw bjspf;ft[k;.

 

,iyg;g[s;sp neha;

            ,iyfspy; tl;;lkhd fUg;g[g; g[s;spfs; fhzg;gLk;. ,iyfs; cjph;e;JtpLfpd;wd. nehapd; juk; 3-f;F nky; mjpfhpj;jhy; fhh;gd; lhrpk; 250 fpuhk; / v my;yJ khd;nfhbrg; 500 fpuhk; / v/ Fnshnuhjnyhdpy; 1 fp / V njitbadpy; 15 ehl;fSf;Fg; gpwF kw;bwhU Kiw mspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

tl;lj; njky; neha; (bkhl;lGfy; neha;)

            FWfpa ,ilbtspapy; (15 x 15 br. kP) tpijj;j 6 - tJ thuk; tiu neha;j; jhf;fg;gl;l brofisg; gpL';fp vhpj;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. tpij el;l 30-tJ ehspy; khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; vf;lUf;F 500 kp. yp jdpahfnth my;yJ bjd;id my;yJ nrhsk; ,iyr; rhw;Wlndh bjspf;fyhk;.

 

ntuGfy; neha;

            ,witg; gaphpy; vy;yh tif epy';fspYk; khdhthhpapy; Fwpg;ghff; fhpry; kz; epyj;jpYk; bro Kisj;j gpwF m';bfhd;Wk; ,';bfhd;Wkhfbro ,wf;f Muk;gpj;J mWtilapd; nghJ Kisj;j vz;zpf;ifapy; \d;wpy; xU g';F my;yJ nkhrkhd ghjpg;ghy; ghjp bro vz;zpf;if ,y;yhky; ngha;tpLfpwJ.

 

            ,e;neha; tpij \yk; gut[k; tifiar; rhh;e;jjha; ,Ug;gjhy; tpij neh;j;jp bra;J ,e;neha; tuhky; ghJfhf;f ntz;Lk;. xU fpnyh tpijf;F ,uz;L fpuhk; fhh;bgd;lhrpk; my;yJ ehd;F fpuhk; oiunfhblh;kh fye;J tpijg;g[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

60-80 ehspy; njhd;Wk; ntuGfy; kw;Wk; jz;L mGfy; neha;

            ,J bro mWtilapd;nghJjhd; bjhpatUk;. ,';bfhd;Wk; m';bfhd;Wkhf bro fha;e;jpUf;Fk;. broiag; gpL';Fk; nghJ fha;fs; kz;zpnyna j';fptpLk;. broapd; mog;ghfj;jpy; btz;ikahff; fhshd; g{j;jJ nghy; fhzg;gLk;. ,e;neha; fliy tpGJfisg;  ghjpg;gjhy; czt[g; bghUs; fliyf;Ff; fpilg;gjpy;iy/ tpGJfSk; mGfptpLfpd;wd. bro gpL';fpa ,lj;jpy; kz;izj; njhz;of; fpilf;Fk; fliyia chpj;Jg; gUg;igg; ghh;j;jhy; gUg;g[ bkype;J ntk;g[g; gUg;igg; nghy; ,Uf;Fk;. Ritj;Jg; ghh;j;jhy; ,dpg;ghf ,Uf;Fk;.

 

            ,ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;j vf;lUf;F 250 fpuhk; fhh;bgd;lhrpKld; 375 fpuhk; khd;nfhbrg; 500 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J ifj;bjspg;ghdhy; bro KGtJk; eida[k;go bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

mWtil

            Kjph;e;j ,iyfs; fha;e;JtpLjy; kw;Wk; nky;kl;l ,iyfs; k";rshtJk; Kjph;r;rpiaf; Fwpf;Fk;. fhy msitg; bghWj;J gaph; fz;fhzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. njhuhakhf xU rpy brofisg; gpL';fp fha;fis chpf;f ntz;Lk;. xl;od; cl;g[uk; bts;isahf ,y;yhky; gGg;g[ fye;j fWg;g[ epwj;jpy; ,Ug;gpd; mJ Kjph;r;rp epiyiaf; Fwpf;fpwJ.

 

            mWtilf;F Kd; ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. fha;e;j epyk; Rygkhf mWtilf;F cjt[fpwJ. kz;zpy; nghJkhd <ug;gjk; ,Ug;gpd; mWtilf;FKd; ePh;g;gha;r;rj; njitapy;iy.

 

            mWtilf;F Ke;ija ghdj;jpw;F ePh; ,y;iybadpy; ehl;Lf; fyg;igiag; gad;gLj;jp brofisg; gpL';fp Ml;fisf; bfhz;L kz;zpYs;s fha;fisf; nrkpf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            gpL';fg;gl;l brofisf; Ftpayhf itf;ff; TlhJ. Vbddpy; ,J <ukhf cs;s nghJ/ Fwpg;ghff; bfhj;J ,uf';fs; Kisf;f Muk;gpj;JtpLk;. brofspypUe;J fha;fisg; gphpf;f epyf;fliy gphpg;ghd; cgnahfg;gLj;jyhk;.

 

            fha;fis  ehd;fpypUe;J $e;J ehl;fs; tiu btapypy; cyh;j;j ntz;Lk;. ,;uz;L my;yJ \d;w ehl;fs; ,ilbtspapy; ,uz;L my;yJ \d;W ehl;fs; fhaitg;gJ KGtJkhd fha;jYf;F cjt[fpwJ. btg;gepiy mjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk;nghJ neuoahf btapypy; fha itj;jiyj; jtph;f;f ntz;Lk;. fha;fs; nfhzpg;igfspy; fl;o kzw;gug;gpd; kPJ nrfhpj;J itf;fyhk;. fha;e;j fha;fSf;F <ug;gjk; tUtijj; jtph;f;f ntz;Lk;.

 

vs;

gUtk; kw;Wk; ,uf';fs;

 

 

khtl;lk; gUtk;

 

1.

khdhthhp rhFgo

,uf';fs;

1.

Mog;gl;lk; ($%d; - $%iy) midj;J khtl;l';fspYk;

nfh 1/ ovk;tp 3/ ovk;tp 5/ tpMh;I 1

2.

fhh;j;jpif gl;lk; (mf;-etk;) midj;J khtl;l';fspYk;

nfh 1/ ovk;tp 3/ ovk;tp 5/ v!; tpgpMh; 1/ tpMh;I 1

3.

nfhil (khrpg;gl;lk;) bghpahh;/ nryk;/ nfhit/ kJiu/ ,;uhkehjg[uk;/ rptf';if/ jpUbey;ntyp/ J}hj;Jf;Fo/ tpUJefh;

nfh 1/ ovk;tp 1/ ovk;tp 3/ ovk;tp 5/ tpMh;I 1/ v!;tpoMh; 1

2.

,wit rhFgo

 

1.

khrpg;gl;lk; (gpg;u-khh;r;) nfhit/ <nuhL/ jpUr;rp/ bguk;gYhh;/ f+h;/ jpz;Lf;fy;/ njdP/ kJiu/ j";rht{h;/ ehfg;gl;odk;

ovk;tp 3/ ovk;tp 4/ ovk;tp 6/ nfh 1/ tpMh;I 1

 

 bey; jhprpy;

            flw;fiu xu';fspy;                                      tp Mh;I 1

 

epyk; jahhpj;jy;

            kzw;gh';fhd tz;ly;/ brk;kz; kw;Wk; fUtzly; epy';fs; Vw;wit.

 

            epyj;ij ,UKiw onuf;lh; fyg;igahy; (m) \d;W Kiw ,Uk;g[ fyg;igahy; (m) Ie;J Kiw ehl;L fyg;igahy; cHntz;Lk;.

 

            rpW tpijfSk; Kisf;FkhW kz;zpy; cs;s fl;ofis cilj;J Ez;ik gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

 

            kz;zpy; cs;s fodkhd fl;ofis cilf;f rpry; fyg;ig bfhz;L 0.5 kP MHj;jpy; ,U/ br';Fj;jhd jpirfspy; cHntz;Lk;. gpwF 12.5 ld;fs; bjhG cuk; (m) kf;fpa bjd;id ehh;f;fHpt[ nghl ntz;Lk;.

 

            ,wit vs; rhFgof;F fpilf;Fk; ePh; kw;Wk; epyj;jpd; rhpit bghWj;J 102 kP (m)  202 kP mstpw;F gLf;ifj; jahhpf;f ntz;Lk;. ePh; nj';Ftijj; jLf;f epyj;ij rkd;gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

 

            bey; rhFgof;F gpwF vs; nghLk; nghJ epykhdJ rhpahd <ugjj;jpy; xU Kiw cGjgpd;/ tpij/ tpijj;j gpwF kw;bwhU cHtpdhy; \lntz;Lk;.

 

tpija[k; tpijj;jYk;

            tpij mst[ vf;lUf;F 5 fpnyh

tpij neh;j;jp

            2 fpnyh tpija[ld; 4 fpuhk; jpuk; my;yJ fhh;bgz;lrpk; kUe;ijf; fye;J 24 kzp neuk; fHpj;J tpijf;f ntz;Lk;. ,ij g{";rhz bfhy;ypa[ld; fyf;ff; TlhJ. tpij neh;j;jpf;F 3 bghl;lyk; mnrh!;ighpy;yk; kw;Wk; kz;zpy; 10 bghl;lyk; ,Ltjd; \yk; 25% iel;u$d; nrkpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,ij kz; my;y Fg;iga[ld; fye;J filrp cHtpd; nghJ rPuhf J}tt[k;.

 

tpijf;Fk; Kiw

            Ie;J fpnyh tpija[ld; 20 fpnyh kzy; fye;J epyj;jpd; nkw; gug;gpy; rPuhfj;J}t ntz;Lk;.

 

,ilbtsp

            tpijj;j 15 - k; ehs; brof;Fg; bro 15 br. kP ,ilbtsp tpl;L brofis fise;Jtplntz;Lk;. gpd;g[ 30-k; ehs; brof;Fr; bro 1 mo ,ilbtsp tpl;L kPz;Lk; xU Kiw fise;J tpLtJ rpwe;jJ.

 

cuKk; cukpLjYk; (vf;lUf;F)

bjhg cuk; : kf;fpa bjhG cuk; filrp cHtpw;F Kd;g[ ,lt[k;.

 

,urhad cuk; : kz; ghpnrhjidg; ghpe;Jiug;go cukpLjy; rpwe;jJ. mt;thW bra;ahtpoy; bghJthd ghpe;Jiuapd;go fPH;f;fz;lthW ,lt[k; (fpnyhtpy;)

rj;Jf;fs;

khdhthhp (23 :13 :13)

,wit (35: 23 :23)

jiHr;rj;J

50 fpnyh a{hpah

75 fpnyh a{hpah

kzpr;rj;J

80 fpnyh Ng;gh; gh!;ngl;

142 fpnyh Ng;gh; gh!;ngl;

rhk;gy; rj;J

20 fpnyh bghl;lh#;

38 fpnyh bghl;lh#;.

 

fis eph;thfk;

            tpijj;j 15 ehl;fs; fHpj;J x iff;fisa[k;/ 35 ehl;fs; fHpj;J ,uz;lhtJ iff;fisa[k; vLj;J fisfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j ntz;Lk;.

 

ePh;ghrdk;

            vs;spw;F kz;zpd; jd;ik/ gUtfhyk; Mfpatw;iwg;bghUj;J Rkhh; 5 my;yJ 6 Kiw ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. Kjy; Kiw tpij tpij tpijj;jt[ld;/ 7-tJ ehs; caph;j; jz;zPh;/ 25-tJ ehs; g{ g{f;Fk; jUthapy; 2 Kiw/ fha; gpof;Fk; jUthapYk;/ Kjph;r;rpila[k; nghJk; 2 Kiwahf Rkhh; 6 Kiw ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. g{ g{f;Fk; gUtk; kw;Wk; fha; gpoj;J/ Kw;Wk; gUtj;jpy; ePh; gha;r;Rtijf; ftdkhff; filg;gpof;f ntz;Lk;.

 

xU';fpize;j gaph;g;ghJfhg;g[

            g{r;rp - neha;fs; bjd;gl;lhy; mtw;wpd; bghUshjhur; nrj epiyia mwpe;J gaph;g;ghJfhg;g[ bra;antzLk;.

g{r;rpfs; : jz;L gpizg;ghd;/ fha; gpizg;ghd; Mfpad Fwpg;gplj;jf;f g{r;rpfshFk;.

fl;Lg;ghL : 25/ 35 kw;Wk; 50 ehl;fs; tpijj;jjw;Fg; gpwF gpd;tUk; g{r;rpf; bfhy;ypfisj; J}htntz;Lk;.

 

            vz;nlhry;ghd; 4o/ ghrnyhd; 4o/ Fapdhy; gh!; 1.5o/ khyjpahd; 5o/ 25 vf;lh; my;yJ ghrnyhd; 35 ,rp 100 kpyp/ Fapdhy; gh!; 25 ,rp 1000 kp. yp my;yJ vz;nlhry;ghd; 35 ,rp 1000 kpyp my;yJ fhh;ghpy; 50 lgps;a{ gp 500 ypl;lh; ePh; fye;J bjspf;f ntz;Lk; my;yJ ,uz;L rjtPj ntg;bgz;bza;f; fiuriy ,uz;L Kiw bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

FUj;-fha;fisj; Jisf;Fk; g[G

g{r;rp

            jha;g;g{r;rp rpwpajhf/ k";rs; epw ,wf;iffspy;/ epiwa fUg;g[g; g[s;spfSld; ,Uf;Fk;. Mz; g{r;rp clk;gpd; gpd;gFjp Edpapy; fUikahd Kof;bfhj;J fhzg;gLk;.

 

            g[G Rkhh; 20 kp.kP ePsKk;/ gGg;g[jpwj; jiyiaa[k;/ ,s";rptg;g[ clypy; rpW bky;ypa cnuhk';fisa[k; bgw;wpUf;Fk;.

 

nrjj;jpd; mwpFwp

            g[Gf;fs; Kjypy; FUj;Jf;fisf; File;J jhf;fp/ fHpt[g; bghUis btspj; js;spapUf;Fk;.

            mjpfj; jhf;Fjyhy; bro fha;e;J tplt[k; tha;g;g[z;L.

            fha;fisg; gpizj;J File;J brd;w tpijfisj; jhf;Fk;.

 

jLg;g[

            jhf;fg;gl;l FUj;Jfisa[k;/ fha;f; bfhj;Jf;fisa[k; nrfhpj;J mHpf;f ntz;Lk;. khyj;jpahd; 1875 kpyp (m) @bgd;jpahd; 1000 kpyp bjspf;ft[k;.

 

fhtog;g[G

g{r;rp

            jha;g;g{r;rp gGg;g[ epwkhft[k;/ gpd; ,wf;iffspy; fUg;g[g; gFjpapy; \d;W bts;isg; g[s;spfSlDk; ,Uf;Fk;.

 

            g[G Rkhh; 60 kp.kP ePskhft[k;/ fUik fye;j gGg;g[ clypy; brk;g[s;spfSld;/ fUg;g[j; jiya[ld; fhto nghd;W tise;J bry;Yk;.

 

nrjj;jpd; mwpFwp

            ,iyfis btF tpiuthfj; jpd;W mHpj;jpUf;Fk;.

            ,iy euk;g[fis kl;Lnk tpl;L itj;jpUf;Fk;.

 

jLg;g[

            g[Gf;fisr; nrfhpj;J mHpf;f ntz;Lk;.

            vf;luf;F khyj;jpahd; 1875 kpyp (m) bgd;jpahd; 1000 kpyp bjspf;ft[k;.

 

ej;ijg;g{r;rp        

g{r;rp

            g[G ej;ijg;nghd;W jl;ilahd cliyf; bfhz;lJ. gr;ir epw clypy; btz; nfhLfSk;/ ehd;F thpirapy; Ks; nghd;W tsh;e;j cnuhk';fSk; bfhz;oUf;Fk;. ,g;g[G ek; cly;kPJ gl;lhy; vhpr;ry; Vw;gLj;Jk;. gG;g[epw Tl;Lg;g[Gf;fs; Mik totj;jpy; rpwpajhf/ Tl;lkhf/ jz;Lg; gFjpapy; xl;of; bfhz;ouf;Fk;. jha;g g{r;rp gr;ir epwj;jy;/ ,wf;if xu';fs; kl;Lk; gGg;g[ epwk; bfhz;l jhff; fhzg;gLk;.

 

nrjj;jpd; mwpFwp

            g[G/ ,iy euk;g[fis kl;Lk; tpl;Ltpl;L/ gpw ghf';fisf; foj;J nrjg;gLj;jpapUf;fk;.

 

jLg;g[

            vf;lUf;F khyj;jpahd; 1875 kpyp (m) vz;nlhry;@ghd; kpyp bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

neha;fs;

rhk;gy; neha; : vf;lUf;F 2.5 fpnyh eida[k; fe;jfj;ij njitahd mst[ ePhpy; fye;J bjspf;ft[k;.

,iyg;g[s;sp neha; :1000 fpuhk; ilj;njd; vk;. 45 kUe;jpidj; bjspf;ft[k;.

g{tpiy neha; : neha; jhf;fpa brofis gpL';fp mHpj;Jtpl ntz;Lk;.

 

nth; mGfy; neha;

            tpij neh;j;jp : tpijf;Fk; nghJ tpija[ld; oiunfhlh;kh vd;w g{rzf;bfhy;yp Ez;qaphpia fpnyht[f;F 4 fpuhk; tPjk; fye;J gpd; tpijf;ft[k;. ,e;neha;j; jhf;Fk; gFjpfspy; nkw;fz;l tpij neh;j;jp bra;jy; mtrpak;;.

           

            tpijj;j vs; gaphpy; ,e;neha; njhd;wpdhy; 1 rjk; fhh;bgd; lhrpak; kUe;jpid (1.0 fpuhk; kUe;J / 1 ypl;lh; jz;zPh;) nthpd; mog;ghfj;jpy; nth; ed;whf eida[k;go Cw;w ntz;Lk;.

 

gaph; mWtil bra;jy;-mWtilf;fhd mwpFwpfs;

1.    broapy; fPHpypUe;J 25 rj ,iyfs; cjph;e;J tpLk;.

2.   fha;fs; kw;Wk; jz;Lg; ghf';fs; gGg;g[ epwkhf khWk;.

3.   broapd; moapypUe;J nkyhf cs;s 10-tJ fhapy; cs;s tpijfs; fWg;ghf khwpapUf;Fk;.

 

            nkw;fz;l mwpFwpfs; bjd;gLk;bghGJ mWtil bra;Jtpl ntz;Lk;. jtwpdhy; fha;fs; btoj;J tpijfs; rpjwp kfNy; Fiwa[k;.

 

 

Nhpafhe;jp

gUtk; kw;Wk; ,uf';fs;

gUtk; / khtl;lk;

,uf';fs;

khdhthhp

 

Mog;gl;lk; ($%d; - $%iy)

 

nfhak;g[j;J}h;/ <nuhL/ nryk;/ ehkf;fy;/ jpUbey;ntyp/ jpz;Lf;fy;

nf 1/ ,rp 68415/ nf 2/ nfh 1

jh;kg[hp/ jpUr;rp/ bguk;gYhh;/ f+h;

nfh 2/ nfh 3/ nfh4

jh;kg[hp/ jpUr;rp/ bguk;gY}hh;/ f+h;

nfh 2/ nfh 3/ nfh 4

fhh;j;jpifg; gl;lk; (mf;nlhgh;- etk;gh;)

 

flY}h;/ tpGg;g[uk;/ tpUJefh;/ rptf';if/ ,uhkehjg[uk;/ kJiu/ jpz;Lf;fy;/ njdp/ jpUr;rp/ bguk;gY}h;/ f+h;/ jpUbey;ntyp

nf 1/ nf 2/ khlh;d;/ nfh 2/ nfh 3/ nfh 4

,wit (Vg;uy;- nk)

 

nfhak;g[j;J}h;/ <nuhL

nf 1/ nf 2/ ,rp 68415/ khlh;d;/ vk;v!;vg;vr; 1/ nfh 3

jh;kg[hp/ nryk;/ ehkf;fy;/ jpUr;rp/ bguk;gY}h;/ f+h;

nfh 3 (jh;kg[hp jtpu)

ork;gh; - $dthp

 

nryk;/ ehkf;fy;/ jh;kg[hp/ <nuhL/ nfhit

nf 1/ nf 2/ ,rp 68415/ khlh;d;/ vk;v!;vg;vr; 1.

kJiu/ jpz;Lf;fy;/ njdp/ jpUbey;ntyp/ J}hj;Jf;Fo

nfh 1/  gpv!;vr. 1/ nfh 3/ nfh4.

kz;tif

            ey;y tofhy; trjpa[s;s vy;yh kz; tifa[k; Nhpafhe;jp rhFgof;F Vw;wJ. fhpry; g{kpapy; ed;whf tsh;e;jJ. mjpf kfNy; bfhLf;fpwJ. jkpH;ehl;oy; cs;s vy;yh kz;tifapYk;/ vy;yh khtl;l';fspYk; rhFgo bra;ayhk;.

 

epyk; jahhpj;jy;

            epyj;jpy; 12.5 ld; kf;fpa bjhG cuk; my;yJ bjd;id ehh;f; fHpt[ ,l;L ed;whf cGJ gz;gLj;jp kz;iz ed;whfg; g[Gjpahf;f ntz;Lk;;. nkYk; fPH;f;fz;l ,urhad cu';fis 40: 20 :20 vd;w bghJ ghpe;Jiug;go ,lntz;Lk;.

 

                        a{hpah             -           88 fpnyh / vf;lh;

                        Ng;gh;              -           125 fpnyh / vf;lh;

                        bghl;lh#;       -           33 fpnyh / vf;lh;

 

Ez;qaph; cuk;

            gj;J bghl;lyk; (2000 fpuhk;)  mnrh!;ighpy;yk; Ez;qaph; uhrpia 25 fpnyh zy; kw;Wk; 25 fpnyh bjhG cuj;Jld; fye;J tpijg;gjw;F Kd;g[ moa[ukhf ,lntz;Lk;.

 

gaph; ,ilbtsp

            ePz;lfhy ,ufk;      -           30 br. kP x 30 br. kP.

            FWfpafhy ,ufk;    -           30 br. kP x 15 br. kP

            nfh 1/ nf 2/ tPhpa     -           60 br. kP x 30 br. kP

            xl;L ,ufk;;/ khh;ld;

 

tpij mst[

            vf;lUf;F 15 fpnyh tpijfs;

            nfh 1 ,ufj;jpw;F kl;Lk; vf;lUf;F 30 fpnyh tpij njitg;gLk;.

 

tpij neh;j;jp

            khdhthhpapy; tpijf;Fk; Kd;/ tpijia rp';f; ry;ngl; 2% (20 fpuhk; / xU ypl;lh; jz;zPh;) fiurypy; 12 kzpneuk; Cwitj;J/ epHypy; cyh;j;jpa gpd;dh; tpijg;g[ bra;ayhk;.

 

            fhh;bgd;lhrpk; 2 fpuhk; / fpnyh tpija[ld; fye;J 24 kzp neuk; fHpj;J tpijg;g[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. my;yJ oiunfhlh;kh 4 fpuhk; / fpnyh vd;w mstpy; tpijneh;j;jp bra;ayhk;. 2 ghf;bfl; (400 fpuhk;) mnrhighpy;yk; Ez;qaph; uhrp Mwpa f";rp kw;Wk; xU vf;lUf;F njitahd tpijapld; fye;J/ epHypy; cyu itj;J gpd; tpijf;ft[k;.

 

tpijg;g[

            xU FHpf;F ,uz;L tpij vd;w mstpy; ghhpd; gf;fthl;oy; 3 br. kP. MHj;jpy; tpijf;ft[k;. elt[ bra;j 10-tJ ehspy; tsh;r;rp ,y;yhj brofis fise;J FHpf;F xh; ey;y bro ,Uf;Fk;go guhkhpf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

Ez;q}l;lfk; ,Ljy;

            12.5 fpnyh Ez;q}l;lf; fyitia 40 fpnyh kzYld; fye;J tpijf;F Kd; rhypy; ,l;L gpd;dh; tpijg;g[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

 

            kh';fdPR gw;whf;Fiw cs;s epyj;jpw;F 0.5% (xU ypl;lh; ePUf;F 5 fpuhk;) fiuriy tpijj;j 30/ 40 kw;Wk; 50-Mk; ehl;fspy; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            ,Uk;g[r;rj;J gw;whf;Fiwia epth;j;jp bra;a Jj;jehf ry;ngl; 0.5 (5 fpuhk; / xU ypl;lh; jz;zPh;) fiuriy tpijj;j 30/ 40 kw;Wk; 50-Mk; ehl;fspy; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

ePh; eph;thfk;

            fPH;fz;lthW ePh;g; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.

Kjy; jz;zPh;                      -           tpijj;jt[ld;

2-k; jz;zPh;                         -           caph;j; jz;zPuhf 7-k; ehs;

3-k; jz;zPh;                         -           tpijj;j 20-k; ehs;

4-k; jz;zPh;                         -           bkhl;L gpof;Fk; gUtk;

5/ 6-; jz;zPh;                        -           g{ gpof;Fk; jUzj;jpy; (,uz;L Kiw)

7/ 8-k; jz;zPh;         -           tpijg; gpof;Fk; jUzj;jpy; (,uz;L Kiw)

 

fisf; fl;Lg;ghL

            @g;Sf;nshuypd; (ghrypd;) my;yJ bgd;obkj;jypd; 2 ypl;lh; vf;lUf;F bjspj;j gpd; ePh;g; gha;r;Rjy; ntz;Lk;.

            fisf; bfhy;yp ,l;lgpd; 30-35 ehspy; xU iff;fis vLg;gJ mtrpak;.

            tpijj;jgpd; 15-30 ehspy; fisf;bfhj;jp bfhz;L fis vLf;fntz;Lk;.

 

gaph; Cf;fp bjspj;jy;

            tpijj;j 30tJ kw;Wk; 60tJ ehs; vf;lUf;F 20 gpgpvk; ehg;jypd; mrpl;of; mkpyk; gaph; Cf;fp kUe;ij (280 fpuhk; vd;VV/ 625 ypl;lh; jz:zPh;) 10 kzp Kjy; 2 kzpf;Fs; bjspf;f ntz:Lk;. ,jdhy; g{f;fs; mjpf kzpfs; gpof;f cjt[fpwJ.

 

gaph;g; ghJfhg;g[

g{r;rpf; fl;Lg;ghL

            ,iy cz;qk; g[Gf;fs; kw;Wk; tz;Lfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j fPH;f;fz;l kUe;Jfspy; VjhtJ xd;wpis tpijj;j 30-k; ehspy; xU vf;lUf;F bjspf;ft[k; vd;nlhry;ghd; 35 ,.rp. 1000 kp. yp./ @bgd;jpahd; 100 ,.rp. 500 kp.yp @ghrnyhd; 35 ,rp 1000 kp.yp. @bgd;njhntl; 50 ,.rp 500 kp.yp.

 

            gr;irg;g[G kw;Wk; ,iyg;ngd;fis fl;Lg;gLj;j fPH;f;fz;l kUe;Jfspy; Vjhtbjhd;wpid gad;gLj;jyhk;.

 

            vd;nlhry;@ghd; 4o 10 fpnyh my;yJ ghrnyhd; 4o J}tyhk; (m) ghrnyhd; 35 ,rp 1000 kpyp (m) vd;nlhry;@ghd; 35 ,rp 1000 kpyp Mfpatw;iwj; bjspf;fyhk;.

 

          kUe;J bjspj;jy; : njdPf;fs; elkhl;lk; ,y;yhj khiy neu';fspy; (4 kzpf;Fnky;) bjspf;ft[k;.

 

neha;f; fl;Lg;ghL

            My;l;lh; nehpah ,iyg;g[s;sp kw;Wk; thly; nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j vf;lUf;F khd;nfhbrg; 1000 fpuhk; bjspf;ft[k;.

            ntuGfy; : ,e;nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j vf;lUf;F fhh;bgd;lhrpk; xU fpuhk;/ xU ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J ghjpf;fg;gl;l brofisr; Rw;wp nth; eida[k;go Cw;wntz;Lk;.

 

            kiHf;fhy';fspy; g{tGfy; nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j khd;nfhbrg; 1000 fpuhk;/vf;lh; vd;w mstpy; g{tpd; ghf';fs; eida[k;go ed;F bjspf;fntz;Lk;. gj;J ehl;fs; ,ilbtspapy; kPz;Lk; xU Kiw njitg;gl;lhy; bjspf;ft[k;.

kzpfs; mjpfk; gpof;f

            kfue;jr; nrh;f;if Vw;gLk; jUzkhd fhiy 9 kzp Kjy; 11 kzpf;Fs; bky;ypa Jzp bfhz;L g{tpd; nky;ghfj;ij ,uz;L ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw bkJthf xt;bthJ g{f;bfhz;iliaa[k; xj;jpf; bfhLf;f ntz;Lk;. vl;oypUe;J gj;J ehl;fSf;F 5 Kiw ,g;go xt;bthU g{tpYk; bra;antz;Lk;. mj;Jld; g{f;fs; kyUk; jUzj;jpy; vf;lUf;F \d;W bgl;o tPjk; njdP tsh;j;jy; ey;y gyd; jUk;. mUfUnf cs;s g{f;bfhz;ilapid xd;nwhblhd;W Kfk; nrh;j;J ,nyrhfj; nja;j;Jtpl;lhYk; rpwe;j gyd; jUk;.

 

mWtil

            g{tpd; mog;ghfj;jpYs;s ,jH;fs; k";rs; epwkile;J g{f;bfhz;ilapYs;s tpijfs; fodj;jd;ik mile;jpUg;gJ Kjph;r;rpaile;jikf;F mwpFwpahFk;. cyh;e;j g{f;fisg; gwpj;J cyh;j;jpa gpd; tpijfisj; jdpna gphpj;bjLj;J Rj;jk; bra;antz;Lk;.

 

            mWtilf;Fg;gpd; tpijfis 8 Kjy; 9 rj <ug;gjk; tUk; tiu ed;F cyu itf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

Fwpg;g[:          Nhpafhe;jpg; gaph; Kjph;r;rp mila[k; rkaj;jpy; gwitfs; Fwpg;ghf fpspfs; mjpf nrjj;ij tpistpf;Fk;. ,ijj; jLf;f Nhpafhe;jpg; gapiu jdpg;gapuhfg; gaph; bra;tij tpLj;J mjpf mst[ gug;gpy; gaph; bra;tJ ey;yJ.. tpijj;j 60 ehs; Kjy; gaph; mWtil tiu fhiy kw;Wk; khiy ntisfspy; Ml;fis mkh;j;jpnah my;yJ gsgsg;ghd hpg;gd;fis itj;njh fpspfis tpul;lyhk;.

 

Mkzf;F

gUtk; kw;Wk; ,;uf';fs;

 

gUtk;

,uf';fs;

khdhthhp ($%d; - $%iy)

ovk;tp 2/ ovk;tp 4/ v!;v 1/ v!;v 2/ ovk;tp 5/ ovk;tp 6/ ovk;tprpvr; 1.

njhl;lg;gaph; (tug;g[g; gaph;)

ovk;tp 4

tpijast[

10 fpnyh / vf;lh;

,ilbtsp

 

ePz;lfhy ,ufk;

 

ovk;tp 1/ ovk;tp 2/ ovk;tp 3/ v!;v 1

90 x 90 br. kP.

FWfpafhy ,ufk;

 

ovk;tp 4 kw;Wk; 5

60 x 30 br.  kP

v!;V 2

60 x 45 br. kP

 

epyk;

            mkpy epy';fisj; jtpu gpw epy';fspy; gaphplyhk;. ehl;Lf; fyg;igapdhy; ,uz;L \d;W jliy cHntz;Lk;.

 

cukpLjy;

            cHt[ bra;ag;glhj epyj;jpy; 12.5 ld; vf; bjhG cuk; my;yJ kf;fpa bjd;id ehh;f;fHpt[ gug;gp cHntz;Lk;. kz; ghpnrhjidg; go cu';fs; ,lntz;Lk;. kz;ghpnrhjid bra;ahtpl;lhy; fPH;f;fz;ltw;iwg; gpd;gw;w ntz;Lk;.

 

            (xU vf;lUf;F)

            a{hpah                         -           63 fpnyh

            Ng;gh; gh!;ngl;          -           92 fpnyh

            bghl;lh#;                   -           25 fpnyh

 

jukhd tpijfisj; njh;e;bjLj;jy;

            rpwe;j jukhd tpijfisj; njh;e;bjLf;f ntz;Lk;. g{r;rp kw;Wk; g{";rhd neha;fs; jhf;fpa kw;Wk; cile;j tpijfis ePf;fptplntz;Lk;.

 

tpij neh;j;jp

            xU fpnyh tpijf;F 2 fpuhk; jpuk; my;yJ fhh; bgd;lhrpk; fye;J 24 kzp neuk; itj;jpUe;J tpijg;g[ bra;at[k;.

 

tpijg;g[

            1. tpijfis rpghhpR bra;ag;gl;l ,ilbtspapy; tpijf;ft[k;. 2. tpijfis 4-6 br. kP MHj;jpy; tpijg;g[ bra;at[k;. 3. xU FHpf;F xU tpij nghJkhdJ.

 

gaph;fisg;g[ kw;Wk; tpijj;jy;

            tpijfis tpijf;FKd; 20 kzp neuk; jz;zPhpy; Cwitj;J gpd; tpijg;g[ bra;at[k;.

 

fis eph;thfk;

            tpijj;j 20 kw;Wk; 40-k; ehl;fspy; fisf; bfhj;jp bfhz;L fisbaLg;gJ mtrpak;. CLgapuhf epyf;flitg; gapiu 6 thpirf;F xU thpir vd;w mstpy; gaphplntz;Lk;.

 

g{r;rpf; bfhy;yp kUe;J bjspj;jy;

            Mkzf;ifj; jhf;Fk; fhtog;g[G kw;Wk; ,;ju g{r;rpfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j vz;nlhry;ghd; 4 rjj; J}is vf;lUf;F 25 fpnyh vd;w mstpy; ,lntz;Lk;. kw;Wk; fhtog; g[Gitf; fl;Lg;gLj;j ntg;g';bfhl;ilr; rhW 3 rjk; (30 fpuhk; xU ypl;lh; jz;zPh;) my;yJ ntg;bgz;bza; 2 rjk; (200 fpuhk; xU ypl;lh; jz;zPh;) bjspf;ft[k;.

 

mWtil

            gaphpd; tajpidf; fzf;fpy; bfhz;L mWtil nkw;bfhs;sntz;Lk;.

 

1.      xd;W my;yJ mjw;F nkw;gl;l Mkzf;F Kj;Jf;fs; fha;e;J ,Ue;jhy; mWtil bra;ayhk;.

2.      Kw;wpa tpijf; bfhj;ij ,ju bfhj;Jf;fisg; ghjpf;fhjthW mWtil bra;at[k;.

3.      tpijfis epHypy; Ftpj;Jitf;fhky; Nhpa xspapy; cyh;j;jt[k;.

4.     fha;e;j bfhj;ij Fr;rp bfhz;L moj;J tpijKj;Jf;fis gphpj;bjLj;J/ fhw;wpy; ,l;L J}rpia ePf;ft[k; my;yJ tpijg;gphpj;bjLf;Fk; fUtp bfhz;L tpijfisg; gphpj;bjLf;ft[k;.

 

bjd;id

epyk; jahhpj;jy;

            tofhy; trjpa[ila kzy; fyj;j tz;ly;kz;/ kdw;gh';fhd gFjpfs;/ fhpry;kz; gFjpfs; Vw;wit.

 

            epyj;ij ed;F cGJ rkg;gLj;jp elt[ bra;a[k; ufj;jpw;nfw;wthW ,ilbtsp tpl;L 90 br. kP. mfyk;/ 90 br. kP ePsk; kw;Wk; 90 br. kP. MHk; cs;s FHpfs; btl;l ntz;Lk;.

 

gaphpLk; fhyk;

            bjd;nkw;F my;yJ tlfpHf;Fg; gUtkiH Muk;gkhtjw;F ,uz;L khj';fSf;F Kd; el ntz;Lk;. nfhil fhyj;jpy; elt[ bra;af;TlhJ.

 

fd;W eLk; gUtk; :                       $%d; - $%iy

                                                ork;gh; - $dthp

 

bjd;id uf';fs;

            Fl;il ufk;  Rkhh; 8 kPl;lh; cauk; tiu tsuf;Toa. ehd;F Mz;Lfspy; fha;f;fj; bjhl';fp 25 Mz;Lfs; tiu gyd; bfhLf;Fk;.

 

bel;il ufk;

            Rkhh; 20 kPl;lh; cauk; tiu tsuf;ToaJ. 5 Mz;Lfspy; fha;f;fj; bjhl';fp 60-75 Mz;Lfs; tiu gyd; bfhLf;Fk;. nkw;Ff; flw;fiu bel;il rpwe;j ufk;.

 

xl;L tif

            Rkhh; 10-14 kPl;lh; cauk; tsuf; ToaJ. 4 Mz;Lfspy; gyDf;F te;J 40 Mz;Lfs; tiu fha;f;ff; ToaJ.

 

,ilbtsp

            bel;il kw;Wk; xl;L tif               :           7.5 kPl;lh;

            Fl;il tif                                       :           5.4 kPl;lh;

            tug;g[fspy; thpirahf el               :           6.6 kPl;lh;

 

fd;WeLk; Kiw

            3' x 3' x 3' mo mst[s;s FHp mikj;J/ mjpy; ypd;nld; 10 rjj;J}is J}tp vWk;g[fspd; jhf;FjypypUe;J ghJfhf;f ntz;Lk;. fd;W eLtjw;F Kd; FHpapy; xU mo MHj;jpw;F ed;F kf;fpa bjhG cuk;/ brk;kz; kw;Wk; kzy; Mfpatw;iw rkg';F fye;J epug;g ntz;Lk;. fd;W eLk;nghJ mjd; nth;fis btl;otpl ntz;Lk;. gpd; FHpapd; eLtpy; ,Uf;FkhW itj;J FHpapypUe;J Vw;fdnt vLj;j kz;iz bfhz;nl ,Wf;fkhf fd;iwr; Rw;wp \otplntz;Lk;. fd;Wfis Nhpa xspapy; ,Ue;J ghJfhf;f mjd; gf;fthl;oy; bjd;id xiy (my;yJ) gid xiyia rha;thf bta;apy; glhjthW elt[k;.

 

ePh; eph;thfk;

            fd;W el;l xU tUlj;jpw;f/ xU ehs; tpl;L xU ehSk;/ ,uz;lhk; tUlj;jpypUe;J fha; fha;f;Fk; tiu ,uz;L thuj;jpw;F xU Kiwa[k;/ gpd;dh; 10 ehl;fSf;F xUKiwa[k; jz;zPh;g; gha;r;Rjy; mtrpak;. nfhil kw;Wk; kiHaw;w fhy';fspy; kz;zpd; jd;ikiag; bghUj;J ePh;g; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.

 

            brhl;Lg; ePh;g; ghrdk; \yk; jz;zPh; gha;r;Rtbjd;why; kuk; fha;g;g[f;F te;j gpd; xU ehisf;F xU kuj;jpw;F 100 ypl;lh; jz;zPh; tPjk; mspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            xU bjd;id kuj;jpw;F xU ehisf;F 5 Kjy; 70 ypl;lh; ePh;/ kuj;jpd; taJ/ gUt epiyf;nfw;g njitg;gLk;. ,e;j ePh;j; njit kuj;jpd; taJ ePh; MtpahFk; mst[/ <ug;gLj;jg;gl ntz;oa gug;gst[/ gaph; tsh;r;rpf; FwpaPL/ fhyepiy/ kz;zpd; jd;ikiag; bghWj;J khwgLk;. bjd;id kuj;jpw;F kuk; el;l/ Kjy; Mz;oy; Rkhh; 5 Kjy; 7 ypl;lh; ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk;. ePh; epug;gpa bjhl;oapy; jpdKk; 5 kp. kP. Kjy; 10 kp.kP. tiu ePh; MtpahfpwJ. Kjy; Mz;oy; gaph; FwpaPL 0.8 Mft[k; gpd;dh; ed;F tsh;e;j kuj;jpw;F 1.0 Mft[k; ePhpd; mst[ fzf;fplg;gLfpwJ.

 

bjd;idapy; brhl;L ePh;g;ghrdk;

            brhl;L ePh;g;ghrdj;jhy; bjd;idapy; Rkhh; 60 rj ghrd ePh; nrkpf;fg;gLfpwJ. nkYk; fis tsh;r;rp fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;L/ Ms; bryt[k; FiwfpwJ. brhl;L ePh;g;ghrdj;jpy; cg;g[ ePiuf;Tl jpwk; glg; gad;gLj;jyhk;. bjd;didapy; brhl;L ePh;g;ghrdk; mikf;f ePhpiwf;Fk; FHha;/ bghwp itf;fg;gLk; ,lk;/ gpujhd FHha;/ rpW FHha; Kjypatw;wpd; ePsk;/ FWf;fst[ kw;Wk; epyr;rha;t[ Kjypait fisf; fzf;fpy; bfhs;s ntz;Lk;.

 

ePh; brhl;ofs;

            bjd;id mjpf ,ilbtspa[ld; rhFgo bra;tjhy; 'gl;ld;' brhl;ofisg; gad;gLj;jyhk;. nkYk; Jisa[k; \oa[k; my;yJ Ez;zpa FHha;fisf; Fiwe;j ePh; mGj;jj;jpw;F Vw;wgo gad;gLj;jyhk;. FHha;g; bghwpfSf;Fg;gjpy; nky;epiyj; bjhl;ofs; cgnahfpf;fg;gLk;nghJ Ez;zpa FHha;fs; kpft[k; Vw;wit. xU rJu br. kP. mGj;jj;jpy; kzpf;F 4 ypl;lh; 8 ypl;lh; mstpyhd ePh; brhl;ofisj; njh;t[ bra;ayhk;. kuj;jpw;F kzpf;F 4 ypl;lh; tPjk; 4 brhl;ofs; vz;zpf;if vd;w fzf;fpy; 16 ypl;lh; ePh; fpilf;Fk;. Rkhuhf ehbshd;Wf;F kuj;jpw;F 100 ypl;lh; njitg;gLk;nghJ 6 kzp neuk; nkhl;lhiu ,af;f ntz;Lk;. 8 ypl;lh; ePh; brhl;ofs; cgnahfg;gLj;Jk; nghJ 3 kzpneuk; ,af;f ntz;Lk;.

 

vU ,Ljy; : (5 tUlkuj;jpw;F)

            kuj;ijr; Rw;wp 18 kPl;lh; miutl;l FHp mikj;J mjpy; 50 fpnyh fk;ngh!;l; (my;yJ) kf;fpa bjhGcuk;/ (my;yJ) gRe;jhs; cuk;/ 1.3 fpnyh a{hpah/ 2 fpnyh Ng;gh; gh!;ngl; kw;Wk; 2 fpnyh kpa{hpnal; Mg; bghl;lh#; Mfpa cu';fis kz;qld; fye;J FHpapy; ,l;L/ \oagpd; ePh;g; gha;r;Rjy; ntz;Lk;. nkw;Twpa cu';fis tUlj;jpw;F Kjy; Kiwahf $%d;-$%iy kw;Wk; ,uz;lhk; Kiwahf ork;gh;-$dthp khj';fspYk; ,lntz;Lk;. 2/ 3 kw;Wk; 4 taJ ku';fSf;F Kiwna 1/4/ 1/2/ 3 4 vd;w ghf';fshf gphpj;J ,Ljy; ntz;Lk;. fk;ngh!;l;Lf;Fg; gjpyhf gRe;jiHfshd rzg;g[/ bfhs";rp/ bfyg;gnfhdpak; my;yJ jf;ifg;g{z;L Mfpatw;wpy; Vjhtbjhd;wpid kuj;ijr; Rw;wp tpijj;J g{ g{f;Fk; gUtj;jpy; kz;qld; nrh;j;J cGJtplntz;Lk;.

 

            kuj;jpypUe;J 2 kPl;lh; ,ilbtspa[k;/ 1.5 kPl;lh; Rw;wstpy; nth;fspd; xl;lk; ,Ug;gjhy; ,e;j Rw;wstpw;F cs;sjhf cukpLtJ mtrpak;. cukpLk;nghj kz;zpy; <ug;gir ,Ug;gJ Kf;fpakhFk;.

 

            ,il cHt[: tUlj;jpw;F ,UKiw $%d; - $%iy kw;Wk; ork;gh;-$dthp khj';fspy; ku';fSf;F ,ilna cGtJ mtrpak;. ,g;go cGtjhy; fisfs; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd/ bfhLf;fg;gl;l rj;Jf;fs; vspjpy; ku';fSf;F fpilf;fpwJ nth;fSf;F ey;y fhw;nwhl;lKk; fpilg;gJld;/ g[jpa nth;fspd; tsh;r;rpa[k; Jhpjg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. kw;Wk; kiHePh; g[uz;L xlhky; epyj;jpy; nrUtjhy;/ bjd;id tpisr;ry; mjpfkhfpwJ.

 

CLgaph;

            ,ilbtspapy;/ Kjy; Ie;J tUl';fSf;F epyf;fliy/ Nhpa fhe;jp/ vs;/ k";rs; kw;Wk; kuts;sp nghd;wtw;iw CL gaph;fshf gaph; bra;ayhk;. ed;F tsh;e;j ku epHy;fspy; bfhf;nfh/ md;dhrp/ thiH kw;Wk; jPtdg;gaph;fshd bl!;nkhoak;/ Fjpiu krhy; nghd;wtw;iw gaph; bra;ayhk;.

 

g{r;rp kw;Wk; neha;f; fl;Lg;ghL

fhz;lhkpUf tz;L

          g{r;rp: tz;od; nkw;g[wk; tGtGg;ghd fUik epwj;Jld; fhzg;gLk;. tz;L Rkhh; 34-35 kp kP. ePskpUf;Fk;.

 

            jiyapd; nkw;g[wj;jpypUe;J nky; nehf;fp gpd;dhy; tise;J tsh;e;jpUf;Fk;. xU bfhk;g[ fhz;lhkpUff; bfhk;ig xj;jpUg;gjhy; ,e;j tz;Lf;F ,g;bgah; te;jJ.

 

            ,t;tz;od; btz;ikahd ePz;l tl;l Kl;ilfs; vUf;FHpfspYk;/ mGfpa bghUl;fspYk; fhzg;gLk;.

 

            'fpug;' g[Gtpd; jiy gGg;g[ epwkhft[k;/ cly; mGf;file;j bts;is epwkhft[k;/ RU';fpa clw;fl;LfSld; Rkhh; 90-100 kp. kP ePskpUf;Fk;. vUf;FHpfspy; g[Gf;fs; fhzg;gLk;.

 

            tz;od; thH;f;ifr; rhpjk; Rkhh; 4 Kjy; 8 khj';fs; tiu ePof;Fk;.

 

nrjj;jpd; mwpFwp

            tz;L/ FUj;J xiyfisf;  File;J jpd;gjhy;/ xiy tphpj;J gpd;/ thpirahd rpW Jisfisf; fhzyhk;.

 

            xiy jpd;dg;gl;oUf;Fk;/  tphpe;j kl;ilapy; nrjk; tprpwpnghy; fhzg;gLk;.

 

            FUj;J xiyfis tz;L foj;J bkd;W bghoahf;fp Jis thapypy; xJf;fpapUf;Fk;.

 

            rpwpa fd;Wfs; jhf;fg;gl;lhy;/ fha;e;J tpLk;.

 

kuk; jhf;fg;gl;lhy; gykpd;wp/ tsh;r;rp Fd;wp kfNy; Fiwa[k;.

 

jLg;g[

            ,we;j kuj;ij cldoahf mg;g[wg;gLj;jp tplntz;Lk;. ,jdhy; fhz;lhkpUf tz;L cw;gj;jpahtijj; jLf;fyhk;.

 

            bjhG cuk; ,Ltjw;F Kd; mjpYs;s Kl;ilf; Ftpay;fs;/ g[Gf;fs; kw;Wk; rpwpa bghpa tz;Lfis vLj;J mHpj;J tpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            tz;Lfisf; bfhy;yf;Toa g{";rhzj;ij vUf;FHpapy; ,l;L fye;J tpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            nkYk; ypd;nld; 0.1 rjk; (1.0 fpuhk; / ypl;lh; jz;zPh;) vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J \d;W khjj;jpw;F xUKiw vUf;FHpapy; ,l;L tsh;e;j g[Gf;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;.

 

            tsh;e;j tz;Lfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;j/ ntg;gk; gpz;zhf;F fye;j fyitiar; rpwpa kz; ghidapy; ,l;L ku';fSf;F ,ilbtspapy; itf;fntz;Lk;.

 

            bjd;id kuj;jz;oida[k;/ gr;ir ,iyf;fhk;g[g; gFjpiaa[k; ePsthl;oy; fpHpj;J mjpy; gidkuj;jpd; ghdk; ,l;L tz;Lfisf; fth;e;J mHpf;fyhk;.

 

            nj';fha; gwpf;Fk;nghJ ePsf; fk;gp bfhz;L kuf; Fuj;Jfspilna tsh;e;j tz;Lfis vLj;J mHpf;fyhk;.

 

            tsh;e;j tz;Lfspd; nrjj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;j bghoahf;fpa ntg;gk; tpij kw;Wk; ntg;gk; gUg;g[g; bgho kzy; Mfpatw;iw xd;Wf; ,uz;L vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; (1 : 2) fye;J kuf;FUj;jpd; (\d;whtJ FUj;jpd;) cs; gFjpapy; ,lntz;Lk;. \d;W khjj;jpw;F xU Kiw kiHf;fhy';fspy; Muk;gj;jpYk;/ filrpapYk; filg;gpof;f ntz;Lk;. ,e;jf; fyitia xU kuj;jpw;F 150 fpuhk; tPjk; ,lntz;Lk;.

 

            \d;W ghr;rk; cUz;ilfis (3.50 fpuhk;) tsUk; fd;W xd;Wf;F mjd; mof; FUj;jpypUe;J \d;whtJ FUj;jpd; tHpahf ,lntz;Lk;. ,t;thW 45 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw filgpof;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            gUtkiHf; fhy';fspy; tpsf;Fg; bghwp itj;J bghpa tz;L fisf; fth;e;J mHpf;fyhk;.

 

fUe;jiyg;g[G

g{r;rp

            jha;g;g{r;rp rpwpajhft[k;/ rhk;gy;  epwkhft[k; ,Uf;Fk;. g[G gr;ir fye;j gGg;g[ epw cliya[k;/ fUe;jiyiaa[k; bgw;wpUf;Fk;. Rkhh; 25 kp. kP ePskpUf;Fk;.

 

jhf;Fjypd; mwpFwp

            bjd;id kuj;jpd; btspg;gf;f thpirapy; cs;s Kw;wpa xiyfspy; ,g;g{r;rpfs; jhf;Fjy; fhzg;gLk;. jhf;fg;gl;l kl;ilfspy; bjd;d';fd;Wfspd; mog;ghfj;jpy; ,iyfs; mhpf;fg;gl;L rf;iffspdhyhd ePskhd Tz;Lfs; fhzg;gLk;. ,e;jr; rf;iff; TLf;Fs; g[Gf;fs; ntfkhf efh;e;J bry;Yk;. ,it ,iyfspd; gr;iraj; jpid kl;ilfspd; mog;ghfj;jpy; ,Ue;J bfhz;L Ruz;oj; jpd;fpd;wd. ,jdhy; jhf;fg;gl;l kl;ilfs; rUFnghy; fha;e;J tpLfpwJ.

 

jLg;g[

        fUe;jiyg;g[G jhf;fg;gl;l xiy kw;Wk; gl;ilfis vLj;J mHpj;Jtplntz;Lk;.

        ghuhrpuhy;l; be@gd;oo!; vd;w xl;Lz;zpfis 1 : 8 (xU kuj;jpw;F 8 xl;Lz;zpfs; tPjk;) kuj;jpd; mog;ghfj;jpypUe;J ,l;Lf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;. xl;Lz;zpfis fUe;jiyg; g[Gtpd; ,uz;lhk; kw;Wk; \d;whk; epiyg; g[Gf;fhy';fspy; ,lntz;Lk;. ,jid ,jw;Fhpa bghwp \yk; ,lntz;Lk;.  nkYk; ku xiyapd; ghf';fspy; ,Ljy; TlhJ. mt;thW tpl;lhy; ,jid kw;w xl;Lz;zpfs; kw;Wk; g{r;rpfs; bfhd;Wtplf;TLk;.

        nfhil fhyj;jpy; njhd;Wk; g[Gf;fis ($dthp Kjy; Tl;Lg;g[G xl;Lz;zp ,nyh@gpl; kw;Wk; fUe;jiyg; g[Gitj; jhf;Fk; xl;Lz;zpfshd bgjyha;l;/ g;uhnfhdpl; kw;Wk; ,ndhnkhdpl; Mfpatw;iw ,l;Lf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;.

 

        tsUk; ku';fspy; fUe;jijg; g[Gitf; fl;Lg;glj;j khyj;jpahd; 50 ,rp 0.5 rjtPjk; ( 5 kpyp xU ypl;lh; jz;zPh;) vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; fye;J jhf;Fjy; mjpfkhf cs;s kuj;jpy; ,iyapd; mog;ghf';fspy; gLk;goahfj; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            fha;g;g[f;F te;j khj';fspy; ,g;g[Gtpd; jhf;Fjiyf; fl;Lg;gLj;j kuj;jpd; mokl;lj;jpUe;J 1.5 kPl;lh; cauj;jpy; kuj;jpd; jz;Lg;ghfj;jpy; rha;thfj; Jisapl;L mjpy; khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; 36 lgps;a{ v!;rp 5 kp. ypia Cw;wpa gpd; jhkpuf; fiury; fye;j fspkz;zhy; \o tplntz;Lk;. 5 kp.yp khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; kUe;ij 20 kpyp jz;zPUld; fye;J Crp \ykhfj; jz;oy; brYj;j ntz;Lk;. my;yJ jz;oy; Jisapl;L mjpy; 5 kpyp jz;zPUld; fye;J Crp \ykhfj; jz;oy; brYj;j ntz;Lk;. my;yJ jz;oy; Jisapl;L mjpy; 5 kpyp khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; kUe;ij g";rpdhy; Kf;fpa gpd; ,lntz;Lk;. kUe;J ,l;l 40 ehs; tiu fha;gwpg;gijj; jtph;f;f ntz;Lk;.

 

            nth; \ykhf fl;Lg;gLtjhf ,Ue;jhy; ed;F tsh;e;j nthpid rha;thf btl;oagpd; ,jid ghypjPd; ig (75 x 10 br. kP) apy; khndh Fnuhl;nlhgh!; 36 lgps;a{rp 10 kpyp + jz;zPh;  10 kpyp  fye;J fyitapy; nthpid ,l;L ed;whf gUj;jp g";ir itj;J ,Wf;fkhff; fl;o tplntz;Lk;. fyit <h;f;fhtpoy; ntbwhU nthpd; \yk; brYj;j ntz;Lk;. ,jidj; bjhlh;e;J bra;ahky; mjpfkhd jhf;Fjy; rkaj;jpy; kl;Lk; filg;gpog;gJ mtrpak;. nth; \yk; kUe;J brYj;JtJ kw;w Kiwfis tpl vspaJ kw;Wk; rpwe;j KiwahFk;.

 

rptg;g[f; Td;tz;L

g{r;rp

            tz;L rptg;g[ fye;j gGg;g[ epwkhft[k;/ nkny 6 fUk;g[s;spfSlDk; ,Uf;Fk;. tha;g;ghfk;; Jk;gpf;if nghy ePz;L tise;jpUf;Fk;.

 

            Mz; tz;Lfspd; tha;g;ghfj;jpd; kPJ cnuhk';fs; mlh;j;jpahf; fhzg;gLk;.

 

            'fpug;' g[G 35  kp. kP ePsKk;/ fha;fs; ,y;yhkYk;/ rptg;g[j; jiyiaa[k; btspwpa k";rs; epw clk;iga[k; cilaJ.

 

jhf;Fjy; mwpFwp

            g[G kuj;ijf; Filtjhy; rf;if btspna js;sg;gl;oUf;Fk;. JisfspypUe;J gGg;g[ epwr; rhW toa[k;. kuj;jpd; cl;g[wk; mGfpg; ngha; Jh;ehw;wk; tPRk;. kuk; fha;e;JtpLk; ku cr;rpapy; jhf;FjypUe;jhy; FUj;Jk;/ nky; kl;ilfSk; thlj; bjhl';Fk;.

 

jLg;g[

            rptg;g[f; Td;tz;L jhf;fg;gl;l ku';fis mg;g[wg;gLj;jptpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            kuj;jpd; jz;Lg;ghfj;jpy; fhak; cz;Lgz;qjy; TlhJ. fhaj;jpy; rpbkz;l; bfhz;L g{rptpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            kuj;jpy; fhak;gl;l ,lj;jpy; ypd;nld; 0.1 rjk; (10 fpuhk;/ypl;lh; jz;zPh;) fiury; my;yJ jhh; bfhz;L g{rp tpl ntz;Lk;.

 

            eLf; FUj;jpypUe;J \d;W xiy tpl;L mjd; kj;jpapy; kzy; kw;Wk; f;nshh;nld; 5o (1 :  1 tPjk;) g{r;rpf;bfhy;ypia \d;W khjj;jpw;F xU Kiw ,lntz;Lk;. ,jd; \yk; fhz;lhkpUf jhf;Fjiy jLg;gjd; \yk; rptg;g[f; Td;tz;L Kl;il ,Ltijj; jtph;f;fyhk;.

 

            kuj;jpYs;s Jisfis \oagpd; igunfhd; my;yJ fhh;ghpy; 1 rjk; kUe;ij Crp \ykhfj; jz;Lg; gFjpapy; brYj;j ntz;Lk; my;yJ kuj;jpd; jz;oy; Jisapl;L mjpy; 5 kpyp. khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; 5 kpyp. ilf;nshh;th!; kUe;jidj; jhf;Fjy; cs;s ,lj;jpy; brYj;j ntz;Lk;.

 

brk;ghd; rpye;Jp (<hpnahigl; ikl;)

g{r;rp

            rpye;jpfs; cUtpy; kpfr;rpwpait. Rkhh; 200-250 ikf;uhd; ePsk; cs;sit. ,it kpfr; rpwpa g[G nghd;w njhw;wKilait. ,it fz;fSf;Fg; g[yg;glhjit.

 

jhf;Fjypd; mwpFwp

            ,e;jr; rpye;jpfs; ,sk; FUk;igfspy; cs;s bjhl;L mjhtJ fhk;gpd; njhYf;F moapy; cs;s FUk;igapd; bkd;ikahd jpRf;fspypUe;J rhw;iw cwp":rpr; nrjk; Vw;gLj;jp caph; thH;fpd;wd. xd;W Kjy; \d;Wkhj ,sk; FUk;igfspy; ,e;jr; rpye;jpfs; kpf mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLk;. ,sk; FUk;ig Kjy; ,uz;Lkhjk; tiu taJila FUk;igapy; rhw;iw cwp";Rtjhy; bjhl;Lf;Ff; fPnH Kf;nfhz totpy; btsph; k";rs; my;yJ gGg;g[ epwj; jpl;Lfs; fhzg;gLk;. tsh;e;j FUk;igapd; nj';fha; kl;ilapd; btspg;g[wj;jpy; gGg;g[epwj; jpl;Lfs; gutyhf Vw;gl;L fha;fs; rpWj;J tpLfpd;wd. mjpfkhfj; jhf;fg;gl;l FUk;igfs; cjph;e;JtpLk;.

 

jLg;g[ Kiwfs;

            ,e;jr; rpye;jpiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j khndhFnuhl;nlhgh!; 1.25 kpy;yp my;yJ ilkpj;jpnahl; 1 kpy;yp kUe;ij xU ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fye;J bjspf;ft[k;. Mdhy; kUe;J bjspf;f Koahj caukhf tsh;e;j bjd;id ku';fSf;F jw;bghGJ rpfg;g[j; Td;tz;L/ fUe;jiyg;g[G Mfpa g{r;rpfs; fl;Lg;gLj;jg; ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gLk;; khndh Fnuhl;nlhgh!; 10 kpy;yp kUe;ij 10 kpy;yp jz;zPhpy; fye;J nth; \yk; brYj;jp brk;ghd; rpye;jpiaa[k; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;.

 

caphpay; fl;Lg;ghL

            400 fpuhk; bts;isg; g{z;il miuj;J 400 fpuhk; ntg;g vz;bzapy; FiHj;J 12 kzp neuk; Cwitj;J kWehs; fhjp nrhg;g[ 100 fpuhKld; fye;J 100 ypl;lh; jz;zPhpy; fiuj;J tofl;o mjid btoj;j ghiyapy; kw;Wk; Fiyfspy; bjspf;ft[k;. 15 ehl;fSf;F gpwF jpUk;gt[k; ,nj nghy; bjspf;ft[k;. xU kuj;jpw;F xU ypl;lh; fiury; njit. ntg;gk; g[z;zhf;F xU fpnyht[ld; 200 fpuhk; g{z;L miuj;J miu fpnyh bgU kzYld; fye; g[Jg; ghiy ,Lf;fpYk;/ mijr; Rw;wp \d;W kl;ilfspd; ,Lf;fpYk; xU ifg;gpo mst[ nghlt[k;. ,njnghy; 3 khjj;jpw;F xUKiw bra;at[k;. tUlk; ,UKiw cuk; ,Lk;nghJ kuj;jpw;F 10 fpnyh ntg;gk; g[z;zhf;F fye;J ,lt[k;.

 

bjd;idiaj; jhf;Fk; neha;fs;

1. j";rht{h; thly; neha;

            ,jd; Kjy; mwpFwp  jz;Lg; gFjpapd; moghfj;jpy; gGg;g[k; rptg;g[k; fye;J epwj;jpy; rhWtotJ/ thly;neha; jhf;fg;gl;l kuj;jpd; mo kl;ilfs; gGg;g[ epwkile;J fha;e;J bjh';Fk;. gpwF kuj;jpd; ,iyfs; cjph;e;J bkhl;ilahf khWk;.

 

fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; Kiw

1.      twl;rp fhyj;jpy; mof;fo jz;zPh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.

2.     neha; jhf;fpa kuk; 1-f;F 50 fpnyh bjhG cuk;/ 5 fpnyh ntg;gk; g[z;zhf;F fye;J ,lntz;Lk;.

3.     thiHia CLgaph; bra;jhy; ,e;neha; Fiwa[k;.

4.     oiunfhblh;kh Qhh;rpahdk; vd;w g{rzj;ij 50 fpnyh kf;fpa vUt[ld; fye;J kuj;ij Rw;wp 3 mo J}uj;jpy; itj;J ,e;nehia fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;.

5.     gh!;ngh ghf;Ohpah vd;w Ez;qaphpia 200 fpuhk; (1 ghf;bfl;) vLj;J 10 fpnyh bjhG cuj;Jld; fye;Jitj;J ,e;nehapd; ghjpg;ig Fiwf;fyhk;.

6.     bjhlh;e;J MW khjk; gjePh; ,wf;fyhk;.

7.     neha; jhf;fpa xt;bthU kuj;jpw;Fk; 40 ypl;lh; tPjk; xU rj nghh;nlhf; fyitia kuj;ij Rw;wp 1.8 kP. tl;lg;ghj;jpapy; kz; ed;whf eida[khW Cw;wpdhy; neha; g{rzj;ij mHpf;fyhk;.

8.     j";rht{h; thly; neha;f;F 1 kuj;jpw;F Mhpnah g";rpd;rhy; 2 fpuhk; jhkpu ry;ngl; 1 fpuhk; 100 kpyp jz;zPhpy; fye;J nth; \yk; mspf;ft[k;. nt+l;lk; bra;a bgd;rpy; mst[ jokDs;s ntiu Thpa fj;jpahy; rha;thf btl;o nkw;go fiury;  cs;s ghypj;jPd; igapy; EiHe;J fl;o itf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

2.       FUj;jGfy; neha;

            bjd;idapd; fd;WfspYk; ,s ku';fspYk; nehapd; mwpFwpfis fhzyhk;. FUj;jpd; gr;ir epwk; khwp k";rshfp gpd;dh; mGfp thotpLk;.

 

jLf;Fk; Kiw

            xU fpnyh kapy; Jj;jk; kw;Wk; xU fpnyh Rz;zhk;g[j;J}is jdpj;jdpna 5 ypl;lh; ePhpy; fiuj;J nghh;nlh giria jahhpf;f ntz;Lk;. ghjpf;fg;gl;l FUj;Jg; gFjpapy; ,ij itj;J kiH ePh; glhjthW ghh;j;Jf; bfhz;lhy; ,e;neha; fl;Lg;gLk;.

3. bjd;idapy; FUk;igfs; cjpUjy;

 

bjd;idapy; FUk;igf;s tpHf; fhuz';fs; (1)

epth;j;jpf;Fk; tHpfs;  (2)

1.    kz;tsf; FiwghL

fhu mkpy epiy Ie;Jf;Ff; Fiw thf ,Ue;jhy; kuk; xd;Wf;F 2 fpnyh Rz;zhk;g[k; fhu mkpyj;jd;ik 8.5 f;F nky; ,Ue;jhy; 4 fpnyh $pg;rKk; ,lntz;Lk;. kz;zpd; fhu mkpyj; jd;ik mwpa kz; Ma;t[ bra;a kz;iz khjphp vLj;J mUfpy; cs;s kz; Ma;t[ Tlj;jpw;F mDg;gp nrhjid mwpf;if bgwyhk;.

2.   nfhilapy; twl;rp

jz;zPh; Fiwthf kuj;jpw;F fpilf;Fk;nghJ FUk;ig cjpUk;. vdnt rPuhf ePh; gha;r;r ntz;Lk;.

3.   Cl;lr;rj;J FiwghL

,jid jtph;f;f xU kuj;jpw;F 1 3 fpnyh a{hpah/ 2 fpnyh Ng;gh; gh!;ngl; 2 fpnyh kpa{nul; Mg; bghl;lh#;/ 200 fpuhk; nghuhf;!; Mfpaw;iw 50 fpnyh bjhG cuj;Jld; fye;J kuj;ij Rw;wp ,lntz;Lk;. tUlj;jpw;F ,UKiw ,lntz;Lk;.

4.   kfue;jr; nrh;f;ifapy; ,lh;ghLfs;

njdPf;fis tsh;j;J kfue;jr; nrh;f;if rPuhf eilbgw itj;J FUk;igfs; cjph;tijj; jLf;f Vf;fUf;F 2 njdP bgl;ofis itf;f ntz;Lk;.

5.   gaph; Cf;fpf; FiwghLfs;

FUk;igfs; epiyj;J ghisapy; ,Uf;f eh@g;jypd; mrpl;of; mkpyk; (gpshndh@gpf;!) xU ypl;lh; ePhpy; 5 kpy;yp tPjk; fye;J xU ghisf;F 1/2 yp tPjk; bjspf;fyhk;.

6.   g{r;rp / neha; jhf;Fjy;

kht[g;g{r;rp/ cz;zpg;g{r;rp kw;Wk; j";rht{h; thly; neha; Mfpatw;why; FUk;ig cjph;t[ Vw;gLfpd;wJ. kht[g; g{r;rpfis fl;Lg;gLj;j fhh;bgd;lrpk; xU fpuhkpw;F xU ypl;lh; jz;zPh; vd;w mstpy; fye;J mj;Jld; xU kpy;yp Oghy; nrh;j;J ifj;bjspg;ghd; \yk; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

 

jha; kuj; njh;t[k; tpij bew;wj; njh;t[k;

1.      20 Kjy; 40 taJila ku';fis jha; ku';fshf njh;t[ bra;t eyk;.

2.     rPuhd kfNiyj; jUk; ku';fis njh;t[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

3.     nj';fhapypUe;J fpilf;Fk; bfhg;giuapd; viliaa[k; mog;gilahf bfhz;L njh;t[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. (jha; kuj;jpd; kl;iklfs; Fil tphpe;jJ nghd;w njhw;wkspf;Fk;).

4.     jha; kuk; g{r;rp neha;fshy; jhf;fg;glhkypUf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

bew;Wf;fs; nrfhpg;g[

1.      mjpf Kisg;g[j; jpwd; bgw 12 khj taJila mjpf fdKk; bky;ypa ehh;g;gFjpa[k; bfhz;l bew;Wf;fis nrfhpf;f ntz;Lk;.

2.     tpij bew;Wf;fs; $dthp Kjy; Mf!;L tiu nrfhpf;fyhk;.

3.     Kisg;gpj; jpwd; ghjpf;fhjthW njh;t[ bra;ag;gl;l jha;ku';fspypUe;J bew;Wf;fis fapW fl;o bkJthf fPnH ,wf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

ehw;w';fhy; mikg;g[k; guhkhpg;g[k;

m. epyj;njh;t[

            jz;zPh; trjp kpFe;j ,lkhf njh;t[ bra;a ntz;Lk;. epHy; trjpa[k; epyts trjpa[k; ,Uf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

M. ghj;jpaikj;jy;

            9 kP. ePsk; 15 kP. mfyk; bfhz;L ghj;jpfis mikf;fyhk;. ghj;jp xd;Wf;fF 150 bew;Wf;fis elyhk;. my;yJ mfyk; 1.5 kP ePsk; 15 kP mstpy; ghj;jp mikf;fyhk;. ,g;ghj;jpapy; 250 bew;Wf; fis elyhk;.

 

            jz;zPh; ed;whf miraf;Toa bew;Wf;fis g[ijj;jjhy; Kisg;g[j;jpwd; TLk;. bew;Wf;fis g[ijg;gjw;F Kd;g[ epyj;jpy; tpz;nld;l!;l; 10 rj J}is J}tp g[ijf;f ntz;Lk;. xt;bthU ghj;jpf;Fk; ,ilna 80 br. kP mstpy; jz;zPh; gha;r;r tha;f;fhy; mikf;f ntz;Lk;. $%d; Kjy; mf;nlhgh; tiu kiHf;fhy';fspy; bew;Wf;fis g[ijf;fyhk;. ehw;w';fhypy; <uj;ij nrkpf;f ehh;f;fHpt[/ bjd;d';fPw;W Mfpatw;iw gad;gLj;jp Kisg;g[j;jpwd; mjpfhpf;fyhk;.

 

bjd;d'; fd;Wj; njh;t[

            "tpisa[k; gaph; Kisapny bjhpa[k;" vd;gjw;fpz';f rpwe;j tPhpakhd fd;Wfis njh;t[ bra;J el;lhy;jhd; tsh;e;j gpd;g[ kpFe;j vz;zpf;ifapy; xnu rPuhf nj';fha;fis mit <Dk;. midj;J ntshz; tphpthf;f ika';fspYk; bjd;d';fd;Wfs; fpilf;Fk;. ,J jtpu jdpahh; gz;izfspYk; bjd;id fd;Wfs; fpilf;Fk;.

 

fd;Wj; njh;tpy; ftdpf;f ntz;oait

1.      mjpf tpisr;ry; jUk; fd;Wfis njh;t[ bra;a ntz;Lk;.

2.     ehw;w';fhy; ,lj;jpw;F brd;W fd;Wfspd; tsh;r;rpiag; ghh;j;J tPhpakhf tsh;e;Js;s fd;Wfisna th';f ntz;Lk;.

3.     tPhpa fd;Wfspd; ,iyfs; fUk; gr;irahft[k;/ ,iyf;fhk;g[g; gFjp joahft[k;/ Fl;ilahft[k; ,Uf;f ntz;Lk;.

4.     bew;wpypUe;J tUk; FUj;Jg;gFjp my;yJ fGj;Jg; gFjp joj;jpUf;f ntz;Lk;.

5.     tPhpa ehw;Wfspy; \d;W my;yJ ehd;F nth;fSk; gy ry;yp nth;fSk; cw;gj;jpahfpapUf;f ntz;LK;.

 

fd;Wfis nrkpj;jy;

            ehw;w';fhypUe;J fd;Wfis bgah;j;bjLj;j 10 ehl;fs; tiu bel;il ,uf';fis elt[ bra;ahky; nrkpf;fyhk;. Fl;il kw;Wk; xl;L ,uf';fis 2 ehl;fs; tiu nrkpf;fyhk;.

 

vz;bza; gid

Kf;fpaj;Jtk;

            vz;bza; gidkuj;jpd; g{h;tPfk; nkw;F Mg;gphpf;fh MFk;. ghkhapy; kuk; 3 tUlk; Kjy; 25 tUlk; tiu kfNy; bfhLf;ff;ToaJ. khjk; Kk;Kiw mWtil/ tUle;njhWk; tUkhdk; juty;yJ. ghkhapy; clYf;F ey;y Mnuhf;fpaj;ij mspf;fpwJ. 'bfhy!;l;uhy;' ,y;yhj bfhGg;g[/ itl;lkpd; 'A' kw;Wk; itl;lkpd; 'E' ml';fpa[s;sjhy;/ ,ja rk;ge;jkhd neha[s;sth;fSf;Fk; Vw;wjhf cs;sJ. ghkhapy; td!;gjp jahhpg;gpy; gad;gLfpwJ. vz;bza; gid mjpf kiHiaa[k; 3 Kjy; 4 khj twl;rpiaa[k; jh';fp tsh;e;J ey;y kfNy; bfhLf;fty;yJ. brk;kz;/ fhpry; kz; kw;Wk; Mw;g;gLif kz; ,g;gapUf;F Vw;wJ.

           

gaphplj; njitahd NH;epiy

m.    <ug;gjk; Toa btg;g kz;lyk;

M.   nghjpa ghrd trjpa[s;s ,l';fspy; kl;Lk; jhd; rhFgo bra;ayhk;.

,.    mjpntff; fhw;W khwpkhwp moj;jhy; kuj;jpw;Fr; nrjk; Vw;gLk;.

<.     <ug;gjk; bfhz;l/ nghJkhd mst[ tofhy; trjpa[ld; Toa MHkhd ,Wkz;/ tz;ly; kz;/ m';ffg; bghUl;fs; kpFe;j kz; kw;Wk; ed;F ePiuf; flj;Jk; jd;ika[ila kz; tiffs; kpfr; rpwe;jJ. ePh;j;njf;fk; kpFe;j kz;/ kzw;rhpt[ kw;Wk; flnyhug; gFjpapy; gaphpl KoahJ. ,g;gaph; jw;rkak; j":rht{h; khtl;lj;jpy; gaph; bra;ag;gLfpwJ.

 

,ufk;

            bldpuh/ ?uh kw;Wk; gprpbguh Mfpa fyg;gpd; tPhpa xl;L uf';fs; rpwe;jitfshFk;.

 

ePh;g;ghrdk;

            fd;Wfis ehw;w';fhypypUe;J vLj;Jr;brd;W taypy; nrkpj;J itg;gijj; jtph;f;f ntz;Lk;. ghrdg; gw;whf;Fiw/ kuj;jpd; tsh;r;rp kw;wk; ,iyapd; vz;zpf;ifiaf; Fiwj;J/ Mz;-bgz; g{ tpfpjj;jpy; khw;wk; cz;lhf;FfpwJ. nkYk; ,jdhy; bgz; Tk;gpy; fUr;rpijt[ Vw;gl;L kfNy; Fiwa[k;. thuk; xU Kiw ePh; gha;r;rpdhy; nghJkhdJ. tl;lg;ghj;jp Kiwapnyh bjspg;g[ ePh;g;ghrd Kiwapnyh my;yJ brhl;L ePh;g;ghrd Kiwapnyh ePh;g;gha;r;ryhk;.

 

gUtk;

            $%d; kw;Wk; ork;gh; khj';fs; fd;Wfs; eltpw;F cfe;j fhyk;.

 

elt[

            10 Kjy; 14 khj';fs; taJila 13 ,iyfSld; Toa fd;Wfisj; njh;e;bjLj;J elntz;Lk;. xU Vf;fUf;F 57 fd;Wfs; njitg;gLk;.

 

,ilbtsp

          9 kPl;lh; x 9 kPl;lh; x 9 kPl;lh; (Kf;nfhz tot Kiw)

 

elt[ FHpapd; mst[

            60 br. kP. (12 mo) ePs mfy MHKs;s FHp vLf;f ntz;Lk;.

 

fd;W eLk; Kiw

            FHp vLjJ Mw tplntz;Lk;. FHpapDs; 50 fpuhk; nghnul; (Phorate)/ 250 fpuhk; il mk;nkhdpak; gh!;ngl; ,lntz;Lk;. ghypj;jPd; igia ePsthf;fpy; btl;o/ igia ePf;fptpl;L kz;nzhL Toa fd;wpis FHpapDs; ,l;L/ FHp ,ilbtspapy; kz; nghl;L epug;gpa gpd; kz;iz ed;whf kpjpj;Jtplntz;Lk;. fd;whdJ jiukl;lj;jpypUe;J 25 br. kP fPnH ,Uf;FkhW ghh;j;Jf;bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. ku thpirapnyna tha;f;fhy; mikj;J ePh; gha;r;Rtijj; jtph;f;f ntz;Lk;.

 

cukpLjy;

         

kuj;jpd; taJ

Cl;lr;rj;J (fpuhk; / kuk; / tUlk;)

a{hpah

Ng;gh; gh!;ngl;

bghl;lh#;

bkf;dPrpak; ry;ngl;

Kjyhk; Mz;L

900

1250

700

125

,uz;lhk; Mz;L

1750

2500

1300

250

\d;whk; Mz;L

2500

4000

2000

500

nkny ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gl;l cuj;jpid rk msthf gphpj;J $%iy khjk; xU Kiwa[k;/ ork;ghpy; xUKiwa[k; ,lntz;Lk;. kuj;jpd; moapypUe;J rw;Wj; js;sp (50 br. kP) cukpl;L ePh;g;gha;r;r ntz;Lk; cukpLKd; fisfis ePf;fptpl ntz;Lk;.

 

gpd;bra; neh;j;jp

            kuj;ijr;Rw;wp kpf beUf;fkhf cGjy; TlhJ. gr;ir kl;ilfis btl;lhky; mjpf vz;zpf;ifapy; guhkhpf;f ntz;Lk;. fPH; kl;lj;jpy; cs;s fha;e;j kl;ilfisa[k; neha[w;w ,iyfis kl;Lnk ePf;f ntz;Lk;. vz;iz gid kuk; el;l 14 Kjy; 18 khj';fSf;Fs; g{f;f Muk;gpf;Fk;. xnu kuj;jpy; Mz; kw;Wk; bgz; g{f;fs; jdpj;jdpahf cw;gj;jpahfpwJ. (xUjiyj; jhtuk;) ,sk; gUtf; fhyj;jpy; cw;gj;jpahFk; Mz; kw;Wk; bgz; g{f;fis ePf;fptplntz;Lk;. ,J 'mg;nsrd;' vdg;gLk;. ,Jnghy; el;l 2 Kjy; 2 Mz;Lfs; tiu bra;at[k;. g{f;fs; g{f;f Muk;gpj;jt[lndna g{  ePf;fk; bra;jy; ntz;Lk;. el;l 2 tUl';fSf;F gpd; fHpj;J 'viynlhgpa!; fhkUdpf;!;' vd;w Td;tz;il elkhltpl;lhy; may; kfue;jr; nrh;f;if mjpfhpf;Fk;.

 

gaph; ghJfhg;g[

            vz;bza;g; gidia fhz;lhkpUf tz;L/ rptg;g[g;gid tz;L Mfpait jhf;Ffpd;wd. bjd;id kuj;jpw;F bfhLj;Js;s fl;Lg; ghl;L Kiwfisna filg;gpof;ft[k; .

 

neha;fs;

FUj;jGfy; neha;

            bghJthf 5 tajpw;Ff; Fiwthd ku';fis ,e;neha; jhf;F fpd;wJ. mf;nlhgh;-etk;gh; khj';fspy; mjpf mstpy; nrjj;ij cz;lhf;ff; ToaJ. Muk;gj;jpy; neha[w;w ku';fspd; FUj;J ,iyapd; mog;gFjpapy; cs;s jpRf;fspy; mGfy; cz;lhfpd;wJ. ,jdhy; FUj;J ,iy k";rshf khwp/ tho gpd; ,we;JtpLk;. ,j;jifa FUj;J ,iyia ,Gj;jhy; Rygkhff; ifnahL te;JtpLk;. ghjpf;fg;gl;l mGfpa gFjpfspy; xUtpj J}h;ehw;wk; tPRk;. ,e;epiyapy; tsUk; Edpj;jpRf;fSf;Fk; neha; gutp kuk; ,we;J tpLk;. kuj;jpd; btspr;Rw;wpYs;s Kjph;e;j ,iyfs;/ kuk; ,we;j gpd;dUk; gr;irahf beL ehl;fSf;F ,Uf;Fk;. fhz;lhkpUf tz;L jhf;fg;gl;l ku';fspy; ,e;neha; mjpf mstpy; fhzg;gLk;. nkYk; ,t;tz;L \yk; kw;w ku';fSf;Fk; neha; gut[k;.

 

            nehapd; Muk;g epiyiaj; bjhpe;J fl;Lg;gLj;JtJ vspJ. neha; ghjpf;fg;gl;l jpRf;fisa[k; mjw;Ff; fPH; cs;s Mnuhf;fpakhd jpRf;fisa[k; brJf;fp vLj;J tpl;L mg;gFjpapYk; kuj;jpd; kw;w ,iyfSk; ed;F eida[k;go 0.1 rj fhh;bgd;lrpk; fiuriyj; bjspf;f ntz;Lk;. kUe;J bjspj;j gpd;dh; btsptUk; g[jpa ,iyfs; KWf;fpa[k;/ tise;Jk;/ rpwpjhft[k;; fhzg;gLk;. rpy khj';fSf;Fg; gpd;dh; btsptUk; ,iyfs; tHf;fk; nghy; ey;y tsh;r;rpa[ld; btsptUk;.

 

,iyg;g[s;sp neha;

            bg!;lnyh#pahg;rp!; ghnkuk; vd;w g{rzj;jhy; ,e;neha; cz;lhfpwJ. kuj;jpd; fPH;r;rw;W kl;ilfspy; gGg;g[ epwg;g[s;spfs; cz;lhfpd;wd. gpd;dh; ,g;g[s;spfs; bghpajhfp xiy KGtJk; gut[fpd;wd. ,it btsph; rhk;gy; my;yJ gGg;g[ epwj;jpy; fhzg;gLk;. nkYk; ,j;jpl;Lf;fspd; eLtpy; fUg;g[ epwj;jpy; rpwpa g[s;spfshfpg; g{rz tpj;Jf;fs; fhzg;gLk;. kf;dPrpak; rj;J gw;whf;Fiw fhzg;gLk; njhl;l';fspy; ,e;neha; mjpf mstpy; fhzg;gLk;. neha; jhf;fg;gl;l kl;ilfis btl;o vLj;Jtpl;L 0.1 rj fhh;bgd;lhrpk; bjspg;gjd; \yk; ,e;j nehiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk;.

 

bfhy;yhz;l;

            g[jpjhf btsptUk; xiyfs; eLeuk;g[ tise;J fhzg;gLk;. ,iyfs; RU';fp rhpahf tphpahky; tprpwp nghy; fhzg;gLk;. ,iyfspd; euk;g[fs; g[ilj;Jf; fhzg;gLk;. ,jdhy; xiyfs; rhptu tphpahky; fha;e;j kl;il nghy; fhzg;gLk;. kiHapy;yhj fhy';fspy; elt[ bra;ag;gLk; fd;Wfspy; ,e;j ,lh;ghL njhd;Wk;. nkYk; nghuhd; gw;whf;Fiw fhuzkhft[k; ,e;j ,lh;ghL cz;lhFk;.

 

            ntz;oa mst[ ePh;g;ghrdk; bra;tjd; \yKk;/ 3 rj nghuhf;!; fiuriy (1 ypl;lh; jz;zPUf;F 30 fpuhk; nghuhf;!;) FUj;J eida[k; go Cw;Wtjd; \yKk; ,e;j ,lh;ghl;il epth;j;jp bra;ayhk;.

 

mWtil

            Kjph;r;rpailahj gHf;Fiyfis mWtil bra;af;TlhJ. gH';fis kpft[k; gGf;f tplf;TlhJ btl;o vLj;j gHf;Fiyfspd; kPJ jz;zPh; bjspf;ff; TlhJ. gHf;Fiyfspd; kPJ jz;zPh; bjspf;ff; TlhJ. gHf;Fiyfspd; fhk;g[ mjpfkhf ,Uf;ff;TlhJ. gHf;Fiyfis mWtil bra;jgpd; mjd;kPJ kz;/ J}rp glhjthW ghh;j;Jf;bfhs;s ntz;Lk;. gHf;Fiyapy; cs;s gH';fs; bghd;dpwkhf khWtJk;/ 5 Kjy; 10 gH';fs; jhdhf cjph;tJk; mjpfkhf mGj;jk;bghGJ bghd;dpw vz;bza; btspnaWtJk; mWtil mwpFwpfshFk;. rhpahd neuj;jpy;/ rhpahd Kiwapy; gHf;Fiyfis mWtil bra;tJ vz;bzapd; mst[k; mjd; juKk; Fiwahky; ,Uf;f cjt[fpwJ. gGf;fhj gHf;Fiyfis mWtil bra;jhy; vz;bza; mst[ Fiwe;Jk;/ ePhpd; mst[k; mjpfhpj;J fhzg;gLk;. bghJthf 10 Kjy; 12 ehl;fSf;F xUKiw mWtil bra;ayhk;. mWtil bra;J 24 kzp neuj;jpw;Fs; mWtil bra;j gHf;Fiyfis vz;bza; vLf;f gad;gLj;jptpl ntz;Lk;. xU Vf;fUf;F ruhrhp 25 ld; tiu kfNy; vLf;fyhk;. ,g;gaph; vz;bza; tpj;Jf;fspnyna xU Vf;fh; gug;gstpy; mjpf vz;bza; juty;yJ. xU Vf;fhpy; 5 ld; vz;bza; fpilf;Fk;.

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