COURSES & SYLLABUS

 Under graduation Programmes

Course No.

Title

Credit hours

B.Sc (Ag)

AGM101

Fundamentals of Microbiology

1+1

AGM 201

Soil and Applied Microbiology

1+1

AGM  321     

Biofertilizer Production

0+2

B.Tech (FPT)

AGM 151

General Microbiology

2+1

AGM 251

Food microbiology

1+1

AGM 351

Fermentation technology

1+1

B.Tech (Horticulture)

AGM 261

General Microbiology

2+1

AGM 361

Applied Fermentation Technology

1+1

AGM 362

Commercial Production of Biofertilizers

0+2

B.Tech (Ag. Biotech)

AGM 171

General Microbiology

2+1

AGM 271

Fermentation Technology

1+1

AGM 371

Bioinoculants Technology

2+1

 

AGM 101                             FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROBIOLOGY                  1+1

Theory

Definition and scope of Microbiology -  Spontaneous generation theory - Germ theory of diseases - Contributions of Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, Louis Pasteur, John Tyndall, Robert Koch, Edward Jenner, Joseph Lister, Alexander Fleming and Waksman. Microscopy : Principles-Different types of microscopes: dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence, ultra-violet and electron microscope. Sterilization: Principles and equipments.  Structure and organization of microbial cell- Prokaryote and eukaryote –  Staining of microorganisms- principles. Morphology of bacteria, fungi, algae and viruses.  Nutritional types in bacteria-nutritional requirements – growth curve-fermentation–respiration in bacteria-factors influencing the bacterial growth. Classification of bacteria  (outline classification only). Genetic elements in bacteria- mutation in bacteria – conjugation – transformation – transduction. Immunology -basic principles.

Practical

Microscopes– Micrometry – Sterilization techniques and equipment – Growth media preparation – Bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes - Isolation, purification and preservation of bacteria and fungi. Staining techniques: Simple, differential and structural staining - spore staining - Measurement of bacterial growth – Identification of microorganisms: Cultural, physiological and biochemical tests for bacteria

Lecture Schedule

1.                   Definition and scope of microbiology-Spontaneous generation theory.

2.                   Contributions by Antonie  Van Leeuwenhoek, Louis Pasteur, John Tyndall, Joseph Lister, Edward Jenner, Robert Koch, Alexander Fleming and Waksman.

3.                   Microscopy : Principles – resolution – numerical aperture, magnification-Different types of microscopes-Light microscopes- UV, dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscope.

4.                   Sterilization – Principle-Physical and chemical methods.

5.                   Groups of microorganisms-Prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

6.                   Bacterial morphology- Staining of microorganisms – basic principles - arrangement of cells, structures and reproduction.

7.                   Morphology of algae and fungi.

8.                   Viruses-Bacteriophages.

9.                   Mid semester examination.

10.               Nutritional types of bacteria-Autotrophs, heterotrophs, phototrophs and chemolithotrophs.

11.               Bacterial growth-growth curve - conditions for growth; temperature requirements- aerobes and anaerobes..

12.               Classification of bacteria - Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology –outline only.

13.               Microbial metabolism-fermentation-

14.               Respiration - phosphorylation

15.               Genetic elements in bacteria – mutation.

16.               Conjugation, transformation, transduction.

17.               Immunology – principles

Practical Schedule

1.                   Microscopes – handling light microscope.

2.                   Micrometry-measurement of microorganisms.

3.                   Sterilization – equipment and apparatus used for sterilization.

4.                   Media preparation for bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes.

5.                   Isolation of microorganisms-serial dilution plate technique.

6.                   Purification and preservation of bacteria

7.                   Purification and preservation of fungi.

8.                   Staining techniques- simple and negative staining.

9.                   Differential staining - Gram-staining

10.               Structural staining - spore staining.

11.               Morphology of bacteria- cell arrangement.

12.               Growth of bacteria- turbidometric method.

13.               Physiological characters of bacteria.

14.               Biochemical characters of bacteria.

15.               Identification of bacteria.

16.               Identification of fungi.

17.               Practical examination.

Assignment

1. Latest developments in microscopy

2. Microorganisms in everyday life

3. Impact of microorganisms on civilization

4. Microorganisms and human disease management

5. Hygiene and public health – Microbiologist’s perspective

6. Recombinant gene technology revolution – a boon or bane

 

Refernce Books

1.                   Cappucino, T.G. and Sherman, N. 1996. Microbiology; A Laboratory Manual. The Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Co., Redwood City, C-A.

2.                   Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. 1997. Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 8th Edn. Prentice-Hall Inc. NJ.

3.                   Nicklin, J., Graeml-Cook, K., Paget, T and Killington, R. 1999. Instant notes in Microbiology, Viva Books Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi.

4.                   Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S.and Kreig, N.R. 1993. Microbiology. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi.

5.                   Prescott. L., Hardy, J.P. and Klein, D. A. 1996. Microbiology, 3rd Edn. Wmc.Brown Communications Inc., Dubuque.

6.                   Schlegel, H.G. 1993. General Microbiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

7.                   Stanier, R.Y., Ingraham, Wheelis, M.G. and Paintor, P.R. 1986. The Microbial World. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

8.                   Tauro, P., Kapoor, K.k. and Yadav, K.S. 1989. An introduction to Microbiology. Wiley Publications, New Delhi.


AGM 201                      SOIL AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY               1+1

Theory

Historical developments in soil and microbiology – Contributions of Beijerinck, Winogradsky, Fleming and Waksman. Importance of soil microorganisms – factors affecting the activities of soil microorganisms. Carbon and Nitrogen cycle in nature - Biological nitrogen fixation - symbiotic and non-symbiotic microorganisms – Microbial transformation of Phosphorus - Rhizosphere – R: S ratio – Microbial interrelationship in soil – Beneficial and harmful relationship. Biofertilizers- Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Azorhizobium, phosphobacteria - Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria ( PGPR) - mycorrhizae - Blue Green Algae (BGA) and Azolla - Production and quality control of biofertilizers.

Industrial utilization of microorganisms – Alcohol fermentation – Antibiotics. Microorganisms associated with food and dairy products. Microbes in pest and disease management – Bioconversion of agricultural wastes.

Practical

Enumeration of different kinds of microorganisms in soil – qualitative and quantitative methods – Decomposition of organic matter.  Isolation of rhizosphere microorganisms – Isolation of nitrogen fixing microorganisms. Rhizobium, Azospirillum and Azotobacter -  Isolation of phosphobacteria – Observation of mycorrhiza roots.  Biofertilizers inoculant production – mother culture and starter culture – carrier materials – mixing and curing process- Production of Azolla and BGA . Alcohol fermentation. Isolation of Antibiotic producing microbes – Food spoilage -  microorganisms involved in dairy products - Identification of biocontrol agents.

Lecture Schedule

1.                   Introduction and historical developments in Agricultural Microbiology.

2.                   Contributions of Beijerinck, Winogradsky, Fleming and Waksman.

3.                   Distribution and importance of soil microorganisms’ -Factors influencing the activities of soil microorganisms.

4.                   Carbon cycle - role of soil microorganisms in the decomposition of organic matter -Importance of C: N ratio - Humus formation.

5.                   Nitrogen cycle – mineralization- ammonification – nitrification – and denitrification.

6.                   Biological nitrogen fixation: symbiotic and non – symbiotic microorganisms

7.                   Microbial transformation of phosphorus. Rhizosphere and its importance - R.S.ratio.

8.                   Interrelationship between microorganisms: Beneficial and harmful relationships.

9.                   Mid semester examination.

10.               Biofertilizers :– Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Gluconacetobacter and   

            Azorhizobium, Cyanobacteria – Azolla - PGPR

11.               Phosphobacteria, Mycorrhizae.

12.               Mass production of biofertilizers and quality control

13.               Industrial utilization of microorganisms – Alcohol fermentation –Alcoholic beverages.

14.               Antibiotics – Microorganisms involved and importance.

15.               Microorganisms involved in food, dairy products – food spoilage.

16.               Bioconversion of agricultural wastes for compost making.

17.               Microbial agents – pest and disease management

Practical Schedule

1.       Enumeration of soil microorganisms – quantitative – Conn’s direct microscopic method – qualitative – buried slide technique.

2.       Enumeration of soil microorganisms – serial dilution plate technique    (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes).

3.       Organic matter decomposition – Measurement of CO2  evolution.

4.       Enumeration of rhizosphere microorganisms – Determination of R : S ratio.

5.       Isolation of Rhizobium from root nodules

6.       Isolation of Azospirillum and Azotobacter.

7.       Isolation of Phosphobacteria from soil.

8.       Observation of VAM infection in roots

9.       Mass production of bacterial biofertilizers and VAM

10.   Mass multiplication of blue green algae and Azolla biofertilizers.

11.   Methods of application of different biofertilizers

12.   Antibiosis in soil – Crowded plate technique

13.   Alcohol production – wine making

14.   Isolation of micro organisms from spoiled food materials

15.   Isolation of Microorganisms from milk and milk products

16.               Identification of biocontrol agents – Metarrhizium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viride

17.   Practical examination.

Assignment

1. Role of microbes in food industry

2. Microbial processes in dairy industry

3. Pest control and microorganisms – impact on environment

4. Microbial processes of alcoholic beverages

5. Microorganisms’ role in crop production

6. Uses of microbial products in food and textile industries

Reference Books

1.                   Alexander, M. 1985. Introduction to soil Microbiology. John Wiley & Sons,    New York.

2.                   Motsara, M.R. Bhattacharyya, P.and Srivastava, B. 1995 Biofertilizer- Technology, Marketing and Usage.  Fertilizer Development & Consultant Organization , New Delhi. 

3.                   Rangaswami, G. and Bagyaraj, D.J. 1992. Agricultural Microbiology. Asia Publishing House, New Delhi.

4.                   Subba Rao, N.S. 1999. Biofertilizers in Agriculture and Agroforestry. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.

5.                   Subba Rao, N.S. 1995. Soil Microorganisms and Plant Growth.Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.  

6.                   Waiter, M.J.,N.L. Morgan, J.S.Rocky and G.Higton. 1999. Industrial Microbiology – An Introduction. Blackwell Scientific Pub.,

 

AGM   321                          BIOFERTILIZER PRODUCTION                               0+2

Practical

Types of biofertilizers – Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Azorhizobium, Cyanobacteria and Phosphobacteria. Techniques of isolation – characterization and screening for efficiency. Use of fermentor in biofertilizer production-operation techniques-carriers for biofertilizer. General production techniques- quality control- Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Storage and application methods for biofertilizers. Cyanobacteria and Azolla: occurrence, identification and mass production  - Mycorrhizae - mass production of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) - Economics of biofertilizer production and use –Visit to biofertilizer production unit. Cost analysis and project preparation: Principles of enterprise management-Preparation of agricultural project reports- project analysis and financial management – agricultural finance and sources of finance- Acquisition – Ratio analysis – Principles of Costing – Economics of farm enterprise.

Practical Schedule

1.                   Different types of biofertilizers.

2.                   Isolation of Rhizobium.

3.                   Presumptive tests for rhizobial isolates and authentication of rhizobial isolates.

4.                   Estimation N2 fixation.

5.                   Pot culture studies.

6.                   Isolation and purification of Azospirillum isolates.

7.                   Identification and characterization of Azospirillum isolates.

8.                   Estimation of N2 fixation by Azospirillum isolates.

9.                   Estimation of IAA production by Azospirillum isolates.

10.               Pot culture studies.

11.               Isolation of Azotobacter and Gluconacetobacter.

12.               Isolation and purification of phosphobacteria.

13.               Testing the phosphorus solubilizing efficiency.

14.               Preservation techniques of mother cultures.

15.               Fermentor operation and maintenance.

16.               Collection and processing of carrier material.

17.               Mid semester examination.

18.               Culturing of mother cultures for mass production.

19.               Preparation of carrier based inoculant.

20.               Quality control of biofertilizers-BIS.

21.               Isolation of Cyanobacteria (BGA).

22.               Mass production of BGA culture.

23.               Storage methods and shelf life of the cultures.

24.               Mass production of Azolla.

25.               Assessment of VAM infection in roots.

26.               VAM spore estimation in soil

27.               Mass production of VAM.

28.               Inoculation methods of biofertilizers.

29.               Visit to a commercial biofertilizer production unit.

1.                   Economics of Biofertilizer production

2.                   Economics of Biofertilizer production

3.                   Economics of Biofertilizer production

4.                   Economics of Biofertilizer production

5.                   Final examination.

Reference Books

1.       Motsara, M.R. Bhattacharyya, P.and Srivastava, B. 1995 Biofertilizer- Technology, Marketing and Usage.  Fertilizer Development & Consultant Organization , New Delhi. 

2.       Subba Rao, N.S., 1994. Biofertilizers in Agriculture and Agroforestry. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.

3.       Subba Rao, N.S. 1995. Soil Microorganisms and Plant growth.  Oxford & IBH, New Delhi. 

 

AGM 151              GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY      2+1

Theory

            Development and scope of Microbiology - Spontaneous generation theory - Germ theory of diseases - Contributions by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Louis Pasteur, John Tyndall, Robert Koch, Joseph Lister, Winogradsky, Beijerinck, Alexander Fleming, Waksman and others in the development of microbiology and their discoveries.

            Microscopy - Principles of optics - Resolving Power - Numerical aperture, magnification, aberrations - Different types of microscopes - Light microscope, Dark field, phase contrast, U.V.Microscope, Electron microscope (Scanning - Transmission type) - Micrometry.

            Structure and organization of microbial cell - Proka­ryotes - Eukaryotes - Morphology and fine structure of different microorganisms.

            Distribution of micro-organisms - Groups of microorganisms and their importance - Bacteria, Fungi, actinomycetes, algae, protozoa and viruses - Methods of isolation and purifica­tion - pure culture methods - preparation of media - Different types of nutritional media - Staining techniques - Simple staining,differential staining, structural staining - preservation of the microbial culture.

            Nutritional types: autotroph, heterotroph, phototroph, chemolithotroph  - Growth curve - continuous culture, synchronous culture - chemostat - Energy production by aerobes, anaerobes, photosynthetic organisms - Biosynthesis of proteins (enzymes) and other macro molecules. Classification of micro-organisms - Gener­al principle and outline of classification in bacteria, fungi, algae,etc. Viruses and bacteriophages - chemical nature - Life cycle - Lytic and lysogenic types - importance.

            Microbial genetics - types -concepts of variation,  mutation and selection - conjugation,transformation, transduction - heterokaryoses - parasexuality - induction of mutation - Gener­al mechanism of gene transfer techniques in genetic engineering.

            Principles of immunology - Antigen and antibody reaction - Development of vaccines - Microbial products and industrial application of microorganisms.

Practical

Use and care of different microscopes - Micrometry - sterilization techniques and equipments - preparation of culture media - Synthetic and non-synthetic, selective and differential media- Isolation of micro-organisms - Enrichment culture - puri­fication of micro-organisms - staining techniques; simple, Gram, Spore and capsule staining - Identification of micro-organisms - Morphology, cultural and physiological characters - Growth deter­mination in micro-organisms - calorimetric and plating methods - Mutagenesis in bacteria.

Lecture  Schedule

1.       Definition and scope of  Microbiology - Microbiology and  sub divisions.

2.       Microscopy - different types - principles,resolution,numerical aperture,magnification.

3.       Lightmicroscope.U.V.Microscope,darkfieldmicroscope Electronmicroscope Abberations.

4.       Microbial staining, simple staining, differential staining, structural staining.

5.       Micrometry, measurement of micro-organism, stage and ocular micrometer,camera lucida.

6.       History of microbiology - Spontaneous generation theory - contribution by Antonie vanleeuwenhoek, Louis pasteur, John Tyndall and others.

7.       Germ theory of diseases, Koch postulates antisepsis,Chemotherapy - discovery of antibiotics - contribution by Robert Koch,Joseph lister,Alexander Fleming,Waksman, Winogradsky Beijerinik etc.

8.       Control of microorganisms - Physical, chemical method - principles and applications.

9.       Equipments used for sterilization, filters, chemicals, disinfectants, pasteurisation.

10.   Distribution of microorganisms in nature. Groups of microorganisms - Prokaryote and eukaryote, importance.

11.   Bacteria - morphology arrangement of cells, structural modification, multiplication.

12.   Bacterial growth nutritional types - growth curve - continuous culture - synchronous culture.

13.   Autotroph, heterotroph, phototroph, chemolithotrophic nutrition and importance.

14.   Conditions for growth, temperature requirement, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic - Air requirement aerobes and anaerobes.

15.   Energy production - aerobic respiration, fermentation, photosynthetic.

16.   Biosynthesis of protein and other macromolecules-Regulation - metabolic regulation of biosynthesis and   energy production.

17.   Mid semester examination

18.   Classification of bacteria - characters used for classification - Bergey's manual of systemic   bacteriology.

19.   Important groups of bacteria.

20.   Important groups of bacteria.

21.    Fungi, distribution, morphology and reproduction.

22.     Importance of fungi in organic matter decomposition, antibiotic and food fermentation.

23.     An outline and classification of fungi.

24.     Algae distribution, morphology, pigmentation and importance.

25.     An outline and classification of algae.

26.     Viruses and bacteriophages, chemical nature.

27.     Anatomy and architecture of viruses - Lytic and Lysogenic cycles.

28.     Microbial genetics - principle - wild type - mutants, type of mutation.

29.     Recombination techniques - conjugation, transformation, transduction etc.

30.     Gene transfer technique - application in genetic engineering.

31.     Immunology - Resistance - Specific and non-specific Phagocytosis.

32.     Serology - Antigen - antibody - principle and production technique.

33.    Development of vaccines, Microbial products and use of microorganisms in industry. 

34.    Development of vaccines, Microbial products and use of microorganisms in industry. 

Practical Schedule

1.       Study and experiments with light microscope.

2.       Study and experiments with different microscopes.

3.       Measurement of microorganisms.

4.       Simple staining

5.       Gram staining.

6.       Sterilization techniques and equipments.

7.       Preparation of culture media.

8.       Isolation of microorganisms & Enumeration.

9.       Growth of bacteria - Colorimetric method - Plating method.

10.   Purification of bacteria.

11.   Purification of fungi.

12.   Study of physiological characteristics of bacteria.

13.   Study of Bacteria - Morphology.

14.   Study on the bacterial mutation.

15.   Viruses - bacteriophages - plaque formation.

16.   Industrial use of microorganism.

17.   Practical examination.

Reference Books

1.       Pelczar,M.J., E.C.S.Chan and N.R.Krieg. 1988. Microbiology. McGraw-Hill New York.

2.       Powar, C.B. and H.F.Daginawala.  1989. General Microbiology. Vol. I and II. Himalaya   Publishing House, New Delhi.

3.       Rangaswami,G and D.J.Bagyaraj. 1992. Agricultural Microbiology.   Asia publishing   House, New Delhi.

4.       Stanier,R.Y., J.Ingtaham,  M.C.Wheelis. and P.R.Painter. 1986. The Microbial world. Prentice Hall, England.New Jersey.

5.       Tauro,P, K.K. Kapoor  and  K.S.Yadav. 1989. An Introduction to microbiology. Wiley Publications, New Delhi.

 

AGM 251          FOOD MICROBIOLOGY            2+1

Theory

            Importance of microorganisms in food – primary sources of microorganisms in food – Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of food affecting microbial growth – Types of microorganisms in foods like meats, poultry, seafood, vegetables, dairy products, fruits and vegetables.

            Assessing microbial load in foods – microscopic, cultural, physical, chemical and immunological methods.

            Spoilage of foods – principles and types of spoilage – microbial spoilage of different types of foods, - spoilage of fruits and vegetables, fresh and processed meats, poultry, seafoods, cereals, flour, dough, bakery products dairy products, fermented foods and canned foods.

            Food preservation – principles – Factors affecting preservation – Food preservation using temperature – low temperature food preservation – characteristics of psychrotrophs – high temperature food preservation – characteristics of thermophiles – preservation of foods by drying chemicals and radiation – limitations – commercial application.

            Microorganisms as food – single cell protein – bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae – production techniques.

            Food sanitation – indicators of food safety – Coliform bacteria.  Food borne infections and food poisoning – botulism – salmonellosis – gastroenteritis.  Food borne pathogens – Clostridium perfrigenes, Vibrio, Campylobacter.

            Food processing plant sanitation – microbiological standards and guidelines – microbial quality control and food laws.

PRACTICAL

            Examination of Microorganisms of normal and spoiled fruits and vegetables – cereal products – sugar products – dried fruits and vegetables – Food preservation physical – chemicals – Microbial spoilage of canned and bottled foods, meat and fish – Diagnosis of spoilage of various foods – Fermentation of lactic acid and vinegar – Assessing the load of coliform bacteria and Salmonella as indicator organisms.  Methylene blue reduction test for milk Microbiological survey of utensils and processing plants – quality control.

Lecture Schedule

1.       Introduction - Occurrence of microorganisms in food.

2.       Sources of microorganisms found in food - Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of food affecting microbial growth.

3.       Types of microorganisms in foods like meat, poultry and sea foods..

4.       Types of microorganisms in cereals, vegetables and fruits..

5.       Assessing microbial population in the food.

6.       Microbial spoilage of meat, poultry, fish and dairy products, etc..

7.       Microbial spoilage of fruits and vegetables,

8.       Microbial spoilage of Cereals and bakery products.

9.       Food poisoning - principles

10.   Food preservation using physical method – low temperature preservation – characteristics of psychrotrophs – high temperature food preservation – characteristics of thermophilic microorganisms.

11.    Food preservation using chemical methods.

12.   Preservation of foods by radiation – limitations and commercial application of radiation.

13.   Microorganisms as food – single cell protein – bacteria,. fungi,

14.   Microorganisms as food – single cell protein –yeast, algae.

15.   Production techniques of single cell protein

16.   Fermented food – pickles – sauerkraut – vinegar and lactic acid

17.    Mid semester examination

18.    Milk products - sources of micro-organisms.

19.   Preservation of milk - Pasteurization - Bacteriological  standard - grading of milk.

20.    Milk products - Fermented products, curd, butter, cheese, ghee.

21.   Microbiology of cereals and cereal products.

22.   Microbiology of vegetables.

23.   Microbiology of fruits.

24.   Microbiology of spices and condiments.

25.   Microbiology of meat, meat products fish and fish products.

26.   Microbiology of poultry and egg. bread and baked products

27.   Canning of food - method of canning – type of spoilage in canned food.

28.   Food borne infection - prevention of food infection.

29.   Food borne diseases- Salmonella, Clostridium, Vibrio  -prevention

30.   Food poisoning – symptoms, causes and control.

31.   Microbiological standard of food materials.

32.   HACCP- food borne pathogen

33.   Food sanitation – Indicator organisms – Coliform bacteria

34.   Food processing - Plant sanitation - Microbiological  standard.

Practical Schedule

1.       Food Sampling Techniques and Preparation of Sample Homogenate for Microbial Analysis

2.       Enumeration of Microorganisms in food by Aerobic Plate Count Method

3.       Enumeration of yeast and Molds in Foods by Direct Plating Technique

4.       Enumeration of Microorganisms in food by MPN methods

5.       Assessing the microbial quality of milk by Dye reduction method

6.       Direct  microscopic examination of Eggs

7.       Examination of microbial spoilage in Canned Foods.

8.       Isolation and identication of Bacillus cereus in food

9.       Isolation and identication of Clostridium perfringens in food

10.   Isolation and identication of Coliforms  and E.coli in food

11.   Isolation and identication of Salmonella in food

12.   Estimation of toxin production in food s by molds

13.   Production techniques of single cell protein - bacteria and. algae

14.   Production of single cell protein, mushroom

15.   Sauerkraut fermentation

16.   Microbiological analysis of utensils and processing plants

17.   Practical Examination.

Reference Books

1.       Frazier, W.C. and Westhoff, 1983. Food Microbiology. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.

2.       Gould, G.W. 1996. New methods of food preservation.  Blackie Academic & Professional, Madras.

3.       Jay, J.M. 1996. Modern Food Microbiology. CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.

4.       King R.D. and P.S.J. Cheetham, 1986. Food Biotechnology Elsevier Applied Science, New York.

AGM 351  FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY   1+1

Theory

            Introduction of fermentation process – History and development of fermentation industry – commercially important fermentations – microbial biomass – microbial enzymes – microbial metabolites - recombinant products – Transformation process.  Microbial growth kinetics – batch – continuous and fed batch cultures – application of fed batch culture - use of fed batch culture.

            Selection of industrially important microorganisms – media for industrial fermentations – medium composition – energy, carbon, nitrogen and other growth factors – buffering and antifoam agents.

            Sterilization – medium sterilization – in batch and continuous process – sterilization of the fermentor – sterilization of feeds – sterilization of liquid wastes.

            Development of inocula for industrial fermentations – criteria for the transfer of inoculum – inocula for yeast bacterial and mycelial processes – Aseptic inoculation of plant fermenters.

            Fermenter – basic functions of a fermenter for microbial cell culture – aeration and agitation – types of fermentation vessels – methods of measuring process variables – computer application in fermentation technology.

            Recovery and purification of fermented food products – removal of microbial cell – foam separators – precipitation – filtration – batch filters – types and continuous filter – membrane process – fermented food products – fermentation economics – and application of fermentor process – in industry.

 

Practical

Fermenters – sterilization of substrates – operations- Inoculation techniques for biomass production- Role of yeast bacteria in food production-Organic acid production by fungal fermentation- Solid state fermentation – mushroom production. Liquid fermentation – submerged – SCP- Development of efficient strains by mutagenesis – physical chemical agents. Sauerkraut Malt fermentation

Lecture Schedule

1.                   Introduction to fermentation process – Development of fermentation industry.

2.                   Components and range of fermentation process – microbial biomass – enzymes – metabolites recombinant products – transformation process.

3.                   Microbial growth kinetics – batch culture – continuous culture – multistage system – feed back systems

4.                   Comparison of batch and continuous culture in industrial process – fed batch culture – application – use.

5.                   Isolation of industrially important organisms – selection of desired characters – enrichment technique using liquid culture and solidified medium

6.                   Screening methods – preservation of microorganisms at reduced temperature, liquid nitrogen – dehydrated form – dried culture, lyophilization

7.                   Development of mutants – selection of stable strains – improvement of industrial strains by modifying properties other than the yield of product.

8.                   Media for industrial fermentations – medium composition – energy sources – carbon, nitrogen, minerals, and growth factors.

9.                   Mid semester examination

10.               Nutrient recycling – precursors and metabolic regulators – oxygen requirements – antifoams – pH – medium optimization.

11.               Sterilization – principles – sterilization of fermentation media, air

12.               Sterilization of fermenter, feeds and liquid wastes

13.               Development of inoculums for industrial fermentation – need – and their importance.

14.               Development of inoculums for yeast process – breading and baking yeast.

15.               Development of inocula for bacterial process.  Development of inoculums for mycelial process – sporulation on solidified, solid media – submerged culture – technique.

16.               Design of fermenter – basic functions of a fermenter – aeration – agitation – types of fermentation vessels.  Recovery and purification of fermentation products – removal of cell, foams – membrane process – drying.

17.               Fermented food products – and their important in food and dairy industry.  Fermentation economics for application of fermentation process at industry level.

Practical Schedule

1.       Fermenters – sterilization of substrates – operations

2.       Inoculation techniques for biomass production

3.       Role of yeast in food production

4.       Role of bacteria in food fermentation

5.       Organic acid production by fungal fermentation

6.       Solid state fermentation – mushroom production

7.       Liquid fermentation – submerged – SCP

8.       Development of efficient strains by mutagenesis – physical agents.

9.       Development of efficient strains by mutageneis – chemical agents

10.   Effect of pH on fermentation process

11.   Effect of temperature on fermentation process

12.   Effect of moisture on fermentation process

13.   Effect of additives on fermentation process

14.   Product recovery by filtration single cell protein

15.   Sauerkraut fermentation

16.   Malt fermentation

17.   Practical Examination

Reference Books

1.       Pederson,C.S. 1971.  Microbiology of food fermentations, AVI Publishing Co., Inc.Westport, Conn.

2.       King,R.D. and P.S.J.Cheetham. 1986.  Food Biotechnology.  Flsevier Applied Science, New york.

3.       Brock,T.D. 1990.  Biotechnology.  A text book of Industrial microbiology.  Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, M.A., USA.

4.       Stanbury,P.F., Allan Whitaker and S.J.Hall. 1997.  Principles of fermentation technology.   Aditya Books (P) Ltd., New Delhi.

5.       Patel,A.H. 1996.  Industrial microbiology.  Macmillan India Ltd., New Delhi.

AGM 261                      BASIC   MICROBIOLOGY                                  1 + 1

Theory

            Definition and scope of microbiology – spontaneous generation theory – germ theory of diseases – contributions of Antonie Van leeuwenhoek-Louis Pasteur-John Tyndall-Robert Koch-Edward Jenner-Joseph Lister-Alexander Fleming and Waksman.  Microscopy - principles-different types of microscopes.  Sterilization - principles and equipments.  Structure and organization of microbial cell-prokaryote and eukaryote –staining of microorganisms –principles.  Morphology of bacteria, fungi and viruses-bacteriophages.  Nutritional types in bacteria-nutritional requirements-growth curve-fermentation-respiration in bacteria-factors influencing the bacterial growth.  Classification of bacteria (outline classification only).  Genetic elements in bacteria-mutation in bacteria-conjugation-transformation-transduction.  Immunology-basic principles and industrial application of microorganisms.

Practical

            Microscopes – micrometry – sterilization techniques and equipment – growth media preparation-bacteria, fungi and actionomycetes – isolation, purification and preservation of bacteria and fungi.  Staining techniques-simple, differential and structural staining – spore staining – measurement of bacterial growth – identification of microorganisms-cultural, physiological and biochemical tests for bacteria.

Theory  Schedule

01.               Definition and scope of microbiology and spontaneous generation theory.

02.               Contributions by Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek-Louis Pasteur-John Tyndall- Josepth Lister- Edward Jenner- Robert Koch- Alexander Fleming and Waksman.

03.               Microscopy- principles – resolution –numerical aperture, magnification-different types of microscopes – light microscopes – UV-dark field-phase contrast- fluorescence and electron microscope.

04.               Sterilization – principle – physical and chemical methods.

05.               Groups of microorganism – prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

06.               Bacterial morphology – staining of microorganisms – basic principles – arrangement of cells, structures and reproduction.

07.               Morphology of fungi and viruses – bacteriophases.

08.               Nutritional types of bacteria-autotrophs, heterorotrophs, phototrophs and chemolithotrophs.

09.               Mid Semester Examination.

10.               Bacterial growth-growth curve-conditions for growth-temperature requirements-aerobes and anaerobes.

11.               Classification of bacteria-Bergey’s Manual of Systematic bacteriology – outline only.

12.               Microbial metabolism-fermentation

13.               Respiration-phosphorylation

14.               Genetic elements in bacteria and mutation

15.               Conjugation, transformation and transduction.

16.               Immunology – principles

17.               Microbial products and industrial application of microorganisms

Practical Schedule

01.               Microscopes – handling light microscope

02.               Micrometry-measurement of microorganisms

03.               Sterilization –equipment and apparatus used for sterilization.

04.               Media preparation for bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes.

05.               Isolation of microorganisms-serial dilution plate technique.

06.               Purification and preservation of bacteria

07.               Purification and preservation of fungi

08.               Staining techniques – simple and negative staining

09.               Differential staining- gram-staining

10.               Structural staining –spore staining

11.               Morphology of bacteria-cell arrangement

12.               Growth of bacteria –turbidometric method

13.               Physiological characters of bacteria

14.               Biochemical characters of bacteria

15.               Identification of bacteria

16.               Identification of fungi

17.               Practical Examination

Reference Books

01.                Cappucino, T.G. and Sherman, N.1996.  Microbiology; A Laboratory Manual.  The Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Co., Redwood City, C-A.

02.                Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. and Parket, J., 1997.  Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 8th Edn. Prentice-Hall Inc. NewJersy.

03.                Nicklin, J., Graeml-Cook, K., Paget, T and Killington R.,1999. Instant notes in Microbiology, Viva Books Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

04.                Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S. and Kreig, N.R., 1993.  Microbiology.  Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi.

05.                Prescott. L., Hardy, J.P. and Klein, D.A., 1996.  Microbiology, 3rd Edn. Wmc. Brown Communications Inc., Dubuque.

06.                Schlegel, H.G., 1993.  General Microbiology.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

07.                Stanier, R.Y., Ingraham, Wheelis, M.G. and Paintor, P.R., 1986.  The Microbial World.  Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

08.                Tauro, P., Kapoor, K.K. and Yadav, K.S., 1989.  An introduction to Microbiology. Wiley Publications, New Delhi.


AGM 361              APPLIED FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY                  1 + 1

Theory

Introduction of fermentation process-history and development of fermentation industry-commercially important fermentations – production of culture for food fermentation –bacteia, fungi and yeast-microbial growth kinetics-batch-continuous and fed batch cultures-application of fed batch culture-use of fed batch culture-fermentation-basic functions of a fermentation for microbial cell culture-Fermentation defined and characterized-factors influencing fermentation.

            Role of microorganisms in fermented fruits and vegetables Tea, coffee, cocoa vanilla-beer, vinegar and wine –soy fermentations-microorganisms as food-single cell protein –bacteria, fungi, yeast and algae-production techniques – production of amino acids added to foods- application of microbial enzymes in fruit and vegetable processing.

Practical

            Fermentation-fermenter-sterilization-media-inoculation of techniques for biomass production-liquid-solid-submerged fermentation – role of yeast in fermentation-bacterial fermentation-organic acid production-tea- coffee- cocoa- vanilla-beer- vinegar- wine-soy fermentations and  SCP.

Theory Schedule

01.               Introduction of fermentation process- development of fermentation industry.

02.               Fermentation – Fermentation process-organisms involved in fermentation

03.               Types of fermentation-factors influencing fermentations

04.               Microbial growth kinetics-batch culture –continuous culture – multistage system –feed back systems

05.               Comparison of batch and continuous culture in industrial process – fed batch culture-application – use.

06.               Isolation of industrially important organisms – selection of desired characters – enrichment technique using liquid culture and solidified medium.

07.               Media for industrial fermentations – medium composition – energy sources – carbon, nitrogen, minerals and growth factors

08.               Sterilization – principles – sterilization of fermentation media

09.               Mid Semester Examination

10.               Development of inoculum for industrial fermentation –need and their importance

11.               Role of yeast in fermentation

12.               Role of bacteria in fermentation

13.               Organic acid production

14.               Tea, Coffee, Cocoa and vanilla fermentations

15.               Beer, Vinegar, wine –soy fermentations

16.               Role of microbial enzymes in fermentation process

17.               Microorganisms as food – single cell protein – bacteria-fungi-yeast- algae and  production techniques.

Practical Schedule

01.               Fermenters – sterilization of media –operations

02.               Inoculation techniques for biomass production

03.               Role of yeast in food production

04.               Role of bacteria in food fermentation

05.               Organic acid production by fungal fermentation

06.               Effect of microbial enzymes on fruits

07.               Solid state fermentation – mushroom production

08.               Liquid fermentation –submerged – SCP

09.               Effect of pH on fermentation process

10.               Effect of temperature on fermentation process

11.               Effect of additives on  fermentation process

12.               Sauerkraut fermentation

13.               Wine fermentation

14.               Vinegar fermentation

15.               Single cell protein – yeast

16.               Single cell protein algae-production techniques

17.               Practical Examination

Reference Books

01.                Brock, T.D., 1990.  Biotechnology.  A text book of Industrial microbiology.  Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, M.A., USA.

02.                Frazier, W.C. and Westhoff, 1995.  Food Microbiology.  Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.

03.                Jay, J.M. 1996.  Modern Food Microbiology.  CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi

04.                King, R.D. and P.S.J. Cheetham., 1986.  Food Biotechnology.  Flsevier Applied Science, New York.

05.                Patel, A.H., 1996.  Industrial Microbiology.  Macmillan India Ltd., New Delhi.

06.                Pederson, C.S., 1971.  Microbiology of food fermentations, AVI Publishing Co., Inc. Westport, Conn.

07.                Stanbury, P.F., Allan Whitaker and S.J. Hall.,  1997.  Principles of fermentation technology.  Aditya Books (P) Ltd., New Delhi.

AGM 362           COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION OF BIOFERTILIZER          0 + 1

Practical

            Types of biofertlizers – Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Cyanobacteria and Phosphobacteria-techniques of isolation – characterization and screening for efficiency-use of fermenter in biofertilizer production-operation techniques-carries for biofertilizer-newer formulations of biofertilizers-general production techniques-quality control-Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)-mass production of BGA-storage and application methods of biofertilizers.  Mycorrhizae – mass production of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) – economics of biofertilizer production and use – visit to biofertilizer production unit.

Practical Schedule

01.               Different types of bioferlizers

02.               Isolation of Rhizobium and authentication of rhizobial isolates

03.               Isolation and characterization of Azospirillum isolates

04.               Isolation and purification of Azotobacter and phosphobacteria

05.               Testing for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilizing efficiency.

06.               Strain selection for mass production of biofetilizers

07.               Preservation techniques and mass multiplication using fermenters

08.               Processing of carrier materials and preparation of carrier based inoculants

09.               Mid Semester Examination

10.               Newer formulations of biofertilizers

11.               Quality control of bio fertilizers – BIS

12.               Isolation and mass production of BGA culture

13.               Storage methods and shelf life of the cultures

14.               Assessment of VAM colonization in roots and estimation of spore count in soil

15.               Mass production of VAM and inoculation methods of biofertilizers

16.               Visit to a commercial biofertilizer production unit and economics of biofertilizer production.

17.               Practical Examination

Reference Books

01.                Motsara, M.R., Bhattacharyya, P. and Srivastava, B., 2001.  Biofertilizer-Technology, Marketing and Usage.  Fertilizer Development and Consultant Organization, New Delhi.

02.                Subba Rao, N.S., 1994.  Biofertilizers in Agriculture and Agroforestry.  Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.

03.                Subba Rao, N.S., 1999.  Soil Microbiology.  Oxford & IBH, New Delhi.

AGM 171          General Microbiology   2+1

Theory

            Development and scope of microbiology - Spontaneous generation theory – Germ theory – Germ theory of diseased – Contributions by  Antonie van Leeuwenhock, Louis Pasteur, John Tyndall, Robert Koch, Joseph Lister, Winogradsky, Beijierinck, Alexander Fleming, Waksman and others in the development of microbiology and their discoveries. Microscopy – Principles of optics – Resolving Power – Numerical aperture, magnification, aberrations – Different types of microscopes – Light microscope, Dark field, phase contrast, U. V. Microscopes, Electron microscope (Scanning – Transmission types) – Micrometry. Structure and organization of microbial cell – Prokaryotes – Eukaryotes – Morphology and fine structure of different microorganisms. Distribution of microorganisms – Groups of microorganisms and their importance – Bacteria, Fungi, actinomycetes, algae, protozoa and viruses – Methods of isolation and purification – pure culture methods – preparation of media – Different types of nutritional media – Staining techniques – Simple staining, differential staining, structural staining – preservation of the microbial culture. Nutritional types: autotrophy, heterotroph, phototroph, chemolithotroph  - Growth curve – Continuous culture, synchronous culture- chemostat – Energy production by aerobes, anaerobes, photosynthetic organisms – Biosynthesis of proteins and other macro molecules.  Classification of microorganisms – General principle and outline of classification in bacteria, fungi, algae, etc.  Viruses and bacteriophages – chemical nature – Life cycle – lytic and lysogenic types – importance. Microbial genetics – types – concepts of variation, mutation and selection – conjugation, transformation, transudation – heterokaryoses – parasexuality – induction of mutation – general mechanism of gene transfer techniques in genetic engineering.     Principles of immunology – Antigen and antibody reaction – Development of vaccines – Microbial products and industrial application of microorganisms.

Practical

            Use and care of different microscopes – Micrometry, sterilization techniques and equipments – preparation of culture media- synthetic and non- synthetic, selective and differential media- Isolation of microorganisms – Enrichment culture – precaution of micro-organisms staining techniques-simple, gram, spore and capsule staining – identification of microorganisms – Morphology, cultural and physiological characters- Growth determination in microorganisms – calorimetric and plating methods- mutagenesis in bacteria.

References

1. Pelclzar, M.J., E.C.S.Chan and N.R. Krieg. 1988. Microbiology. Mc Graw –Hill New York.

2. Power C.B. and H.F.Daginawala. 1989. General Microbiology, Vol.I and II. Himalayans Publishing House, New Delhi.

3. Rangaswami, G and D.J.Bagyaraj. 1992. Agricultural Microbiology, Asia publishing House, New Delhi.

4. Stanier, R.Y. J. Ingtaham, M.C. Wheel is. and Paniter.P.R.1986. The Microbial world. Prentice Hall, England. New Jersey.

5. Tauro, P, Kapoor, K.K. and Yadav, K.S. 1989. An Introduction to microbiology Wiley Publications, New Delhi.

Lecture Schedule

Theory

1.       Definition and scope of microbiology- Microbiology and sub divisions.

2.       Microscopy- different types – principles, resolution, numerical aperture, magnification.

3.       Light microscope, U.V. Microscope, darkfieldcroscope Electronmicroscoppe Aberrations.

4.       Microbial staining, simple staining, differential staining, structural staining.

5.       Micrometry, measurement of microorganism, stage and ocular micrometer, camera Lucida.

6.       History of microbiology- Spontaneous generation theory-contribution by Antonie vanleeuqenhoek, Louis pasteur, John Tyndall and others.

7.       Germ theory of diseases, Koch postulates, antisepsis,  Chemotherapy – discovery of antibiotics – contribution by Robert Koch, Joseph lister, Alexander Fleming, Waksman, Winogradsky Beijerinck etc.

8.       Control of microorganisms – Physical, chemical method-principles and applications.

9.       Equipments used for sterilization, filters, chemicals, disinfectants, pasteurization.

10.   Distribution of microorganisms in nature.   Groups of microorganisms – prokaryote and eukaryote, importance.

11.   Bacterial – morphology, arrangement of cells, structural modification, multiplication.

12.   Bacterial growth nutritional types – growth curve – continuous culture – synchronous culture.

13.   Autotroph, heterotroph, phototroph, chemolithtrophic nutrition and importance.

14.   Conditions for growth, temperature requirement, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, - Air requirement aerobes and anaerobes.

15.   Energy production – aerobic respiration, fermentation, photosynthetic.

16.   Biosynthesis of protein and other macromolecules-Regulation – metabolic regulation of biosynthesis and energy production.

17.   Mid semester examination

18.   Classification of bacteria – characters used for classification – Bergey’s manual of systemic bacteriology,.

19.   Important groups of bacteria.

20.   Important groups of bacteria.

21.   Fungi, distribution, morphology and reproduction.

22.   Importance of fungi in organic matter decomposition, antibiotic and food fermentation.

23.   An outline and classification of fungi.

24.   Algae distribution, morphology, pigmentation and importance.

25.   An outline and classification of algae.

26.   Viruses and bacteriophages, chemical nature.

27.   Anatomy and architecture of circuses – Lyric and Glycogenic cycles.

28.   Microbial genetics- principle – wild type-mutants, type of mutation.

29.   Recombination techniques – conjugation, transformation, transudation etc.

30.   Gene transfer technique – application  in genetic engineering.

31.   Immunology – Resistance – Specific and non – specific Phagaocytosis.

32.   Serology – Antigen – antibody – principle and production technique.

33.   Development of vaccines, microbial products and use of microorganisms, in industry.

34.   Development of vaccines, microbial products and use of microorganisms in industry.

Practical

 1. Study and experiments with light microscope.

 2. Study and experiments with different microscopes.

 3. Measurement of microorganisms.

 4. Simple staining

 5. Gram staining.

 6. Sterilization techniques and equipments.

 7. Preparation of culture media.

 8. Isolation of microorganisms & Enumeration.

 9. Growth of bacteria – Colorimetric method – Plating method.

10. Purification of bacteria.

11. Purification of fungi.

12. Study of physiological characteristics of  bacteria.

13. Study of Bacteria – morphology.

14. Study on the bacterial mutation.

15 Viruses – bacteriophages – plaque formation.

16. Industrial use of microorganism.

17. Practical Examination.

AGM 271          Fermentation Technology        (1+1)

Theory

Introduction of fermentation process – History and development of fermentation industry – commercially important fermentations – microbial biomass – microbial enzymes – microbial metabolites – recombinant products – Transformation process.  Microbial growth kinetics – batch – continuous and fed batch cultures – application of fed batch culture  -  use of fed batch culture.Selection of industrially important microorganisms – media for industrial fermentations – medium composition – energy, carbon, nitrogen and other growth factors – buffering and antifoam agents.  Sterilization – medium sterilization – in batch and continuous process – sterilization of the fermented – sterilization of feeds – sterilization of liquid wastes.           Development of inocula for industrial fermentations – criteria for the transfer of inoculum – inocula for yeast bacterial and mycelial processes – Aseptic inoculation of plant fermenters.     

            Fermenter – basic functions of a fermenter for microbial cell culture – aeration and agitation – types of fermentation vessels – methods of measuring process variables – computer application in fermentation technology.    Recovery and purification of fermented food products  - removal of microbial cell – foam separators – precipitation – filtration – batch filters – types and continuous filter – membrane process – fermented food products – fermentation economics – and application of fermenter process – in industry.

Practical

Development of inocula for industrial fermentations-criteria for the transfer of inoculum-inocula for yeast, bacterial and mycelial processes-aseptic inoculation of plant fermenters-fermenter-basic functions of a fermenter for microbial cell culture-aeration and agitation-types of fermentation vessels-methods of measuring process variables computer application in fermentation technology-recovery and purification of fermented food products-removal of microbial cell-foam separators-precipitation-filtration-batch filters-types and continuous filter-membrane process-fermented food products fermentation economics and application of fermenter process in industry.

References

1.         Brock, T. D. 1990. Biotechnology. A text book of Industrial microbiology.  Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, M.A.

2.         King, R.D. and P. S. J. Cheetham. 1986.  Food Biotechnology.  Elsevier Applied Science, New York.

3.         Patel, A.H. 1996. Industrial microbiology. Macmillan India Ltd., New Delhi.

4.         Pederson, C.S. 1971.  Microbiology of food fermentations, A VI Publishing Co., Inc. Westport, Conn.

5.         Stanbury, P. F., Allan Whitaker and S. J. Hall. 1997. Principles of fermentation technology.  Aditya Books ( P) Ltd., New Delhi.

Lecture Schedule

Theory

1.    Introduction to fermentation process – Development of fermentation industry.

2.         Components and range of fermentation process – microbial biomass – enzymes –               

       metabolites recombinant products – transformation process.

3.         Microbial growth kinetics – batch culture – continuous culture – multistage       

       system – feed back systems

4.         Comparison of batch and continuous culture in industrial process – fed batch          culture -  application – use.

5.         Isolation of industrially important organisms – selection of desired characters – enrichment technique using liquid culture and solidified medium

6.         Screening methods – preservation of microorganisms at reduced temperature, liquid nitrogen – dehydrated form – dried culture, lyophilization

7.         Development of mutants – selection of stable strains – improvement of industrial strains by modifying properties other than the yield of product

8.         Media for industrial fermentations – medium composition – energy sources – carbon, nitrogen, minerals and growth factors.

9.         Mid Semester Examination

10.     Nutrient recycling – precursors and metabolic regulators – oxygen requirements – antifoams – pH – medium optimization.

11.     Sterilization – principles – sterilization of fermentation media, air

12.     Sterilization of fermenter, feeds and liquid wastes

13.     Development of inoculum for industrial fermentation – need – and their importance.

14.     Development of inoculum for yeast process – breading and baking yeast.

15.     Development of inocula for bacterial process.  Development of inoculums for mycelial process – sporulation on solidified, solid media – submerged culture – technique.

16.     Design of fermenter – basic functions of a fermenter – aeration – agitation – types of fermentation vessels.  Recovery and purification of fermentation products  - removal of cell, foams – membrane process – drying.

17.     Fermented food products – and their important in food and dairy industry.  Fermentation economics for application of fermentation process at industry level.

Practical

1.       Fermenters – sterilization of substrates – operations

2.       Inoculation techniques for biomass production

3.       Role of yeast in food production

4.       Role of bacteria in food fermentation

5.       Organic acid production by fungal fermentation

6.       Solid state fermentation – mushroom production

7.       Liquid fermentation – submerged SCP

8.       Development of efficient strains by mutagenesis – physical agents.

9.       Development of efficient strains by mutageneis – chemical agents

10.   Effect of pH on fermentation process

11.   Effect of temperature on fermentation process

12.   Effect of moisture on fermentation process

13.   Effect of additives on fermentation process

14.   Product recovery by filtration single cell protein

15.   Sauerkraut fermentation

16.   Malt fermentation

17.   Practical Examination

AGM 371          Bioinoculant Technology         (2+1)

 

Theory

 Bioinoculants- various types- biofertilizer, biomanures and biopesticides-their importance in sustainable agriculture - organic farming and environmental health Historical development of Bioinoculants technology -bioinoculants technology development in India. Biofertilizers-broad grouping of biofertilizers -dinitrogen fixers, phosphorous solubilizers and P-mobilizers.Nitrogen fixing microorganisms. Diazotrophic bacteria and BGA-symbiotic- associative symbiotic and non- symbiotic groups. Biochemistry of dinitrogen fixation (BNF)- nitrogen fixation by Azotobacter, Rhizobium, Azorhizobium and Azospirillum- isolation of nitrogen fixing diazotrophs - screening for efficiency and selection as Bioinoculants - oxygen protective mechanism of dinitrogen fixation in various diazotrophs –importance of heterocytes- their potential in dinitrogen fixation in cyanoabcteria. Azolla -anabaena symbiosis. Phosphorous solubilization by microorganism like bacteria and fungi -  their importance in agriculture, mechanism of P -solubilization in soil ecosystem. Bacterial and fungal genera involved in P-solubilization –isolation, screening and testing the efficiency. Phosphorous mobilization by ecto and endomycorrhizal fungi - their importance in forestry and agriculture. Mechanism of P mobilization and solubilization by AM fungi- isolation, screening and testing the efficiency. Biomanures –degradation of agricultural bye products-cellulose, hemi cellulose and lignin degradation – biomanure preparation techniques - important groups of microorganism involved – C/N ratio and their importance. Biopesticides –various groups of bacterial, fungal and viral biocides- Bacillus thurengiensis, Trichoderma viride, NPV and GV- mode of action and the target pest and diseases. Strain improvement in bioinoculants-need- various techniques - selection, mutation, in vitro and in vivo recombination technologies for improving the efficiency of bioinoculants strains-preservation of mother culture in low temperature, liquid nitrogen and dehydrated forms.

Mass multiplication of bioinoculants-laboratory level-pilot plant and industrial scale fermentation-design of fermentors- designing media for mass multiplication of bioinoculants. Development of carrier based inoculants and storage under low temperature- importance of shelf life-methods for increasing shelf life using various low cost carrier materials. In vivo mass production technology for AM fungi multiplication.

Importance of quality control in bioinoculants BIS specifications – microbial load in the bioinoculants at production, storage and farmers holdings-biosafety measures on non- targeted microorganism and animals.

Practical

Isolation of dinitrogen fixing microorganism like Azotobacter, Rhizobium, Azorhizobium and Azospirillum -identification-authentification of the isolates, screening their efficiency for dinitrogen fixation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Estimation of dinitrogen fixation by diazotrophs. Isolation of P- solubilization microorganism like Phosphobacterial and P-solubilising fungi-selection and screening the efficiency under in vitro conditions-mutation and genetic recombination techniques for strain improvements.

Isolation and screening of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin degrading microorganisms biomanure preparation techniques-biopesticides - isolation of pathogenic microorganism from insects and testing their efficiency on the control of lepidopteron larvae-mass production of cyanobacteria and AM fungi – mass multiplication of bacterial bioinoculants like Rhizobium and Phosphobacteria in submerged fermentors. Quality controlling in bioinoculants. BIS standards- estimation of microbial load in carrier based inoculants.

Lecture schedule

Theory

1.       Bioinoculants  - Definition – various types – biofertilizers,  biomanures and biopesticides – their importance in sustainable agriculture.

2.        Organic farming – importance – Role in sustaining nutrient status of the soil and soil health.

3.       Historical developments in bioinoculant technology - current scenario in India.

4.       Broad grouping of biofertilizers – nitrogen fixers, phosphorus solubilizers and mobilizer – nitrogen fixing microorganisms – symbiotic, associative symbiotic and free living.

5.       Biochemistry of dinitrogen fixation – Assimilation of Ammoniacal nitrogen.

6.       Oxygen protection mechanism in various diazotrophic microorganisms.

7.       Isolation of diazotrophic microorganisms – testing for authenticity.

8.       Screening the diazotrophic for enlivening – growth hormone production, N2 fixation and nutrient transport.

9.       Cyanobacteria, Azolla – anabaena symbiosis – importance of heterocyst in N2 fixation – Ammonia.

10.   Multiplication of cyanobacteria and Azolla – factor influencing growth.

11.   P solutilisation by bacteria and fungi – mechanism of P solubilisation – their importance in agriculture.

12.   Isolation of P solubilising microorganism - testing and screening of P solubilising efficiency 

13.   Ecto and endo-mycorrhizal fungi – solubilisation and mobilization of phosphorus – mechanism involved

14.   Isolation and screening of AM fungi – plant growth – nutrient uptake.

15.   Importance of ectomycorrhizae and AM fungi in forestry, agriculture and horticulture.

16.   Biodegradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin – microorganisms involved.

17.   Mid-Semester Examination

18.   Preparation of biomanures  - types.

19.   Biocontrol agents – bacteria, fungi and biocontrol agents B.t., T.v., NPV – mode of action and their role in biocontrol of pest and diseases

20.   Mass production of biopesticides.

21.    Need for strain improvement for bioinoculant preparation – mutation and selection,

22.   Genetic recombination techniques for improving the efficiency of bioinoculant strains.

23.    Mass multiplication of various bioinoculants – steps involved – designing media for fermentation.

24.   Fermenters – parts and function – types

25.    Fermenters – pilot plant and industrial scale fermentation.

26.   Growth – factors affecting growth – stages of growth.

27.   Carriers – Different types of carriers – preparation of carrier based inoculants.

28.   Different methods of storage of bioinoculants, shelf life of bioinoculants – methods.

29.   Mass multiplication of BGA, and Azolla biofertilizers – methods – factors affecting growth.

30.   Mass multiplication of AM fungi, in vivo techniques - newer approaches.

31.   Quality control – importance in bioinoculant preparation.

32.   ISI specification for quality control of various biofertilizers.

33.   Biosafety measures on non targeted microorganisms and animals.

34.   Crop response studies to various biofertilizers.

 

Practical

 

1.       Isolation of Rhizobium from root nodule – identification

2.       Authentication of Rhizobium

3.       Isolation of Azospirillum from roots

4.       Isolation of Azotobacter from soils

5.       Authentication of Azospirillum  and Azotobacter

6.       Estimation of N2 fixation in diazotrophic microorganisms - ARA.

7.       Isolation of  P solubilizing microorganisms

8.       Testing for P solubilization using PCP, in liquid media.

9.       Mutation using UV irradiation for strain improvement.

10.    Biomass preparation from agricultural wastes.

11.   Isolation of pathogenic microorganisms from insects.

12.   Cross streak assay for testing antagonisms.

13.   Mass production of bacterial biofertilizers, carrier-based inoculants preparation.

14.   Mass multiplication of cyanobacteria and Azolla

15.   Mass production of AM fungi

16.   Quality control of bacterial bioinoculants.

17. Practical examination.

 

TOP